2014%nesea% competition% - holyoke redevelopment ?· cities like holyoke with brutal winter...

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2014 NESEA COMPETITION

Gregory Freeman, Civil Engineering 2014

Yunjae Sohn, Architectural Engineering 2016

Worcester Polytechinic Institute

2/3/2014

WPI ZERA

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Table of Contents Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................. 0

Table of Figures .................................................................................................................................... 2

Table of Tables ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 4 ZERA .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Insulation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Window Selection ........................................................................................................................................................ 14 Passive Systems ............................................................................................................................................................ 16 HVAC .................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Lighting ............................................................................................................................................................................. 21

Other Ways to Go Green ............................................................................................................................. 22 Grey Water Systems for Landscape Irrigation ................................................................................................ 22 Rainwater Collection for Irrigation ...................................................................................................................... 23

Structural Considerations .......................................................................................................................... 24 Apartment Floors ......................................................................................................................................................... 25 Roof .................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Walls .................................................................................................................................................................................. 27 Parking Garage .............................................................................................................................................................. 28

Energy Evaluation .............................................................................................................................. 29 Solar Energy ................................................................................................................................................... 29 Wind Energy ................................................................................................................................................... 31 Design Builder Evaluation ......................................................................................................................... 32

Cost Evaluation ................................................................................................................................... 34

Works Referenced ............................................................................................................................. 35

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Table of Figures Figure 1 Percentage of U.S. Energy uses. Source: Buildings Energy Data Book. ........................... 4 Figure 2 Estimated economic potential by sector for global mitigation for different regions

as a function of carbon price in 2030 from bottom-up studies, provided by IPCC. More information about this graph can be found at IPCC publications and data under reports section. ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

Figure 3 Rendered apartment modules of Carlos Vega site, south facing side .............................. 6 Figure 4 Rendered interior living space lighted only by daylighting ................................................. 7 Figure 5 Second floor floor plan with dimensioning ................................................................................. 8 Figure 6 First floor floor plan for Carlos Vega module ............................................................................. 9 Figure 7 U.S. Residential End-Use Energy Consumption of 2010 by DOE, March 2011. ........ 10 Figure 8 Semi-exposed Wall structure. CMU filled with insulation sheathed by gypsum

boards. The insulation could also be replaced by any batt system that goes underneath the finish. R value around 25 .................................................................................................................. 11

Figure 9 Exterior wall structure. This structure has R-value of 7.92m2K/W or R-45 in imperial units. ................................................................................................................................................ 12

Figure 10 Mechanism of low emissivity glass provided by Jetson Green. .................................... 14 Figure 11 Pictures of SolarOrs BIPV product, BeeHive PV. Arrayed in cell-like formation

(Left), this product can now apply PV panels in aesthetically pleasing way (Right). .... 15 Figure 12 Ecotect Analysis 2011 Psychrometric Chart for Chicopee Falls, MA, by dry bulb

temperature (x-axis) absolute humidity (y-axis) showing the comfort zone (marked by the yellow rectangle) and climate data for Chicopee Falls (lighter the blue, more daily averages) ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 13 Psychrometric Chart for Chicopee Falls, MA with extended (red) comfort zone (yellow) through the use of passive solar heating with 50% glazing, high insulation, and average solar collector effeiecny. ................................................................................................. 18

Figure 14 Effects on the internal temperature cycle of a thermal mass ........................................ 19 Figure 15 Psychrometric Chart of Chicopee Falls showing an extended (red) comfort zone

(yellow) through the use of a thermal mass system ..................................................................... 20 Figure 16 Mechanism of Grey Water System provided by Flotender. ............................................ 22 Figure 19 Average annual precipitation and total monthly precipitation data of Holyoke vs.

U.S. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Figure 18 Rainwater Filter Infiltration System mechanism provided by Flotender. ............... 24 Figure 23 Dimensions of the third floor of the apartment module with the structural

masonry wall positions shown in red ................................................................................................. 26 Figure 24 Scissor Truss Finite Element Model created using Matlab with units in inches ... 27 Figure 16 Collector efficiency: second order curves. Adapted from a spreadsheet by Jan Erik

Nielsen, Solar Keymark, European Solar Thermal Industry Federation, 2006. ................ 29 Figure 22 Annual Energy Output of BWC EXCEL-S wind turbine. .................................................... 32 Figure 21 Temperature and Heat Gains graphs provided by DesignBuilder. ............................. 33 Figure 22 Pie Chart of the estimated construction costs, with PV panels included under

"Other" .............................................................................................................................................................. 34

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Table of Tables Table 1 Positive aspects of Thermax Sheathingpolyisocyanurate sheathing. ........................ 11 Table 2 Summarization of and comparison between various types of insulation. ................... 13 Table 3 Specifications of Solarban 60 compared to standard insulating glass. .......................... 15 Table 4 Comparison between various types of lamps. .......................................................................... 21 Table 5 Summary of the Loadings on the Structure ............................................................................... 25 Table 5 Specifications of TitanPower Plus .................................................................................................. 29 Table 6 Data constructed from PV Watts, a performance calculator for Grid-Connected PV

Systems. The efficiency of converter was assumed to be 80%. ............................................... 30 Table 8 Comparison between wind energy and solar energy. ....................................................