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Ancient EgyptOne of the first great civilizations

Timeline Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom 2650 BC 2134 BC 2125 BC 1550 BC 1550 BC 1295 BC

Three Kingdoms of Ancient EgyptOLD KINGDOMPharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.


MIDDLE KINGDOMLarge drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta region.

NEW KINGDOMPowerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined.

Geography Egypt is located in northeastern Africa The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to north The river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea The climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert

Facts About the Nile RiverLength 2 Sources Mouth 4,184 miles Lake Victoria, Uganda (White Nile); Lake Tana, Ethiopia (Blue Nile) Mediterranean Sea, off Egypt

Countries Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Flows Through Zaire, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi Name Origin Greek word Nelios, which means "River Valley"

Geography Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River's delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean. Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta.

Life in Ancient Egypt Life centered around the Nile river Yearly floods brought nutrients to the soil The river was a main route of travel

Social Pyramid of Egypt Pharaoh Upper Class Royal Family, Government Officials, Army Officers, Priests, Landowners, and Doctors

Middle Class Merchants, Manufacturers, and Artisans

Lower Class Unskilled Laborers and Farmers

Slaves and Servants

Egyptian Religion Polytheism About 2000 gods & goddesses Amon-Ra Osiris Isis Horus Thoth Anubis Hathor Death and Funerals Two souls ka and ba Embalming Burial Tombs


Belief in eternal life after death. Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld. Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.

Book of the Dead

Collection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended to secure a safe passage to the underworld for the deceased

Union of Two Crowns White Crown Upper Egypt

Red Crown Lower Egypt

Menes Overthrew the king of Lower Egypt Wore a Double Crown, both red and white

Unification Joining of separate parts into one whole

Egypts Economy Pharaoh was at the center of the economy Based upon Agriculture Pharaoh took taxes on the crops that were grown, and goods that were made Goods were bartered or traded for other needed goods

A System of Writing Hieroglyphics Used to keep record

Scribes Record keepers Original Accountants

Papyrus Paper made from plants

Rosetta Stone Transcribed Hieroglyphics, Greek, and Demotic

What is hieroglyphics? Hieroglyphics is the picture writing used in ancient Egypt. The word hieroglyphics is made up of two Greek words - hieros, which means sacred, and glyphe, which means carving. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system consists of several hundred picture signs. The signs can be divided into two classes, phonograms and ideograms

Phonograms represent sounds, much as alphabet letters do. Ideograms are signs that represent whole words or concepts.

Building the Pyramids Built as tombs for the Pharaohs Afterlife Housed everything needed for the Paraoh

Khufus pyramid Total number of blocks 2,300,000

One blocks average weight 2.5 tons

Number of blocks added each day 285

Children in EgyptRICH Children of Pharaoh swam in palace pools Learned their parents trade Spun tops, and played games POOR Swam in canals Worked alongside their parents Little time to play Daily chores