2.1 (a) - support & locomotion in humans & animals

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Form 5 Biology

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SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH INTEGRASI GOPENG

PREPARED BY :MUHD FAZLI BIN DOLLAH

CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2

LEARNING OUTCOMES

To explain the necessity for support and locomotion in humans and animals, To describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion, To explain how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and animals, To name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of the human body

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals WHY DO HUMANS & ANIMALS NEED SUPPORT?1. To find the food 2. To find partner for mating 3. To protect/escape from their predator 4. To shelter from bad environment

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals Without support, animals & humans would not be able to maintain their body shape their body collapse under the weight of their own tissues.

Support are provided by some form of skeleton. Hydrostatic

skeleton Exoskeleton endoskeleton

HYDROSTATIC SKELETON

A fluid-filled internal body cavity in which the fluid is held under pressure maintaining the body shape & providing support for internal organ The cavity is surrounded by muscles arranged in layers. The body shape of the animal changes as these muscles contract &

The animals are soft & flexible, the hydrostatic fluid does protect body parts by acting as a shock absorber. Examples : earthworm, jellyfish, leech & caterpillar.

EXOSKELETON

A rigid outer covering usually made up of protein, chitins &/@ calcium salt. Insects the cuticle (covered with wax to prevent water loss from the body), cover the bodys surface. The exoskeleton is jointed / hinged = certain points of the skeleton are flexible & can bend enabling the

Exoskeleton restrict the growth of animals the exoskeleton must be shed from time to time in order for the animal to grow. (ecdysis) Also found in the shells of molluscs & the bony plates of tortoises. Examples : insects, crabs, lobsters, tortoise

ENDOSKELETON

Found in the bodies of all vertebrates including fish, amphibians & birds. Consist of hard skeleton of bones & cartilage found inside the body made up of calcium & phosphate. Works with the muscular system to perform movement & locomotion. It support the body & protects the organs.

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals

The functions of skeleton : Provide

shape & support Enables movement (locomotion) Protects internal organs Stores calcium & phosphate ions Produces blood cells A firm base for the attachment of muscles

Problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion, gravitational

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animalsforce, friction & resistance when moving around

Aspect need to be considered when describing the locomotion of an animal :Stability when it moves, it is temporarily unstable, but its stability will be restored when it stops. Support must have enough support from

HOW TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS?

RESISTANCE & FRICTION by streamlining their bodies. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE most animals have their own supporting structures (fins fishes, wings birds & strong limbs tetrapods & humans) provide the propulsive force to overcome the problem

The skeletal system together with its muscles are designed specially to overcome the problems associated with support & locomotion of humans & animals. To initiate locomotion, the force required is generated by contraction of muscles, whereas

The adult human skeleton consist of 206 bones. Divided into two main parts : the axial skeleton & the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton : made up of the bones that form the vertical axis of the body.

THE HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM

The appendicular skeleton : made up of the bones that are attached to the axial skeleton. Include bones of the limbs, the pectoral girdle & the pelvic girdle.

FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON

PROTECTION the skull protects the brain, the vertebral column protects the spinal cord & the rib cage protects internal organs such as the heart. SUPPORT act as a framework to support the soft body parts, to maintain the upright position & to keep the body stable.

MOVEMENT bones interact with the skeletal muscle. BLOOD CELL FORMATION most of the blood cells are formed in the bone marrow of the long bones. MINERAL STORAGE bones act as a reservoir for calcium & phosphorus.

FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON

SKELETAL SYSTEMHUMAN SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON APPENDICULAR SKELETON

THE SKULL

Made up of 8 cranial bones & 14 facial bones including the upper jaw & the lower jaw. The facial bones also provide support & protect the entrances to the respiratory system.

SKULL

PARTS 8 Cranial bones Eye sockets Nasal bones Ear holes Maxilla (upper jaw) Mandible (lower jaw) Are

FUNCTIONS fused to form immovable joints called sutures. Protect the brain & the sensory organs. to protect the eye ball.

to support nose tissues to protect inner part of ears to support upper teeth

to support lower teeth, to enable eating & talking.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Known as the spine/ backbone. Extends from the base of the skull to the pelvic girdle. Made up of 33 vertebrae separated from each other by discs of cartilage (intervertebral discs) which absorb shocks & serve as flex point. This S-shaped column supports & balances the body in a vertical plane & protects the spinal cord, supports the skull & provides a base for the attachment of muscles to the back.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

The vertebrae differ in structure & function in different regions of the vertebral column. A vertebra typically consists of a main body (the centrum), a neural arch & transverse processes.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

VERTEBRAL COLUMNSTRUCTURE FUNCTION Provides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles. Provides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles. Protects the spinal cord.

NEURAL SPINE TRANSVERSE PROCESS NEURAL ARCH/ VERTEBRAL FORAMEN CENTRUM NEURAL CANAL ARTICULATING SURFACE

Provides support & absorbs shocks. Provides the passage of nerves from the spinal cord. Provides surface which articulates with the next vertebra.

TYPES OF VERTEBRAETYPE OF POSITION VERTEBRAE Cervical Vertebra NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE Below the 7 skull MAIN CHARACTER

1st one atlas vertebra 2nd axis vertebrae Large neural canal/vertebral foramen Short neural spine Flat centrum Short transverse processes Has a pair of vertebrarterial canals

CERVICAL VERTEBRA

THORACIC VERTEBRATYPE OF VERTEBRA E Thoracic Vertebra POSITIO N Thorax NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 12

MAIN CHARACTER Neural canal/ vertebral foramen is smaller than cervical vertebras

Long neural spine/ spinous processes (for attachment of back muscle)

Thick & big centrum

THORACIC VERTEBRA (12)

LUMBAR VERTEBRATYPE OF POSITION VERTEBRA E Lumbar Waist Vertebra NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 5

MAIN CHARACTER small neural canal/ vertebral foramen short neural spine thick & big centrum long transverse processes for muscle attachment

LUMBAR VERTEBRA

SACRUM & COCCYXTYPE OF POSITION VERTEBRA E Sacrum Pelvic region NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 5 fused

MAIN CHARACTER Vertebrae fused to each other Has four pairs of openings

Coccyx

Caudal region

4 fused

Triangular

shape Bones fused to each other forming a triangular shape which tapers at one end

SACRUM & COCCYX

THE STERNUM & RIBS

The rib cage consists of 12 pairs of ribs with the thoracic vertebrae at the back portion of the body & join to the sternum in the front portion. Movement of the rib cage are brought about by intercostal muscles between the ribs.

THE STERNUM & RIBS

The sternum & ribs enclose & protect the internal organs (the lungs & heart) & play an important role in breathing.

PECTORAL GIRDLE

Consist of scapula & clavicle. Links the upper limbs bones to the axial skeleton. The scapula : bound by muscles to the back of the thorax. It is a flat, triangular bone which provides a surface for the attachment of muscles.

The clavicle : a rodshaped bone placed horizontally above the scapula. It links the scapula to the sternum. It limits the movements of the scapula.

PELVIC GIRDLE

Consists of 6 fused bones support the weight of the body from the vertebral column. Also protect the internal organs urinary bladder & reproductive organs. Made up of two halves, each consists of 3 bones (ilium, pubis & ischium)

PELVIC GIRDLE

The pelvic girdle is attached to the sacrum of the vertebral column. The asetabulum / socket for femur articulates with each side of the pelvic girdle at the hip joint.

Consists of humerus, radius & ulna. The Humerus :

FORELIMB BONES

The long bones of the upper arm Rounded head end fits into an open socket of the scapula forming a ball-and-socket joint (allow movement in all planes)

The posterior end of the humerus forms a hinge joint with the ulna with the ulnaradius bones, allowing movement in one plane only. The radius & ulna :

The bones on the forearm in which the ulna is longer than the radius. It has a notch at its upper end which articulates the humerus at the elbow.

The carpals :

The bones that form the wrist. Consists of 8 small bones

The metacarpals :

The rod