A User Study of Spatial & Temporal Dimensions of Context to support Virtual Learning Environments

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The work which was submitted as a paper for MLearn2011 in Beijing. Investigating the differences between space & time in delivering information from the VLE.

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  • 1. l.crane@lancaster.ac.ukp.benachour@lancaster.ac.ukp.coulton@lancaster.ac.uk @laura_crane @benachou @mysticmobileA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context to Support Virtual Learning Environments

2. Project Background A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context1 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 3. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 2 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 4. RSS Widget Twitter Widget A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context3 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 5. (a) University colour codedwireless LAN coverage (b) a more realistic visualisationof access and distribution (c) representation of the mostpopular routes used bystudents, this clearly show thataccess to mobile learning islimited and constrained byinfrastructural boundaries A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context4 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 6. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 6 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 7. Access to free Wifi network showed limitations. Support for existing distance learning models to increase engagement. Overall positive results, but time of updates became a key discussion. Frequency of updates not imperative for students.A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 6 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 8. Do locative context aware over ride temporal updates? Time is the usual variable for information retrieval frequency. Popularity & penetration of location based services. Relationship of Scheduled Based Services and Location BasedServices* Lack of context-aware computing integrated into Virtual LearningEnvironments.*J. Anhalt, A. Smailagic, D. P. Siewiorek, F. Gemperle, D. Salber, S. Weber, J. Beck, andJ. Jennings. Toward context-awarecomputing: Experiences and lessons. IEE Intelligent System, 3(16):3846, May-June 2001. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context7 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 9. Intrusion into students personal domainInterestsA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 8 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 10. Intrusion intoSupport for thestudents personalstudents organisation domain of learning Interests A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context9 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 11. Support for theIntrusion into studentsstudents organisation personal domain of learning InterestsPerceived helpfulness for receiving courseinformation A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context26 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12. Intrusion intoSupport for the students personalstudents organisationdomain of learningInterestsPerceived helpfulness Comfortableness for receiving coursewhen using studentsinformationambient informationA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 11 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 13. Time Based RSS ApplicationLocation Based RSS Application A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 12 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 14. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 13 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 15. Point of InterestTemporal Response Spatial Response Intrusion into students No, unless the movements areNo, unless the movements are collated and recorded for an recorded for other purposes. Always domain. alternative purpose.the option of simply ignoring themessage or turning off phone.Support for the students It did, but not schedule and routine I generally do the same routes changes on a daily basis, therefore thearound campus, and visits the sameorganisation of learning.application must also understand places on a daily basis. this.Perceived helpfulness forStill have to make a consciousYes, but Exit Checkpoints on decision to read the updates. May be campus, when you hit a checkpoint itreceiving course information.useful, but overall the individual has could update before you go home. the choice to read them or not.Comfortableness when using No not at all. Only those who haveLevel of interest, depends on usage something to hide.by those who are running thestudents ambientsystems. If this was the case I would information. be concerned. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context14 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM 16. Precedence of Context Exploring the order of precedence when usingcontextual dimensions for mobile information delivery Time, Location, Activity, Identity & Relationships to n. Students perspective on their own contexts. ..We cannot enumerate which aspects of all situationsare important, as this will change from situation tosituation.Dey, A. K. (2001). Understanding and using context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing,Special issue on Situated Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing 5 (1).A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 15 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments12:34 PM 17. Defining Context Schilit, Adams & Zimmerman, Lorenz & Want (1994)Dey (2001) Opperman (2007)1980 1994 1999 2001.... .....2004...... 2007Barwise (1980)Schmidt, Beigl,& Lonsdale, Vavoula &Gellersen (1999) Sharples (2004)A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context16 of26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM 18. Dimensions of ContextIdentity RelationshipLocation to n. Activity TimeZimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,& Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth Internationaland Interdisciplinary Conference on Modelling and Using Context .pp. 558-571. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 17 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 19. Dimensions of Context PhD StudentDoors, MicrBeijing ophone Presenting 12:34 PMZimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,& Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth Internationaland Interdisciplinary Conference on Modelling and Using Context .pp. 558-571. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 18 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 20. Description of Study Survey 1Survey 2Survey 3Designated Lecture Theatre Student Study area on WeekdayResidences campus Morning EveningLunchtime Results of Survey 1Results of Survey 2 Results of Survey 312:34 PM A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 19 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 21. Results of First StudyLecture TheatreNot at All Time Location ActivityExtremely Not Very Identity Relationships SomewhatA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 21 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 22. Results of Second StudyLearning AreaNot at All Time Location ActivityExtremelyNot Very Identity Relationships SomewhatA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 22 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments12:34 PM 23. Results of Third StudyStudent Accommodation Not at AllTimeLocationActivity ExtremelyNot VeryIdentityRelationshipSomewhat A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context22 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM 24. Aggregated Results of StudyNot at AllNot VerySomewhatExtremely TimeLocation ActivityIdentityRelationshipsA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context23 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM 25. Overall Order of Precedence for StudyTIME ACTIVITYLOCATIONIDRELATIONSHIPS A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context24 of 26to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM 26. Future Directions and Developments Integrate and investigate other dimensions of context intomobile information delivery. Variation of Approximation and changes of focus. Android DevelopmentA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 25 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments12:34 PM 27. References Crane, L., Benachour, P., and Coulton, P., Dissemination of Learning Services: Using RSS for m-learning, in Proceeding of the IADIS International Conference for Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal, March 2026 Crane, L., Benachour, P., and Coulton, P., A study of student engagement using RSS and Twitter for m- learning, Submitted to the International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, September 2026. Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A., and Oppermann, R. (2007) An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context The Context 07, Denmark, 2024 August 2007 (pp. 558-571). Berlin,Heidelberg: Springer. Falk JH, Dierking LD (2002). Lessons without limits: how free-choice learning is transforming education. Institute for Learning Innovation. Economides, A. A. (2008). Context-aware mobile learning. The Open Knowledge Society, A Computer Science and Information Systems Manifesto, First World Summit, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24- 26, 2008. Proceedings. SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS) 19, pp. 213- 220. Georgiadis, C.K., Mavridis, M., Manitsaris, A. (2005): Context based Humanized and Authorized Personalization in Mobile Commerce Applications. International Journal of Computing and Information Sciences, Vol. 3. No.2 J. Anhalt, A. Smailagic, D. P. Siewiorek, F. Gemperle, D. Salber, S. Weber, J. Beck, andJ. Jennings. Toward context-aware computing: Experiences and lessons. IEE Intelligent System, 3(16):3846, May-June 2001.12:34 PM

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