al- andalus

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Al- Andalus. HIST 1007 11/8/13. Muhammad b. ` Abdallah b. Tumart (ca. 1080-1130). Berber religious scholar who studied in Baghdad and Damascus Mixture of strict Sunni law with Sufi charisma 1117: Returns to Morocco as a fiery, puritan preacher Heir to the Prophet - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Al-Andalus

Al-AndalusHIST 100711/8/13Muhammad b. `Abdallah b. Tumart (ca. 1080-1130)Berber religious scholar who studied in Baghdad and DamascusMixture of strict Sunni law with Sufi charisma1117: Returns to Morocco as a fiery, puritan preacherHeir to the ProphetReturn to the time of the ProphetMahdi, imam, and ma`sun (sinless)Berber military strength with religious charisma

Ibn Tumart MosqueAlmohad Caliphate (r. 1121-1269)Ibn Tumart reorganizes southern Morocco10 disciples50 tribal delegatesReligious hierarchy over tribal societyCaliph of Ibn Tumart1140s: Conquest of Morocco1149-1172: Conquest of Spain

Marrakech, Rabat, and Seville

Almohads and IslamStrict form of Islam difficult to maintainMizwar keeper of moralsMuezzins caller to prayerShaykhs religious scholar hired to train members of royal familyMadrassasCant break growing interest in Maraboutism and older tradition of Maliki SunnismWhat happens next?Establish general form of Moroccan stateSeries of dynasties which struggle over defined stateBilad al-makhzan vs. bilad al-sibaInflux of refugees from Spain influence North African identityIncreases Arab identity over Berber identitySpain before Islam415 Visigoths begin conquest of SpainMaintained certain Roman institutionsArian nobility vs. Catholic people6th century nobility converts to CatholicismRoman villa system and slave armiesUrban decline

Muslim Conquest of SpainTariq b. Ziyad (d. 720)711: Raid(?) across the Straight of GibraltarLargely a Berber forceDid Spanish think it was a trading mission?Battle of Guadalete: Visigothic King Roderic defeatedMost of Visigothic nobility killedOpens Spain to Muslims

The Battle of PoitiersBy 720, Muslim armies heading north of Pyrenees Mountains732: Battle of Poitiers (Tours)Tours: about 150 miles southwest of ParisCharles Martel (688-741): general of Merovingian France, grandfather of CharlemagneMuslims sent south of Pyrenees

Organization of al-AndalusLand parceled out to Arab and Berber tribesFarm land vs. mountainous landSyrian Arabs sent to put down revolts, given land tooAppropriation of Spanish manorsIrrigation and new crops bring economic prosperitySahib al-saqiya: irrigation managerMediterranean tradeThe Umayyads of Spain (r. 756-1031)`Abd al-Rahman I (r. 756-788): grandson of Umayyad Caliph HishamSyrian troops in Spain help establish Umayyad family in CordobaBring imperial traditions from the eastMercenary soldiers from Europe

The Umayyads of Spain`Abd al-Rahman II (r. 822-852): centralized administration and state monopolies over markets`Abd al-Rahman III (r. 912-961): declares himself caliphSaqaliba: slave soldiers from Spain, Germany, and Eastern EuropeCentralized taxationConsumption of `Abbasid and Fatimid court culture

Hispano-Arabic CultureArabs, Berbers, converts, Jews, and ChristiansArabic language and IslamRomance language and ChristianityIntermarriageBlurring of linesMozarab Arabized ChristiansLa Convivencia the Coexistence

Jews of al-AndalusJewish notablesAssisted in Arab conquestsServed in administrationIntermediary between Muslim and Christian rulersSpokesmen for European Jews

Martyrs of CordobaChristians resisting Arabization of Spanish ChristiansTranslation of Christian religious texts into ArabicEulogius of Cordoba (d. 859)48 monks, nuns, priests, and devout Christians purposefully sought martyrdomDefaming MuhammadApostasizing from IslamAttacked by Arabicized ChristiansUmayyads dismiss Christians from service

17th century Spanish depiction of execution of EulogiusTaifa or Party Kings11th century Umayyad Caliphate breaks downProvincial independenceContinues flourishing of cultureMultiple courts with multiple patrons

ReconquistaBand of Christian kingdoms survived in northern SpainIdeological movement develops to reconquer and recolonize Spain1085: King Alfonso VI conquers ToledoOpens world of Muslim knowledge and culture to the WestTranslation of Arabic texts into Latin

Alcazar of Toledo (not Ohio)ReconquistaNot entirely ideologicalChristian and Muslim mercenaries fight on both sidesArabicized Christians and the Taifa courtsInsertion of crusading ideology, importation of crusaders, and establishment of Catholic institutions push ideological nature

Spain and North Africa1082 Spanish Muslims request support of Almoravids1149 Almohads invade SpainBoth bring more extreme Muslim ideologyBreaking down of La Convivencia1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: combined army of Leon, Castile, Navarre, and Aragon defeat Almohads

The Emirate of GranadaMid-13th century 1492: Granada is the last Muslim territory in SpainImportant port, brings in money and suppliesLarge population of Muslims fleeing Christian ruleDisunity within Christian kingdoms slows down conquest

The Alhambra in Granada