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Page 1: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations
Page 2: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

Republic of Korea (South Korea) Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

(North Korea) United States China Soviet Union United Nations

Page 3: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations
Page 4: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations
Page 5: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations
Page 6: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

Republic of Korea Under control by the United States

Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945–48)

Was divided in 1945 via Potsdam Conference by the Allies

Wanted to reunify Korea under its own Government

Anti-communist Established its constitution on July 17,

1948Elected a president, Syngman Rhee

(an Authoritarian) on July 20, 1948Established as the Republic of South

Korea on August 15, 1948.

Page 7: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

United Nations› Supported the Republic of Korea during the War› Creation of an independent South Korea

became UN policy in early 1948› Came to help the South Koreans in warding off

the invasion of North Korea› Condemned the invasion by North Korea and

signed a resolution › Agreed to the Armistice (both parties agree to

stop fighting) and signed of on it (United States, North Korea and China also signed)

Page 8: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

United States› Occupied the southern part of the 38th

parallel› Also came to the aid of South KoreaSoviet Union› left Korea in 1948› Aided North Korea and China with military

weapons› Allied with North Korea and China

Page 9: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

People’s Republic of Korea› Had been suspected of Communism › Wanted to reunify Korea under its political

system› (Kim Il-sung) Pressed his case with Soviet

leader Joseph Stalin that the time had come for a conventional invasion of the South

› Saw a weakness when troops had left South Korea and decided to invade

› Did not sign the Armistice

Page 10: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

United States South Korea United Nations United Kingdom(working Unitarily)

North Korea Soviet Union

China(somewhat Unitarily..but divided)

Page 11: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

North Korea› Used a Surprise Attack when they invaded

South Korea› Were later a victim of a Surprise Attack at the

Battle of Inchon› Can be seen as the aggressor, initiated the war› Engaged in a Deterrence vs. Compellence

“My enemy’s enemy is my friend”—North Korea aligning with Soviet Union

Used a surprise offense to destroy US military credibility

› Engaged in Strategic Intelligence North Korea knew South Korean troops were not ready

for an attack

Page 12: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

Surprise Attack› Chinese Intervention

 First Phase Offensive, Battle of Unsan (China attacked the Republic of Korea 1st Infantry Division at Unsan on October 25. This resulted in surprising the United Nations forces and surprising the US 8th Cavalry Regiment. As a result, this became one of the most desolating US loss in the war.)

Chinese New Year's Offensive PVA(People’s Volunteer Army—China) and the

KPA(Korean’s People’s Army—North Korea) attacked UN command

Page 13: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

North Korea strategically asked Soviet Union to join them in invading North Korea. North Korea saw an opportunity and saw that the best time to attack would be sooner than later.– Aggressor nation (North Korea)/nation A

(that wants to change the status quo) believes that

– status quo nation D (South Korea) is weak in military capability

Page 14: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

The payoff would have an advantage if one side swerves

Page 15: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

Black-North KoreaGreen-South Korea

Page 16: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

Nash Equilibrium (No advancing)

No player wanted to change their strategy. Little territory was exchanged

Page 17: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

Both countries wanted to “beef up” their military. However, three things took place.› an indirect arms race between North

Korea and South Korea› rising tensions between North Korea

and South Korea (increased violence in each country..especially around the 38th parallel

› A war taking place

Page 18: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

US President Harry Truman commented on using the atomic bomb against the PVA after an attack on the UN Command by North Korea in hopes to end the war.

Was this brinkmanship? The threat to use atomic welfare is a

dominant strategy and is very credible due the fact President Truman had already used an atomic bomb before

Page 19: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations
Page 20: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations

The battle of the Kumsong ended the war and started talks in exchanging POW’s (Hostage-Holding Game—releasing hostages gives leverage, also gives bargaining power). Syngman Rhee agreed to let  27,000 Korean internees escape. The United States disagreed, but in the interest of peace, compromised and signed the agreement. Peng Dehuai for the China and Kim Il-sung for the North Korea later signed the agreement.

Page 21: Republic of Korea (South Korea)  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)  United States  China  Soviet Union  United Nations