● Environmental impact assessment and mitigation measures ● Environmental parameters ● Potential impact on infrastructure development projects Road project

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>Fin 650Project Appraisal</p> <p>Lecture 11: Environmental Appraisal of Projects</p> <p>Environmental impact assessment and mitigation measuresEnvironmental parametersPotential impact on infrastructure development projectsRoad projectIrrigation schemesDrainage and embankment projectsEnvironmental impact assessment (EIA)Environmental protection measuresEquator principle</p> <p>Lecture 11Environmental appraisal is the term used to describe the assessment of the environmental consequences of proposed policies, plans, programs, or projects.The objective of environmental appraisal is to determine and evaluate the environmental implications of development and thus, ensuring sustainable development through the integration of environmental, social and economic objectives into the policy and planning process.Both Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are tools which can assist in the achievement of sustainable development and sustainable use of resources.</p> <p>Environmental AppraisalEnvironmental parameters consist of components of environment and can be grouped into major components.</p> <p>Environmental Parameters</p> <p>EcologyAquatic</p> <p>Terrestrial</p> <p>FisheriesEutrophicationAquatic WeedsSpecies DiversityEndangered Species</p> <p>ForestWildlifeSpecies DiversityEndangered Species</p> <p>Physio-ChemicalLand</p> <p>Groundwater</p> <p>Erosion and siltationBackwater effectBank stabilityDrainageSoil characteristics</p> <p>Regional hydrologyRechargeWater tableWater pollution</p> <p>Surface WaterAtmosphereRegional hydrologySilt loadWater pollutionAir pollutionDust pollutionNoise pollutionHuman InterestHealth</p> <p>Socio-economicDiseasesSanitationNutrition</p> <p>Land lossCrop productionAquacultureIrrigationNavigationFlood controlTransportRe-settlementEmploymentAgro-industrial</p> <p>Aesthetic</p> <p>LandscapeRecreation</p> <p>Types of Impacts &amp; Their Attributes</p> <p>Fisheries: (-) Roads prevent longitudinal and lateral migration of fishes in the flood plain(-) Obstruct movement of fishes onto natural feeding and breeding grounds in the flood plain.Forest:(-) Roads running through forest area and plantations may be the cause of destruction of trees in the forest and alteration of ecology of the forest</p> <p>Ecological Impact: Road ProjectPlantation:(+) The roadsides may be used for plantation of trees which is favorable impact of road construction.Wetland and wetland habitant: (-) The road may encroach wetlands which may alter the ecology of wetlands and may cause destruction of wetland habitat. Nuisance plant/eutrophication:(-) The Roads running through forest area and plantations may be the cause of destruction of trees in the forest and alteration of ecology of the forest.</p> <p>Ecological Impact: Road ProjectErosion and siltation(-) causes erosion during flood and siltation in the downstream.Drainage congestion /water logging(-) roads interfere with cross drainage and can cause flooding or drainage congestion in adjacent areas during periods of high precipitation.(-) May cause crop damage, water pollution and breeding of mosquitoes.</p> <p>Physico-Chemical Impact: Road ProjectRegional hydrology/flooding(-) Roads constructed across flood plains perpendicular to the direction of water flow cause back water effect and increase duration, frequency and extent of flooding in the up stream.Obstruction to waste water flow(-) Roads may obstruct the drainage of sewage and industrial waste water loading to serious pollution problem.Dust /noise pollution(-) Dust raised from unpaved rural roads and blown by the vehicles can pose a health hazard and damage vegetation along the sides of the road.</p> <p>Physico-Chemical Impact: Road ProjectLoss of agricultural lands(-) Construction of any road is associated with the loss of agricultural lands.Generation of employment opportunities (+) Construction of road generates temporary employment during project implementation and permanent employment during maintenance phase.Navigation and boat communication (-) Roads interference with navigation and boat communication at least for certain period of the year.</p> <p>Impact on Human Interest: Road ProjectCommercial and service facilities(+) The thana roads provide benefit of fast communication, transport facilities etc.Industrial activities (+) Road communication promotes industrial activities.Irrigation facilities (+) Borrow-pits by the side of the roads provide facility for small scale irrigation.Landscape(-) Scattered borrow pits, unauthorized growth around road , erosion result in marred landscape.</p> <p>Impact on Human Interest: Road ProjectImportance of Environmental Assessment</p> <p>This cartoon portrays the need for environmental assessment by comparing the impact of economic collapse with the impact of environmental collapse. In the event of an economic collapse, there is scope for recovering economic growth. However, environmental collapse puts survival of mankind into jeopardy. </p> <p>15Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined as the process of evaluating the direct and indirect environmental and social implications of a proposed development project.</p> <p>The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating thebiophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made."</p> <p>Environmental Impact AssessmentIn Environmental Impact Assessment, the term Impact is used instead of Effect.The Impact of an activity is a deviation (a change) from the baseline situation that is caused by the activity.The Baseline Situation is the existing environmental situation or condition in the absence of the activity.</p> <p>What is an Impact?The Baseline Situation</p> <p>EIA has been developed as a result of the failure of traditional project appraisal techniques to account for environmental impacts.Projects designed and constructed in isolation from any consideration of their impacts on the environment have resulted in:Higher costs,Failure of projects,Significant environmental change, andNegative social effects</p> <p>Reasons for using EIAIdentification of possible positive or negative impacts of the project.Quantifying impacts with respect to common base.Preparation of mitigation plan to offset the negative impacts.</p> <p>Essential Elements1. Screening- Determination of the nature and magnitude of the proposed projects potential environmental and social impacts.Classification of EIAs.Deciding upon the nature and extent of the EIA to be carried out.</p> <p>Steps in the EIA ProcessClassification of EIAs by CategoryGreen CategoryGreen category projects are those with positive environmental impacts or negligible negative impacts. Clearance for these is obtained on the basis of industry or project description, initial screening(exact description of the raw materials and the manufactured product) and No Objection Certificate(NOC) by the local authority.Example: Assembling Telephones, Assembling and Manufacturing of TV, Radios, Book-Binding.Orange A CategoryOrange A projects are those with minor and mostly temporary environmental impacts. Application for Department of Environments environmental clearance required general information, exact description of the raw materials and the manufactured product a feasibility report, a process flow diagram and schematic diagrams of facilities(layout plan showing location of Effluent Treatment Plant) effluent discharge arrangement outlines of the plan for relocation, rehabilitation (if applicable) and NOC from local authority and other necessary information (if applicable).Examples: Weaving and handloom, Saw Mill, Printing Press.</p> <p>Orange B Category</p> <p>Orange B projects are those with moderately significant environmental impacts. These requires Environmental Clearance Certificate from Department of Environment, for which Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) report, Environmental Management Plan, along with information and papers specified for Category A projects and an emergency plan relating adverse environment impact and plan for mitigation of the effect of pollution are needed.Example: Jute Mill, Glass factory, Bricks/Tiles.</p> <p>Red Category: </p> <p>Red category projects are those which may cause significant adverse environmental impacts. They require Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) report for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for Environment Clearance Certificate(ECC), along with the information required for other categories.Example: Tannery, Cement, Fuel Oil Refinery.2. Scoping-Identification of key issues and development of the Terms of Reference (TOR) for the EIA once a project is categorized.Defining the projects area of influence.3. Impact identification-Projection of the future state of the valued environmental and community resources within the vicinity of the proposed project.Formulation of a series of environmental design objectives to aid both the EIA and project design process.</p> <p>Steps in the EIA Process4. Impact prediction-Forecast of the potential effects in terms of-Magnitude, The affected feature/resource/population, Action causing the effect, Timescale and duration of the effect, Level of uncertainty in the forecast, Proposed mitigation/enhancement measures, SignificanceThe effects must be recorded in terms of-Short term /Long termDirect/Indirect/SynergisticCumulative/Increase/Reduce with time</p> <p>Steps in the EIA Process5. Mitigation and enhancement-Identification of mitigation and enhancement measures that reduces project costs and community costs.Measures should be capable of being delivered in a cost effective manner.6. Reporting-The EIS should report the following-Environmental objectives and policy contextExisting environmental situationA description of the projectAn assessment of the effects of the projectAn environmental action plan or management planA summary of the effects and recommendations</p> <p>Steps in the EIA ProcessEnvironmental Management Plan (EMP) An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) sets out the actions for monitoring and evaluation of the project during implementation or construction and operation. Its content will include:Mitigation measures to minimize adverse impactsMeasures to enhance environmental benefitsIdentified risks and uncertaintiesInstitutional support required for effective monitoringMonitoring and auditing program detailsEnvironmental legislations and standards which applyResources, funds, contractual and management arrangements</p> <p>Steps in the EIA ProcessEnvironmental audit/ Evaluation An environmental evaluation is increasingly undertaken to-confirm that the performance of the project conforms to the specification and environmental performance standards specified in funding arrangementsexamine the EMP and review the monitoring data in order to reveal scope for improvements</p> <p>Steps in the EIA Process</p> <p>Environmental Impact Value</p> <p>Vi = Relative change of the environmental quality of parametersWi= Relative importance or weight or parameter N = total number of environmental parameters</p> <p>Methods of Assessment</p> <p>Quantification of Environmental Impact Changes of environmental parameters</p> <p>Severe (+5 or -5)Higher (+4 or -4)Moderate (+3 or -3)Low (+2 or -2)Very low (+1 or -1)No change (0)All parameters are not of equal importance or weight.It varies from country to countryIn Bangladesh flood, employment, agriculture, fisheries carry more importance.In next slide, a summary of relative importance of parameters for a particular Road project is presented.</p> <p>Relative importance of Environmental ParametersENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERSRelative Importance ValueDegree of ImpactEIVI. ECOLOGICAL Fisheries Forest Tree Plantation Wetland/Wetland Habitant Nuisance Plant/Eutrophication</p> <p>II. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL Erosion and Siltation Regional Hydrology/Flooding Drainage Congestion/Water logging Obstruction to Waste Water Flow Dust Pollution/Noise Pollution105241</p> <p>26532-20+10-1</p> <p>-1-1-100-19</p> <p>-13EIV stands for Environmental Impact Value. In order to derive this value for a category (e.g. Ecological) Relative Importance Value for each sub-category (e.g. Fisheries) is multiplied by corresponding values of Degree of Impact and then, summing the values up gives the environmental impact value of that category.</p> <p>35ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERSRelative Importance ValueDegree of ImpactEIVIII. HUMAN INTEREST Loss of Agricultural Lands Employment Opportunities Navigation/Boat Communication Commercial and Service Facilities Industrial Activities Irrigation Facilities Landscape </p> <p>Total Environmental Impact Value</p> <p>8836322+3+4-3+3+2+3-1+27</p> <p>-5Summing the environmental impact values for each category gives the total environmental impact value.</p> <p>36A change in system exerts certain influence on many different environmental parameters resulting a net positive or negative impact on the environment.</p> <p>Impact on major infrastructure development projects such as:Road projectsIrrigation schemesDrainage and embankment projects</p> <p>Potential Impacts on Environment</p> <p>Absence of Proper EIAAdverse Environmental Impacts and Mitigation MeasuresEnvironmental EventAction Impact Mitigation Measures Loss Fish BreedingLoss of breading, nursery and feeding ground in flood plain. Reduction in fish protein consumption.Unemployment of fisherman. Allow controlled flooding.Compensate the loss by fish culture. Obstruction to FishObstruction to mitigation of fish.SameProvide adequate opening in roads and embankments along routes of fish migration.PesticideReproduction failure and destruction of fish by uncontrolled use of pesticide.SameAdopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for pest control.Prevent Drainage from agriculture land from reaching water bodies.Drying WetlandDrying up of the wetlands for agriculture purpose and destruction of habitat for fish, birds, amphibians etc.Reduction in fishery.Elimination of species of fish, birds, amphibians etc.Disruption of wetland ecology.Avoid complete drying up of wetlands and swamp land.Restore alternative habitat for endangered species.Environmental EventAction Impact Mitigation Measures Cutting TreesClearing of forest lands and cutting of trees within the right-of-way of the road.Reduction if forest cover.Reduction in forest products.Disruption of forest ecology.Find alternative route to avoid forest through planning exercise.Replace the trees by plantation along road sides.Nuisance PlantsSpreading of nuisance plants from borrow pit.Damage crops during flood.Incorporate destruction of such plants in maintenance program.Convert the plants into a compost for application as a soil conditioner/manure.Pollution from DrainageDischarge nutrient enriched agricultural land drainage in surface water.Causes eutrophication and surface water pollution.Makes the water unsuitable for beneficial uses.Destroys aquatic environment.Prevent agricultural land drainage from reaching...</p>