# 3d spectrography iv – the search for supermassive black holes

of 27/27

Padova 03 3D Spectrography 3D Spectrography 3D Spectrography IV – The search for IV – The search for supermassive supermassive black holes black holes

Post on 25-Feb-2016

55 views

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

3D Spectrography IV – The search for supermassive black holes. The search for supermassive black holes. Most (present day) galaxies should contain a central massive dark object with a mass M ● of 10 6 to a few 10 9 M sun. Ferrarese & Merritt 2000 (see also Gebhardt et al. 2000, 2003). - PowerPoint PPT PresentationTRANSCRIPT

Diapositive 1black holes

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

The search for supermassive black holes

Most (present day) galaxies should contain a central massive dark object with a mass M of 106 to a few 109 Msun

Ferrarese & Merritt 2000 (see also Gebhardt et al. 2000, 2003)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

The holy grail for dynamicists:

The distribution function: f

(x, y, z, vx, vy, vz, t)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Disks

Energy E

Radial range large enough to include all of the mass

Jeans’ theorem

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Angular momentum Lz

Linear grid from the minimum Lz (=0, radial orbit) to the maximum Lz (circular orbit) at this Energy

Orbital initial conditions:

The angular momentum

Third integral I3

Parametrized with starting angle atan(zzvc/Rzvc) on the ZVC, from the minimum I3 (=0, planar orbit) to maximum I3 (thin tube orbit) at these E and Lz

Cretton et al. 1999

Integrate nE x nLz x nI3 orbits and store on

Intrinsic, polar grid:

Store fractional contributions in …..

Photometric:

Mass model integrated over grid cells, normalized by total galaxy mass

Kinematic:

Orbital Weights

Least squares problem:

Solve for orbital weights vector j>0 that gives superposition i j Oij closest to Dj

NNLS or other least-squares methods

Quality of fit determined by

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Mbh

M/L

Derive orbital libraries for different values of MBH and M/L …

Solve the matrix problem for each library (NNLS)

Draw χ2 contours, and find best fit

3s

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

M 32

Evidences for the presence of a massive black hole

Best study so far?: Schwarzschild model on long-slit data and HST/FOS spectrography (van der Marel et al. 1997, 1998)

Results:

STIS/HST data have been published by Joseph et al. (2001)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

New dataset:

SAURON maps in the central 9”x11” (de Zeeuw et al. 2001)

STIS data along the major-axis (Joseph et al. 2001)

V

MBH in agreement with van der Marel et al. 1998

(Verolme, Cappellari et al. 2002)

3 level

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

3

level

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

M 32

regularized

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Vitesse (km/s)

Dispersion (km/s)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Consistent with photometric disk

Comparison of Ca / Hb kinematics implies that disk > 6 Gyrs old

Slow rotator =1:3 dissipationless merger?

Mc Dermid et al. 2002

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

There exists an infinity of models having a given F(r)

Axisymmetric case:

General situation: f(E, Lz, I3)

????

Which minimum ??

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Summary - Conclusions

3D spectrography is required to probe the morphology and dynamics of nearby galaxies :

Mapping of the gas/stellar kinematics and populations

Probing the full complexity of these objects

Internal structures

More specifically :

What structures should we expect at the 10 pc scale ?

Need for a general tool to model the dynamics of galaxies

Need to break the degeneracy which may exists in models

)

,

,

(

),

(

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

The search for supermassive black holes

Most (present day) galaxies should contain a central massive dark object with a mass M of 106 to a few 109 Msun

Ferrarese & Merritt 2000 (see also Gebhardt et al. 2000, 2003)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

The holy grail for dynamicists:

The distribution function: f

(x, y, z, vx, vy, vz, t)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Disks

Energy E

Radial range large enough to include all of the mass

Jeans’ theorem

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Angular momentum Lz

Linear grid from the minimum Lz (=0, radial orbit) to the maximum Lz (circular orbit) at this Energy

Orbital initial conditions:

The angular momentum

Third integral I3

Parametrized with starting angle atan(zzvc/Rzvc) on the ZVC, from the minimum I3 (=0, planar orbit) to maximum I3 (thin tube orbit) at these E and Lz

Cretton et al. 1999

Integrate nE x nLz x nI3 orbits and store on

Intrinsic, polar grid:

Store fractional contributions in …..

Photometric:

Mass model integrated over grid cells, normalized by total galaxy mass

Kinematic:

Orbital Weights

Least squares problem:

Solve for orbital weights vector j>0 that gives superposition i j Oij closest to Dj

NNLS or other least-squares methods

Quality of fit determined by

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Mbh

M/L

Derive orbital libraries for different values of MBH and M/L …

Solve the matrix problem for each library (NNLS)

Draw χ2 contours, and find best fit

3s

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

M 32

Evidences for the presence of a massive black hole

Best study so far?: Schwarzschild model on long-slit data and HST/FOS spectrography (van der Marel et al. 1997, 1998)

Results:

STIS/HST data have been published by Joseph et al. (2001)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

New dataset:

SAURON maps in the central 9”x11” (de Zeeuw et al. 2001)

STIS data along the major-axis (Joseph et al. 2001)

V

MBH in agreement with van der Marel et al. 1998

(Verolme, Cappellari et al. 2002)

3 level

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

3

level

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

M 32

regularized

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Vitesse (km/s)

Dispersion (km/s)

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Consistent with photometric disk

Comparison of Ca / Hb kinematics implies that disk > 6 Gyrs old

Slow rotator =1:3 dissipationless merger?

Mc Dermid et al. 2002

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

There exists an infinity of models having a given F(r)

Axisymmetric case:

General situation: f(E, Lz, I3)

????

Which minimum ??

Padova 03

3D Spectrography

Summary - Conclusions

3D spectrography is required to probe the morphology and dynamics of nearby galaxies :

Mapping of the gas/stellar kinematics and populations

Probing the full complexity of these objects

Internal structures

More specifically :

What structures should we expect at the 10 pc scale ?

Need for a general tool to model the dynamics of galaxies

Need to break the degeneracy which may exists in models

)

,

,

(

),

(