aren (arenga pinnata (wurmb) merr.) traditional management

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INAFOR 11H-062 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF INDONESIAN FORESTRY RESEARCHERS (INAFOR) Section H Community and Social Forestry Aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) Traditional Management System in Batang Toru, North Sumatra and Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Endri Martini and James M. Roshetko World Agroforestry Centre and Winrock International Jl. CIFOR Situgede, Sindang barang, Bogor 16880, INDONESIA Paper prepared for The First International Conference of Indonesian Forestry Researchers (INAFOR) Bogor, 5 7 December 2011 INAFOR SECRETARIAT Sub Division of Dissemination, Publication and Library FORESTRY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY Jl. Gunung Batu 5, Bogor 16610

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Section H Community and Social Forestry
Aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) Traditional Management System in Batang Toru, North Sumatra and Tomohon, North Sulawesi,
World Agroforestry Centre and Winrock International Jl. CIFOR Situgede, Sindang barang, Bogor 16880, INDONESIA
Paper prepared for The First International Conference of Indonesian Forestry Researchers (INAFOR)
Bogor, 5 – 7 December 2011
INAFOR SECRETARIAT Sub Division of Dissemination, Publication and Library
Aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) traditional management system in Batang Toru, North Sumatra and Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Endri Martini and James M. Roshetko
World Agroforestry Centre and Winrock International
Jl. CIFOR Situgede, Sindang barang, Bogor 16880, INDONESIA
Aren or sugarpalm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) is a multipurpose palm species found across tropical Asia which is traditionally utilized as source of livelihoods in Indonesia such as in Batang Toru landscape, North Sumatra and Tomohon district, North Sulawesi. Interestingly, despites of aren sustainable contribution to local livelihoods, indigenous domestication efforts have been limited. Thus, traditional aren management systems were studied to understand the regeneration and management practices of aren trees in the landscape. Data on aren tree management across the landscape, aren‘s role to local livelihood, and local ecological knowledge of aren management were collected through interviews with key farmers, focus group discussion, and direct observations (transect walk). Results show no significant different in aren traditional tree management between sites, however farmers in Batang Toru harvest more diverse aren products than in Tomohon because of the better market opportunities. In the study sites, two types of aren tree regeneration were identified, i.e. a) natural regeneration, b) transplanted regeneration. Under current conditions, natural regeneration is most practiced by farmers. Farmers perceive aren as an abundant natural asset that is best regenerated by wildlife. Potential improvements in smallholder aren productivity are best by managing aren trees density and selecting superior germplasm. This paper provides best options for domesticating the non timber forest product (NTFP) species for community-based reforestation and livelihood enhancement in Indonesia.
Keywords: natural regeneration, transplanted regeneration, livelihood, tree management.
Aren or sugarpalm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) is a multipurpose palm species belongs to Arecaceae family. The trunk is single and covered with a black fibrous hessian like material. Aren often found in tropical Asian landscape with ample sun, lots of water (usually occur near the river), and in a well drained position. The species grows best at high altitude area (500-800 m asl) with precipitation above 1200 mm/year, 7-10 rainy months and average temperature around 25ºC (Soeseno, 2000). Animals such as palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Pallas) play an important role in aren natural regeneration. In many areas, farmers believe that the best aren planters are the palm civets (Mogea et al., 1991).
Traditionally, aren multiple non timber products (such as flower sap, thatch and fruits) has been harvested for home consumption and to supply the local market demand. Thus, aren has become a major contributor to the livelihoods in Indonesia (Mogea et al., 1991, Smits and Widawati, 1999). Extractive harvesting with limited indigenous domestication efforts has become the traditional management of aren in many parts in Indonesia. The perception that aren trees are still abundant in the landscape may be a reason of farmer‘s reluctance in cultivating and proactively managing aren. In the future, intense utilization of aren without improvement of its domestication efforts would have negative impact on aren resource and natural ecosystem.
In Indonesia, Batang Toru in North Sumatra and Tomohon in North Sulawesi are the two site that received attention from scientists for aren study. Mogea et al. (1991) study has summarized the aren utilization in those two sites, thus it would be useful to reconfirm the information that was collected 20 years ago. Batang Toru and Tomohon have similar aren‘s management practices, but only in Batang Toru is the fruit harvested and utilized. Fruit harvesting is suspected to decrease the production of aren flower sap and potentially have a negative effect on genetic variation, as fruit is harvested from superior trees and thus do not regenerate. Raebild et al. (2001) study in Southern Burkina Faso showed that intensive seed harvest of Parkia biglobosa has limited the natural regeneration of the species.
Utilization of non timber forest product (NTFP) is an alternative to optimize forest value with limited impact on forest degradation when compared with timber extraction (Belcher et al., 2005). NTFPs are generally used to supplement diets and household income, notably during particular seasons in the year, and as economic buffer in hard times. However, NTFP harvesting can affect the genetic diversity of the population being exploited, especially when harvesting flowers or fruits (Peters, 1994). As NTFPs utilization is intensified (commercialization), NTFP harvesting can altered and degraded the forest resource (Arnold and Perez, 2001). Traditional low intensity harvesting of NTFP is expected can contribute to the sustainable forest management. The traditional production systems are in harmony with the environment prior to exposure to various forces of pressure (Kang and Akinnifesi, 2000). Knowledge on traditional species management can be used as starting point to identify the actions necessary to sustain the productivity of NTFPs species. Thus, in regards to maintain the sustainability of aren‘s contribution to local livelihood and environment, traditional aren management systems are studied to understand the regeneration and management practices of aren trees in the landscape. As aren has been using as species for land rehabilitation, information from this study can be used to foster community-based reforestation and livelihood enhancement in Indonesia.
2.1 Location of Study
The Batang Toru landscape is located in North Sumatra, Indonesia and is a habitat of Sumatran orangutan (Wich et al., 2003). It covers approximately 105,000 ha in 3 districts - North Tapanuli, South Tapanuli and Central Tapanuli. Elevation in Batang Toru ranges from 200-1500 masl and annual precipitation of 1500-3000 mm, with dominant land cover types are primary rainforest, rubber agroforests, agroforests/homegarden and paddy ricefield (Figure 1). Aren can be encountered everywhere in the Batang Toru landscape particularly in riparian zone, from forest to the agricultural areas near settlements. The cultivation of aren in Batang Toru is primarily based on natural regeneration and extractive management, and efforts to domesticate aren remain rare (Martini et al., 2011). Based on statistic data in 2008, there were 1,431 ha of aren-based agricultural system in Batang Toru, and only 30-40% of the area was productive (BPS Sumatra Utara, 2008). Aren's contribution to local livelihood in Batang Toru is from its four main products, i.e. sugar, thatch, alcoholic beverage and aren fruits (Martini et al., 2011).
Tomohon district is located in North Sulawesi, Indonesia and consists of around 14,000 ha of land (Figure 2.). Elevation ranges of 500-1500 masl and annual precipitation of 1500-2000 mm, with the dominant land cover types are agroforests (with coconut, clove, vanilla, coffee and cacao as its main products) and horticultural garden (with vegetables and flowers as its main products). Forest occurs in the landscape with an area of 1,615 ha (ca. 10% of the total area of Tomohon). Same as in Batang Toru, in Tomohon, aren can be encountered in many places in the landscape from forest to agricultural areas near settlements. Based on statistic data in 2009, there was a 980 ha of aren-based agricultural system in Tomohon, and only 30% of the area was
productive (BPS Tomohon, 2009). Aren contribution to local livelihood in Tomohon is from its 3 main products, i.e. sugar, alcoholic beverage and thatch (Mogea et al., 1991).
Source: ICRAF Spatial Analysis Unit, 2010
Figure 1: Batang Toru land cover map from image analysis of LANDSAT satellite image in 2006
Source: BPS Tomohon, 2009
Figure 2: Administrative boundary of Tomohon district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Hutaraja Sigiring-giring
Banuaji IV
Aek Nabara
Paran Julu
Hutagurgu r
Pagaran Tulason
Lumban Lobu
2.2 Data Collection
Primary data was collected in June to July 2010. General information on aren tree management across the landscape, aren‘s contribution to local livelihood, and local ecological knowledge on aren management were collected through interviews with key farmers, focus group discussion, and direct observations (transect walk). The semi-structured interviews collected quantitative data on empirical yield and qualitative data on tree regeneration strategy and harvesting techniques. Interviews were conducted in 4 villages in Batang Toru (i.e. Aek Nabara, Sigiring-giring, Hutaraja and Banuaji IV) and 5 villages in Tomohon (i.e. Tara-tara, Pinaras, Kayawu, Rokrok and Rurukan). In total, 45 farmers were selected randomly for interview, with at least 5 farmers per village. Markets issues were identified through discussion with farmers and local traders. Secondary information from previous studies (Martini et al., 2011 and Mogea et al., 1991) was used as supplement of the primary data.
2.3 Data Analysis
Rapid Assessment of Agroforestry Practices and Technology (RAFT) analytical framework (Joshi and van Noordwijk, 2009) was modified to analyze information collected on aren tree management systems in both sites. Quantitative data on aren productivity were compared by t-test and descriptive statistics.
3.1 Aren’s Tree Regeneration, Management and Productivity
Aren trees occur scattered across both Batang Toru and Tomohon landscapes. In Batang Toru, farmers harvested productive aren trees in their rubber agroforest garden (at elevation of 0- 800 m asl) and abandoned agroforest garden (above 800 m asl). Aren trees are also occurred in the Batang Toru forest, however farmers are reluctant to harvest product from those trees due to the long distances between forests and road or settlements. In Tomohon, farmers harvested productive aren trees that occur in their agroforest garden (where clove and coconut as the dominant species). Based on direct observation (transect walk), at the landscape scale aren tree density in Tomohon is higher than in Batang Toru (Figure 3). Aren tree maintenance is rarely practiced by farmers at either study sites, however thatch removal is belief to enhance tree diameter growth.
Figure 3: Aren occurrence in Batang Toru (left) and Tomohon (right)
Batang Toru Tomohon
In the landscapes studied, two types of aren tree regeneration were identified, i.e. a) natural regeneration, b) transplanted regeneration (Figure 4). Natural regeneration is depending on the role of civets and other biota that disperse aren seed, there is no farmer intervention to enhance seed germination seedling establishment or early growth (0-5 years). Transplanted regeneration is practiced by trans-locating aren seedlings that regenerate naturally to farmer‘s tree garden, there is no farmer intervention to enhance seed germination but farmers stimulate initial growth of the seedlings by clearing areas in radius of 0.5 meter from the seedlings. Under current conditions, at both sites, natural regeneration practice is preferred by farmers. Transplanted regeneration is still rare. It is only practiced by ca. 10% of farmers in Batang Toru and not at all in Tomohon.
Figure 4: Type of aren tree regeneration in Batang Toru and Tomohon
(left: natural regeneration; right: transplanted between rows of rubber trees)
Although aren tree density is higher in Tomohon than Batang Toru, on average, number of aren trees that are tapped by farmers in both sites is relatively similar, mainly due to the capability of a person in tapping and processing the sap. One farmer usually taps 5-6 aren trees/day, with a maximum 12 aren trees/day.
Statistical analysis indicates there is no significant difference of aren sap productivity in Batang Toru and Tomohon. However, Tomohon tends to have higher aren productivity than Batang Toru (Figure 5.). Also in Tomohon the aren trees have better performance, i.e. bigger size (height and diameter) and lengthy leaves with horizontal orientation, which are the characteristics of superior trees based on farmers knowledge at both study sites.
Natural regeneration Transplanted regeneration
Figure 5: Average value of sap production and number of productive trees in Batang Toru and Tomohon
Sugar content of the flower sap is not different at the two sites. Based on the standard farmers practice, of dividing number of liters sap per kilogram of sugar that is produced, the sugar content of the flower sap both in Batang Toru and Tomohon is 15-18%. Variation in are tree productivity is high at both sites, this due to the high dependency to natural regeneration and no selection for superior aren trees considered by farmers. Most farmers know the characteristic of superior aren trees, however they are not yet use the knowledge in practice. Up until now, there is no scientific knowledge that can describe the characteristic of superior aren trees. Based on farmers knowledge, the characteristic of superior aren trees are:
4. Trees with longer and wider leaves yield more sap and sugar;
5. Trees with green leaves is better for sap production, and trees with grayish leaves is better
for starch production;
6. Trees with horizontal leaf orientation are better for sap production;
7. Trees with greater diameter and height yield more sap and sugar;
8. Trees with thick leaves yield more sap and sugar;
9. Trees with more female flower/inflorescences yield more sap and sugar (a minimum of 7
bunches of female inflorescence).
A paucity of aren trees in the accesible landscape deny farmers the confidence to effectively utilize that knowledge.
3.2 Aren’s Traditional Product Harvesting Management
At both sites, flower sap is the most valuable products for aren farmers. Aren male flower can be tapped after trees are 10 to 15 years old and can be tapped for another 10 to 15 years, depending on the continued presence of productive flowers. However, in Tomohon farmers said 10 years is the effective productive period of an aren tree. After 10 years, Tomohon farmers shift tapping to other new productive trees. While in Batang Toru, farmers stated that 15 years is the general productive period of an aren tree. The differences may because by the fact that more aren trees in Tomohon than Batang Toru, thus farmers will have more trees to be selected for tapping.
In general, both in Tomohon and Batang Toru farmers tap aren flower sap daily throughout the year, with individula flower can be tapped consecutively for 6 months. Depending on the purpose (e.g. sugar or alcoholic beverage), in one day farmers tap aren flower twice for sugar production and once for alcoholic beverage (tuak with 5% alcohol content).
Tapping techniques are similar in both sites. However, post-harvest processing techniques are a different.
Besides aren flower sap, Batang Toru farmers also harvested the fruits for sweetmeat (kolang-kaling). Because the fruit bunches are considered as source for sugar, thus out of 3-12 fruit bunches only 1-2 fruit bunches per tree that are harvested per year. Total weight of one fruit bunch is around 60 kg which can be processed into 180 kg kolang kaling. The kolang-kaling is sold to Medan, Jakarta, Riau with the price at farmer level Rp 2500/kg. The demand for kolang- kaling is greatest during the Ramadhan (Moslem fasting month). Farmers in Tomohon didn‘t produce kolang-kaling due to lack of market channel and local demand for kolang-kaling in Tomohon.
Aren thatch is more intensively harvested in Batang Toru than in Tomohon, again this is due to the presence of stronger market demand. In Batang Toru, thatch is sold for road foundation material. While in Tomohon thatch is harvested for broom production. Poor families, who do not have aren trees, harvested thatch of other farmer‘s aren tree and made it into brooms. From 5 aren trees, usually at least 4 sheets of thatch can be harvested per year, with at least 2 kg/sheet and the price Rp 3,000/kg of thatch. Thatch production per trees are variative, depend on the growth of the trees. Annually, thatch usually harvested twice every 6 months.
3.3. Aren’s Contribution in Local Livelihood
Aren's contribution to local livelihood both in Batang Toru and Tomohon can be classified into its four main products, i.e. sugar, alcoholic beverage (5% and 30-40% alcohol content), fruits (kolang-kaling) and thatch (ijuk) (Table 1.). However, farmers at the two sites have different income strategy from aren products which are affected by the availability of productive aren trees and market access.
Table 1. Aren‘s contribution to local livelihood in Batang Toru and Tomohon
Kolang-kaling Annually 450 USD/year None None
Ijuk Annually 2 USD/year Weekly 7 USD/week
3.4 Discussion
Despite aren‘s importance to local livelihoods, in the past two decades there has been little effort by farmers to cultivate aren in either Batang Toru or Tomohon. This trend is valid for most
palms in the tropics (Byg and Balslev, 2006). Based on discussion with farmers, main reason for limited aren domestication is because aren trees are still abundant in the natural landscape, and that wildlife is percieved to be the appropriate and efficient mode for aren regeneration.
Based on analysis of Net Present Value and Return to Labour in Batang Toru Martini et al. (2011) determined that aren management systems that depend on natural regeneration were more profitable where aren trees are still abundant and the wildlife are still active in pollination and seed dispersal. However, in areas where natural vegetation has been converted to other land uses, cultivating aren by transplanted regeneration was a better option for supporting the sustainability of aren utilization as a source of local livelihood systems. Byg and Balslev (2006) also showed that perceptions of declining palm availability in combination with heavy reliance on palm products were positively related to palm cultivation (domestication).
Currently, farmers in Batang Toru have begun to cultivate aren at regular spacing, while in Tomohon farmers do not yet have strong motivation to do so. This is because natural regeneration in Tomohon maintains aren tree density that is sufficient for farmer needs and greater than in Batang Toru. The lack of fruit harvesting in Tomohon is suspected to facilitate higher aren tree density as more fruit/seed are present to produce natural regeneartion.
Aren fruit harvesting is also thought to have an indirect negative effect on sap productivity. In Tomohon where fruit is not harvesting, the trees are larger and the flower sap production is greater. Mogea et al. (1991) reported that the sizes of aren trees in Tomohon are larger than those described in other places. They suspected that the positive selection by Tomohon farmers has resulted in aren populations with high sap production, as well as the fertile dark andosols soil occurring in the area. For NTFP species which depend on natural regeneration not only may deplete the species stocking in the area, but also deplete the genetic diversity which is essential for selecting superior variants. This phenomenon was also observed with Parkia biglobosa in Southern Burkina Faso (Raebild et al., 2001). Further genetic study need to be conducted to collect more evidence of negative linkage between reduced natural regeneration and fruit harvesting of aren.
Aren‘s value to local livelihood can also be enhanced by improving market access and share of end-user value received by farmers. Sugar and tuak are primarily sold in local markets, which is an advantage as price are relative stable compare to international market. On the other hand, aren‘s thatch and fruits are exported mainly to Singapore. With the current global economic crisis, international market prices of export product may reduce the economic benefit of the exported products, in that context local market may be more secure.
In Indonesia, aren has been used to support ecological restoration and land rehabilitation, because aren root systems contribute to the soil and water conservation, its contribution to local livelihood and its compatibility with other plant species. Recent study by Martini et al. (2011) concluded that to optimize the role of aren for local livelihoods and conservation, the number of aren trees per hectare needs to be considered. A density of 12 aren trees/ha seems to be the minimum for an aren agroforest to significantly contribute to a family livelihood. Thus, aren has the potential to be used as species in community based forest restoration in Indonesia. Furthermore, supported activities in enhancing aren‘s productivity under community based reforestation scheme, needs to be identified.
In Batang Toru and Tomohon, aren is a source of livelihood for local communities. In both landscape, aren trees are primarily encountered in degraded forests and farmers‘ tree gardens. In this study, two types of aren tree regeneration were identified, i.e. a) natural regeneration, b) transplanted regeneration. Currently, natural regeneration is preferred by farmers. Farmers perceived wildlife as an appropriate and efficient mode of aren regeneration. Under natural regeneration management, aren fruit harvesting may deplete the species stocking in
the area and the aren genetic diversity which is essential for selecting superior variants. However, further genetic studies are required to collect evidence of negative linkage between reduced natural regeneration and fruit harvesting of aren. Furthermore, supported activities in enhancing aren‘s productivity under community based forest restoration scheme, also need to be identified.
Activities in this study was funded by Agentschap NL Ministerie van Economische Zaken Landbouw en Innovatie under Project number PEGENL085046 that was implemented by Ecofys Netherlands Bv and Winrock International in 2011. Authors would like to thanks Dr. Meine van Noordwijk, Dr. Willie Smits, Harry Kaunang and the Yayasan Masarang team, Jasper van de Staaij, David Walden and all the farmers, traders and government officers in Batang Toru and Tomohon for the support during the study.
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INAFOR 11H-063
Section H Community and Social Forestry
Evaluation of Sustainable Forest Management: Review on Teak Forests Management (Case Study at KPH Mantingan, Central Java)
Baharinawati W. Hastanti1 and Hasanu Simon2
1Forestry Research Institute of Manokwari Jl. Inamberi Susweni, Manokwari 98313, INDONESIA
2Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University
Jl. Agro-Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA
Paper prepared for The First International Conference of Indonesian Forestry Researchers (INAFOR)
Bogor, 5 – 7 December 2011
INAFOR SECRETARIAT Sub Division of Dissemination, Publication and Library
Evaluation of Sustainable Forest Management: Review on Teak Forests Management (Case Study at KPH Mantingan, Central Java)
Baharinawati W. Hastanti1 and Hasanu Simon2
1Forestry Research Institute of Manokwari Jl. Inamberi Susweni, Manokwari 98313, INDONESIA
2Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University
Jl. Agro-Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA
This study aim is to evaluate the sustainability management teak forest at KPH Mantingan, which reviewed with benchmarks: 1) The dynamics calculation the etat between period, 2) quality of stands to predict the change on productive area and provision of standing stock from period to period and be successful plants and , 3) The intensity of theft that have happened from year to year and the frequency of illegal logging throughout the year. This research method in accordance with the descriptive method of research purposes. Research conducted in the area KPH Mantingan. KPH Mantingan which is administratively located in Rembang Regency and Blora Regency, Central Java Province. The results showed that forest sustainability in KPH Mantingan is within normal limits, judging from the decline in productive forest area and standing stock. Age class composition was dominated by young stands. Socioeconomic conditions in the study area are characterized by the society condition around the
teak forests in Java, which has a variety of social problems.
Keywords: Management, forests, sustainable, etat, quality, standing, stakeholders
According to Ministry of Forestry (2007), forest degradation rate in Indonesia have reached approximately 59.2 million hectares with a rate deforestation approximately 2.83 million hectares per year. Deforestation in Indonesia is caused by incorrect forest management over the years. Nowadays, the purpose of forest management in general approaches the concept of the sustainable forest development. A forest can improve people welfare, or in accordance with sustainable forest slogan, the prosperous society. Java has the highest population density in Indonesia because of its soil fertility. Developments on this island already result on severe forest deforestations, and effects on floods and landslides which have taken place each year. Decreasing on forest areas in Java occurs due to the pressure of increasing population. The result is an increase in total labor force that is not accommodated on employment area. High unemployment rate become a burden to forest managers and it raises many sorts of problems as threats to forest sustainability. Perum Perhutani is a state owned company that has authorized to conduct the management of teak forests in Java since 1963. Forest areas that managed by Perum Perhutani is covering about 2,904,547 ha, and around 55% (1,060,858 ha) has classified on teakwood enterprise-class. After management by Perhutani, the condition of productive forest area is about 625,641 ha, which around 60% are dominated by younger-age class or below 40 years old. This condition occurs because of high level of security disturbances on trees over 40 years old, the suitable age for harvesting. The security disturbance is due to the dense population in the
surrounding forests and low level of education which contribute to the local people with lack skills, thus causing a high dependence on nature resource in vicinity. Perhutani has instructive (top-down) planning system that affects forest management does not correspond with the socio-economic and biophysics condition which exist in a forest area. The result is an increasingly widespread non-productive forest area, because of the failure of forest management.
One of the necessities on forest sustainability is the calculation of the guaranteed cutting- etat is not over-cutting level. Etat calculations are affected by conditions related to the stands quality, which can be seen in broad classes of productive forest and stock condition (growing stock). Declining on class area of productive forest and the potential provision will result in declining on specified etat. The stands quality is associated with productive forest area and the potential class of stock that grows stands, both is influenced by the quality of crops and intensity of timber theft. Then, the failure of crops and occurrence of timber theft are influenced by socio-economic and cultural conditions of communities around the forest. According to the previous problem formulation, the purpose of this study is directed to evaluate the sustainability of teak forests management in KPH Mantingan, which reviews the benchmarks: 1) dynamic calculations of short period to long etat, 2) quality stands based on changes of productive areas and standing stock in the long term and also successful crops rate and 3) timber theft intensity that occurred from year to year and frequency of timber theft throughout the year.
Basic method used in this study is a descriptive method which related to research purpose that evaluated the sustainability of teaks forest management at the KPH Mantingan. The changes in the productive forest area and standing (growing stock) were used as forest sustainability indicators. Parameters to control whether a forest manager has implemented the concept of sustainability forest management are still difficult to be formulated objectively. But theoretically, there are three conditions that must be met to establish a sustainable basis (Simon, 2007). This study taken two measurements, which are : 1) it refers to formulated etat that have guaranteed no over-cutting, then it is prepared to be annual harvest plans that was consistent with the spirit and purpose of sustainable principle, 2) it has been formulated to ensure the successful regeneration system on logged over areas.
The research was conducted in KPH Mantingan that administratively located in Rembang Regency and Blora Regency, Central Java Province. The study was carried out on January to April 2009.
Types of data in this research consisted of primary data and secondary data. The primary data were: 1) the results of calculations on extensive and volume etat from term to term, 2) the conditions and stands structure, as result of comparing the composition of age classes from term to term, 3) preparation and evaluation of crop plants for 5 years, 4) the composition of forest age classes for each forest section on the long-period, 5) the intensity of timber theft obtained from the letter A and the stump. Secondary data which also collected were: 1) the general conditions of research areas, 2) climate information, 3) population demography of Rembang Regency and Blora Regency, and 4) Monograph of Mantingan Village.
Data analysis is a very important part in the scientific method, because the analysis give a meaning and significance information to the data that are useful in solving research problems (Nazir, 2005). Raw data have been collected need to be solved in groups, organized categorization, manipulation or squeezed in such a way that the data has meaning to answer the problem. Once the data is arranged in groups, and the relationships which occur has analyzed,
they should be interpreted related to the phenomena and compare with other phenomena beyond the research.
3.1 Dynamics of Area Etat and Volume Etat
Development area and volume etat at KPH Mantingan from term to term are presented in Table 1.
Tabel 1. Dynamics of area etat and volume etat at KPH Mantingan, 1961-2010
Company Period Etat Productive Forest 10 years Area (ha) Volume (m3) Area (ha)
1961-1970 200,20 18,000 13,812.1 1971-1980 130,54 17,594 13,408.7 1981-1990 169,80 27,308 13,617.4 1991-2000 152,49 22,460 12,323.9 2001-2010 127,19 15,355 10,107.2
Source: RKPH Book (Second Sheet) KPH Mantingan Period 2001/2010
The table show fluctuation on volume etat and area etat. These happened because productive area and standing stock changes. The composition of age classes on the productive forest during the third period showed a decline and was dominated by young age classes (KU), while the non-productive forest showed a rapid increase. This condition influenced on the etat, so it was not surprising that the 3 last periods the etat continues to decline (Table 2).
Table 2. Productive Forest Area 1981 to 2010
Forest Company Period
Classes 1981 to 1990 1991 until 2000 2001 until 2010
10 years Area (ha) % Area (ha) % Area % A. Productive Age Class I 2,242.40 15.99 3,085.50 21.33 3,472.80 24.48
Age Class II 1,384.70 9.88 2,028.60 14.02 2,155.30 15.20
Age Class III 2,165.30 15.44 1,013.70 7.01 855.20 6.03
Age Class IV 875.60 6.25 918.20 6.35 581.20 581.20
Age Class V 1,687.60 12.04 513.60 3.55 268.80 1.90
Age Class VI 1,017.10 7.25 1,338.50 9.25 289.70 2.04
Age Class VII 1,632.30 11.64 830.50 5.74 5.74 4.53
Age Class VIII 805,00 5.74 1,413.30 9.77 441.50 3.11
Age Class IX 48.80 0.35 532.20 3.68 457.60 3.23
Age Class X 158.70 1.13 - - 24.50 0.17
Age Class XI 51.40 0.37 - - - -
Sub Total 12,067.90 86.07 11.674.10 80.69 9,189.60 64.79
B. Non Productive 1,952.90 13.93 2,794.10 19.31 4,994.20 35.21
TOTAL 14,020.80 100.00 14,468.20 100.00 14,183.80 100.00
Source: RPKH 2001 until 2010 period
Productive forest class changed due to crop failure that to achieve certain KU to: 1) failure of the planting and maintenance, 2) high security disturbance due to theft on trees, leaves and other plant parts, and also grazing threats, 3) forest looting on reformation era at 1998.
Table 3. Standing stock changes
Forest Company Period
10 years Volume (m3) % Volume (m3) % Volume (m3) %
A. Produktive Age Class I 4,303.95 0.37 57,534.36 5.04 51,275.63 7.57
Age Class II 89,717.60 7.67 144,707.60 12.68 129,784.94 19.16
Age Class III 212,296.54 18.15 85,432.37 7.49 67,418.39 9.96
Age Class IV 110,035.17 9.41 93,595.30 8.20 44,169.69 6.52
Age Class V 9,653.59 0.83 78,316.69 6.86 89,611.49 13.23
Age Class VI 201,067.24 17.19 72,634.51 6.37 34,841.30 5.14
Age Class VII 141,234.08 12.08 193,566.76 16.96 40,122.90 5.92
Age Class VIII 239,467.53 20.48 137,802.80 12.08 108,167.51 15.97
Age Class IX 117,494.68 10.05 249,120.45 21.83 80,199.55 11.84
Age Class X 24,944.50 2.13 3,869.39 0.57
Age Class XI 9,230.95 0.79
Sub Total 1,159,445.83 99.15 1,112,710.84 97.51 649,460.79 95.90
b. Non Productive 9,938.80 0.85 28,383.08 2.49 27,765.68 4.10
Total 1,169,384.63 100.00 1,141,093.92 100.00 677,226.47 100.00 Source: RPKH 1981 to 2010
Table 3 shows that the standing stock on the 1981-2010 period indicated that there was a relationship between volume etat and standing volume in last-three terms. Diminishing of standing volume influenced a drop in volume etat. Decrease in standing stock of productive forest classes was due to crops failure to achieve certain KU :1) failure of the planting and maintenance system, 2) high security disturbance due to theft on trees, leaves and other plant parts, and also grazing threats, 3) the forest looting on reformation era at 1998.
3.2 Quality of Stands on Each Forest Section
3.2.1. Kalinanas Forest Section
Stands quality on Kalinanas Forest Section can be described in Figure 4. The trend shows the decreasing age classes in the old stands (on age class IV or age class V).
Table 4. Productive forest area in forest section of Kalinanas 1981-2004
Forest Year
Classes 1981 (ha) 1991 (ha) 2001 (ha) 2004 (ha)
Age Class I 705.70 Age Class II 336.00 613.60
Age Class III 729.40 247.40 120.30 Age Class IV 145.70 460.90 162.50 24.90
Age Class V 534.70 48.20 120.10 46.20
Age Class VI 399.70 408.30 15.70 14.10
Age Class VII 549.30 215.80 190.40 27.00
Age Class VIII 257.70 362.70 143.90 57.50
Age Class IX 11.80 203.50 110.60 -
Age Class X - - - -
Age Class XI - - - -
Total 3,670.00 2,560.40 863.50 169.70 Source: RPKH 1981 to 2010
Age Classes reduction to long period reflected in table above. In the 1981 until 1990 saw the even distribution of age classes composition, although there was a decrease when old stand area. The reduction age classes occurred in 1991 until 2000 period, but not too significant as which occurred in 2001. In the 1991 until 2000 period, Kalinanas Forest Section also suffered of pillage, but apparently with no very serious consequences, because there was not a sharp reduction in the other Forest Section. Thus in the year 2001 until 2004 there was a sharp reduction in the stands due to looting and security disturbances on growing area of this forest Section. Forest looting in the year 1998 in the reformation era gived great influenced the reduction of productive forest area and age classes distribution of productive standing arrangement. This would threaten the sustainability of the results, because occured over cutting from ilegal cutting.
3.2.2 West Sulang Forest Section
Stands condition at Sulang Barat Forest Section can be illustrated on Table 5. The trend showed the reduction in the productive age class West Sulang Forest Section in the long period, especially in old KU. Stands reduction from 1981- 1990 was still occurred within reasonable limits. The reduction on young KU was likely due to crop failure or security breach. While in the old KU reduction occurred because of legal harvest and disturbances.
Table 5. Productive forest area in West Sulang forest section 1981 to 2004
Forest Year
Classes 1981 (ha) 1991 (ha) 2001 (ha) 2004 (ha)
Age Class I 781.30 Age Class II 552.40 709.00
Age Class III 742.40 344.20 226.40 Age Class IV 254.50 318.50 140.20 68.10
Age Class V 473.40 155.00 93.60 25.20
Age Class VI 241.10 317.90 63.10 59.30
Age Class VII 558.20 246.60 48.20 -
Age Class VIII 184.00 527.20 6.00 -
Age Class IX 3.00 174.50 97.80 3.00
Age Class X - - - -
Age Class XI - - - -
Total 3,790.30 2,792.90 675.30 155.60
Source: RPKH 1981 to 2010
There was a sharp reduction from 1991 to 2000. The reduction occurred almost evenly across both young age classes and old age classes, as a result of forest plunder in 1998. In 2004 a rapid study was carried out, and it still showed a reduction, mainly due to security problems. It
seems that in the years 2000 until 2004 there was not yet secure, because forest looting still occurred in many places.
3.2.2 East Sulang Forest Section
Stand condition at East Sulang Forest Section can be illustrated on Table 6. The table shows a decrease on the productive age classes reduction in East Sulang Forest Section from the long period, specifically on old age classes. Stands reduction from 1981 to 1990 was within reasonable limits. The reduction of young age classes was likely due to crop failure or security breach. While in the old age classes reduction occurred because of the legal harvest and disturbances.
Table 6. Productive forest area in East Sulang forest section
Forest Year
Age Class I 754.40 - - -
Age Class II 496.30 706.00 - -
Age Class III 693.50 422.10 508.50 Age Class IV 484.40 138.80 278.50 123.20
Age Class V 679.50 310.40 55.10 73.30
Age Class VI 376.30 612.30 210.90 77.20
Age Class VII 524.80 368.10 404.40 139.50
Age Class VIII 363.30 523.10 291.60 145.80
Age Class IX 34.00 154.20 249.20 169.30
Age Class X 158.70 - 24.50 3.20
Age Class XI 51.40 - - -
Total 4,616.60 3,235.00 2,022.70 731.50 Source: RPKH 1981 to 2010
The table shows a sharp reduction from 1991 to 2000. The reduction occurred almost evenly across both young age classes and old age classes, as a result of forest plunder in 1998. In 2004 a rapid study was carried out, and it showed a reduction, mainly due to security problems. It seems that in the years 2000 until 2004 the condition was not yet secure, because forest looting is still occurred in many places.
3.3 Realization and Evaluation of Plant Cultivation
Tree planting by KPH Mantingan in the period 2004 to 2007 on table 7 above:
Table 7. Realization and evaluation
Planting Region Total of Planting Assesment Percentage of Planting Growth (%) Rated Criteria
Plot Area (ha) Year Primary Fence Hedge Edge of Plot 2004 Kalinanas 19 149.80 2005 93.98 100.00 88.33 88.65 92.50 Good
Ngiri 20 117.50
Sudo 15 89.40
Medang 27 188.70
Demaan 15 111.30
Kebon 19 171.30
Total 115 828.00 Mean 93.65 100.00 88.28 89.50 90.65 Good
Source: Result of Planting Assesment KPH Mantingan 2004 to 2007
The assessment use assumption of absence on forest disturbances, either because of theft, natural disasters and fires. If the plants quality at KPH Mantingan can be maintained until old age of stands, it might be able to improve the condition of productive forest stands. In the future, the etat will increase in 3 to 4 periods. So, that will enhance the legal harvest production and achieving the sustainable yield further.
3.4 Timber Theft Intensity
Year Letter A Percentage Stump Percentage
(moment) (%) (tree) (%)
1991 1,699 9.81 8,478 1.56
1992 2,632 15.19 6,894 1.27
1993 689 3.98 6,466 1.19
1994 712 4.11 7,366 1.36
1995 632 3.65 6,234 1.15
1996 847 4.89 5,135 0.95
1997 938 5.42 5,327 0.98
1998 1,459 8.42 69,427 12.79
1999 995 5.74 91,635 16.88
2000 1,347 7.78 94,329 17.38
2001 2,891 16.69 189,019 34.83
2002 612 3.53 23,809 4.39
2003 583 3.37 11,282 2.08
2005 Kalinanas 12 115.30 2006 94.10 100.00 86.30 90.30 92.72 Good
Ngiri 18 159.50
Sudo 16 104.50
Medang 24 229.20
Demaan 16 170.20
Kebon 17 159.20
Total 103 937.90 Mean 93.40 100.00 78.90 86.20 90.88 Good
2006 Kalinanas 21 245.80 2007 94.22 100.00 85.10 85.70 92.89 Good
Ngiri 22 69.20
Sudo 23 97.20
Medang 24 277.20
Demaan 8 68.90
Kebon 15 71.40
Total 113 829.70 Mean 95.60 100.00 80.40 76.40 93.62 Good
2007 Kalinanas 55 322.80 2008 96.40 100.00 80.60 88.60 90.27 Good
Ngiri 33 263.40
Sudo 69 420.00
Medang 153 1,171.40
Demaan 58 328.00
Kebon 78 564.80
Total 446 3,070.40 Mean 92.50 100.00 73.60 70.10 87.12 Good
(moment) (%) (tree) (%)
Source: RPKH Period 2001 to 2010
Low level of social welfare and a lack of community involvement in forest management, leading to increased intensity of the timber theft. The highest intensity occurred in 2001 was the peak year of forest plunder, given the unstable security conditions, as a result of domestic political upheaval.
3.5 Profil of Mantingan Village
The profile of Mantingan Village indicates a sosio-economic condition of communities around RPH Mantingan (Forest Autonomy Resort). The description of socio-economic conditions used to determine the social problems which threaten the sustainability forest. Socio- economic conditions in the Mantingan Village describes the characteristics of socio-economic conditions of communities around the teak forests in Java.
3.5.1 Land Use and Land Ownership
Most of the land in the Mantingan Village is state forest area, which cover area around 903.42 hectares or 88.59% of the total land area in the Mantingan Village. This forest area included in the territory of RPH Mantingan, consists of Mantingan Tourism Forest and Teak Production Forest. From that area, farm area reached 51.962 ha or 5.1%. Area of rice-field with irrigated or rain-fed area was 45.064 ha, or 4.42% of the land area of the village. The smallest area of land was used as public forests, only about 0.2 ha.
3.5.2 Population
Distribution of population according to age in Mantingan Village tend to be evenly from age 14 to age 44 years. Total population aged 0 to 14 years is 402 people or 25.69% of the total population of the village. Population aged 15 to 29 years is 401 people or 25.63% of total population and the population aged 30 to 44 years is 398 people or approximately 25.43% from total population. All three groups are distributed on each of the range of 25%. People aged 14 to 59 years belong to the population productive age.
In general, rural children aged 15 years have been able to help their parents to work as handymen in their village or as domestic servants in the city. Although the actual age of the child is school-age. The smaller age distribution is at age above 44 years. Age group of 45 to 59 years is about 209 people or 13.35% of the population. The elderly population is only about 9.90% or as many as 155 people.
The count ratio of the load-dependent (dependency ratio) of the population reached point of 55. This means that 100 people in productive age population will bear the economic burden of 55 people on unproductive aged population. In other words, a person from productive age bear the burden of 2 people from unproductive aged. This condition showed how heavy the load of a resident in the village of Mantingan.
3.5.3 Labor Absorbed by Several Sectors
Most of the labors in the village of Mantingan were absorbed in the agricultural sector. Around 424 people or approximately 61.01% of the total labor works in farming. Services sector absorbed around 93 people or 13.38%. Others are absorbed in the formal sector are PNS/TNI/ POLRI which recorded 40 people or 5.76%. In the trading sector, as many as 30 people or
4.32% were absorbed. While the industrial sector only absorbed 4 people or 0.48%. The existence of the labor absorbed in other sectors that are not clearly explained, causing the perception of unemployment that are not obvious as well. Moreover, this uncertain sector absorbed of 104 people or 14.96%. It is feared that the unemployed might have subtle effect on the high intensity of timber theft around RPH Mantingan, because it can be used as labor in the activities of timber theft.
3.6 Result Analysis and Solution Suggested
According to changes in area of productive forest and potential forest stands, KPH Mantingan categorized as normal sustainability forest. Etat which is defined as a condition of preservation of the forest is in long period but remains the limits of reasonableness.
The dynamics of etat which occurred in KPH Mantingan is due to policy changes in the calculation etat which carried out by managers and changes in productive forest area and potential of the standing stocks. Policy changes made in the calculation etat was based on Instruksi of 1974. If the previous policy of Instruction 1938, etat calculations performed using the method gecombinerd vark week or annual methods, while according to Directive 1974, etat is calculated based on the method of Burns. In this method, etat determined using the average age of cutting, so theoretically, logging for all ages is allowed. The decrease in KPH Mantingan etat was caused by a reduction in productive forest class area and potential standing stock. Thus, there was a decline in the calculation of both area and volume etat.
The composition of uneven age class and domination of young age classes, has caused crop failures and forest disturbances. At young age classes, stand reduction occurred because of security problems, such as grazing, leaves theft and fodder collection. Reduction of standing increased along with increasing stand age, because the tree was worth selling to particular interests, such as wood purpose.
The results of the assessment on aged plants of less than 2 years old showed a high rate of successful plants. This condition happened because the pesanggem (worker farmer) was allowed to do intercropping on 2-year-old plant. Therefore, plant safety properly maintained and free from disturbances because the plant was in intensive supervision by pesanggem who permitted to plant crops as a filler plant.
Timber theft and other security threats are reduction reason on teak stands beside the planning procedure. These problems were influenced by the socio-economic conditions of communities around the forest. Based on the results of research in the Mantingan Village, Bulu District, Rembang Regency which is located in the RPH Mantingan, BKPH Kebon and Section Forest East Sulang, it shows that the condition of forest communities can be a threat to forest sustainability.
If the timber theft is continuously present, then it will affect the stands quality. Further, stands reduction will result on decrease the specified etat. Therefore etat calculations must be done carefully, taking into account the stands reduction by the theft of timber.
Meanwhile, in the period 2001 to 2010 there was a reduction of stands on a large scale and almost evenly occurred on all KU in KPH Mantingan. The reduction was caused by the public looting at the beginning of reformation in 1998. The tree looting in 1998 lasted until 2004, showed the conflict between Perhutani as a forest manager with the community. The conflicts occurred because of public dissatisfaction with the forest management conducted by Perhutani, especially with the limits of forest management policies that do not involve the surrounding community. Mainly the community was against the use of repressive security approach in securing the forest and an excessive limitation of public access in forest resources utilization.
At that time, damage and reduction of stands occurred almost uniformly in all KU. This has led to loss which suffered Perhutani as state forest Management Company and at the same
time threatens forest sustainability. Specified etat in any subsequent period was decrease greatly, owing to a decrease in standing stock and broad classes of productive forest.
The steady depletion of the specified etat caused the collapse of forest management conducted by Perhutani. The decline in forest area and standing stock was influenced by socio- economic conditions communities of surounding forest. Moreover, the lack of community involvement happened in forest management.
According to the cases that occurred around the Mantingan Village in RPH Mantingan, it is necessary to involve the community programs, also the various interests of the parties (multi- stakeholder). In line with the population development, followed by the emergence of socio- economic problems, the concept of monoculture forests had to be abandoned. Hence the concept of forest management timber management paradigm should be increased to the concept of forest management paradigm with Forest Resource Management (FRM). One forest management paradigms with FRM is the Pengelolaan Hutan Jati Optimal (PHJO, Optimal Management of Teak Forest) which has tested in KPH Madiun (Simon, 2008).
PHJO is suitable to be applied in forest management at KPH Mantingan as forest in Java, because the decrease in area productive forest and standing stock affect social problems, which characterized by:
• The land ownership is only about 0.2 ha / household, so the need for land beyond the maximum.
• The need for food and forest products increases along with the population.
• The high number of unemployment
Planning system in PHJO is incentive planning that aims to maximize the productivity of the region in order to improve the community welfare. This planning model should be more emphasized on efforts to understand the public perception in the use and manage forest resources, so that the system of forest management on PHJO is more comprehensive (holistic). The division results in a system PHJO are weighing more on the principle of symbiosis mutualism, so there would be an equally profitable relation between forest managers and community. Therefore, PHJO is designed to form a relationship with a balanced position and the comparable status between the actors (stakeholders) in determining the policies and operational programs.
1. Sustainability forest in KPH Mantingan is in normal range. Although there is a tendency of decrease in long period etat. However it is within reason. The etat decline occurred in forest productive area and standing stock which caused by stands quality decrease.
2. Quality stands decline in KPH Mantingan caused by stands age classes is not evenly distributed. Distribution of age classes in the long term show that the old stands (age class V above) tend to decrease than the young stands (age class I to age class IV). The crops quality in the first years showed a good percentage of the to be criteria 90% above for planting trees. The old stands that reduced caused by security disturbance like timber thefts, cause this age stands already can be sold.
3. Timber thefts intensity in KPH Mantingan was so high, but in recent years tends to decline. The high intensity of timber thefts caused by socio-economic conditions in the less-welfare community. Therefore, the community can be utilized by the certain parties to commit the theft. While the theft timber intensity falling over due to decreasing tree numbers in stands, so the security staff has to be more intensive in controlling.
4. Forest looting that occurred on reformation era 1998, influenced on productive forest area. The even reduction of productive age class stands affected etat decline. Forest looting were caused by social conflict between forest manager (Perhutani) and the communities. This is due to dissatisfaction with the lack of forest management opportunities at the community stage in the forest resources utilization.
4.2 Recommendation
1. Etat calculation should be determined carefully to avoid over-cutting that threatens the sustainability of the forest. Number of illegal cutting due to pilferage should be taken into account by the legal cutting.
2. There is a need to increase people participation in forest planning and management, in the period of the community attainment. Role of the community of forest management lead to a sense of ownership of forests, which will reduce the disturbance of forest security and social conflict.
3. Based on the problems at the research sites, due to the increase in population among others, lack of arable land, high number of unemployment and the increasing need for food and wood, the program of Optimal Management of Teak Forests (PHJO) should be applied to accommodate the interests of managers and the public interest.
4. PHJO is one of community empowerment programs. The program provides an opportunity for community forest management plan together with forest managers. Community acted as subject and have a parallel role as a partner of Perhutani.
Perum Perhutani (1993): Prosiding Lokakarya Pemantapan Klas Perusahaan Jati. Jakarta. Direksi Perum Perhutani.
Perum Perhutani (1960): Rencana Perusahaan KPH Mantingan Jangka 1961-1970. Seksi Perencanaan Hutan Rembang.
Perum Perhutani (1970): Rencana Perusahaan KPH Mantingan Jangka 1971-1980. Seksi Perencanaan Hutan Rembang.
Perum Perhutani (1980): Rencana Pengaturan Kelestarian Hutan KPH Mantingan Jangka 1981- 1990. Seksi Perencanaan Hutan Wilayah Rembang.
Perum Perhutani (1990): Rencana Pengaturan Kelestarian Hutan KPH Mantingan Jangka 1991- 2000. Seksi Perencanaan Hutan Wilayah Rembang.
Perum Perhutani (2000): Rencana Pengaturan Kelestarian Hutan KPH Mantingan Jangka 2000- 2010. Seksi Perencanaan Hutan Wilayah Rembang.
Perum Perhutani (2008): Laporan Definitif Pembuatan Tanaman KPH Mantingan 2008. KPH Mantingan.
Perum Perhutani (2006): Statistik Hutan KPH Mantingan. Rembang. KPH Mantingan.
Perum Perhutani (1986): Petunjuk Penyusunan RPKH SK Dirjen Kehutanan No 143/Kpts/Dj/I/1974. Semarang. Perum Perhutani Unit I Jawa Tengah.
Simon, H (2004): Aspek Sosio Teknis Pengelolaan Hutan Jati di Jawa. Yogyakarta. Pustaka Pelajar.
Simon, H (2004): Membangun Desa Hutan. Kasus Dusun Sambiroto. Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada University Press.
Simon, H (2006): Hutan Jati dan Kemakmuran. Yogyakarta. Pustaka Pelajar.
Simon, H (2007): Diktat Perencanaan Pembangunan Sumber Daya Hutan. Yogyakarta. Unpublished.
Simon, H (2008): Pengelolaan Hutan Bersama Rakyat. Yogyakarta. Pustaka Pelajar
INAFOR 11H-064
Section H Community and Social Forestry
Vulnerability of Mountains People of Papua to the Climate Change
Susan T. Salosa
Forestry Research Institute of Manokwari Jl. Inamberi Susweni, Manokwari 98313, INDONESIA
Paper prepared for The First International Conference of Indonesian Forestry Researchers (INAFOR)
Bogor, 5 – 7 December 2011
INAFOR SECRETARIAT Sub Division of Dissemination, Publication and Library
Vulnerability of Mountains People of Papua to the Climate Change
Susan T. Salosa
Forestry Research Institute of Manokwari Jl. Inamberi Susweni, Manokwari 98313, INDONESIA
Global climate change effects have different intensities on people‘s life related to the degree of vulnerability to the change. The avaibility of natural resources like forest, water and other resources have taken role to the people‘s vulnerability. Mountain people is a community that might vulnerable to the climate change because of depending on natural resouces for their life socially, economically and culturally. The research was conducted in two villages on Arfak Mountains and two villages of Jayawijaya district at more than 1,500 m asl. The research method was descriptive with semi-structural interviewed technique in order to predict the vulnerability of local people to the climate change. Data were analized by tabulation and scorings. The result of the research showed that local people of Arfak Mountains and Wamena are relatively vulnerable when extremely climate change occur like raising on temperature and rainfall. The scores identify people of Arfak Mountains and Wamena sensitivity as quite sensitive to sensitive related to social, economics and biofisic of the location. Their main source of income, agriculture, and place where they live will be affected because their position on slope which is at big risks of erosion and flood. Where as, people in Wamena, the district of Jayawijaya, experience adversity sometimes and lost their source of income, sweet potato, because of unpredictable flood. Keywords: climate change, vulnerability, Arfak Mountains people, Wamena
In Papua, there are certain places in the high mountains consideraly colder than low land areas. The temperatures of the places are below 300C and once upon the time, those were lower than 100C. Today, the temperatures are going warmer than before. Many changes occure at the areas because of temperature transformation, such as presents of new plants, decreasing of firewood utilization, change on a house construction and other new changes.
The change of the temperature as the effect of the Global climate influences either biophisics or ecology aspects. Those aspects can not be seperated from people‘s life, particularly to forest people, and those who live along river bank and coastal area, so their lifes are counted as vulnerable on the situation and at the point of adaptation, they will need government awarness to cope the situation.
Arfak mountain and Jayawijaya lie on areas of Papua and West Papua provinces. There are several sub districts in Arfak Mountain, such as Minyambouw, Anggi, Sururey, Taige, Anggi Gida and Hingk with around 104 villages. Minyambouw sub district itself is consisted of 56 villages. The local people also devided to three main tribes; Hatam/Moule, Soughb dan Meyakh. Where as Jayawijaya district consists of 11 sub districts with some tribes like Welesy and other tribes. Those people have similarlity on way of life eventhough they live on different part of Papua island.
People from other places had roles in the transportation and introduction of new species in the areas. People were coming from USA and Europe brought some kinds of plants which were suitable for low temperature at 1960‘s such as markisa (passion fruit), tomat belanda, daun bawang (onion leaf), kentang (potatos) and lately strawberry.
The terminology of climate is still uncommon for the local people of Arfak and Wamena. They are more familiar with the changes of micro climate and local season which cause unpredictable of wet and dry season because both of them can occur at the same time one after the other without consider on season calender used to use since long time ago.
If the climate change can not be interupted and emission continue goes up, so the very dangerous disaster will be happen for all people. People in the remote area and women will put on very risk groups to climate change because they are subject of agriculture. When the season and climate change, it is possible, the plants in the garden will be affected either on their quality or quantity. People need transformation in plant use, so they have to have sufficient knowledge to try something new, nothing in regular. This research is going to find out how vulnerable of local community to the climate change or extrimely change of season especially community who live in forest or around the forest. How people adapt to the change based on their local wisdom or their economic ability. The research goal is to predict how vulnerable of forest local community to the extrimely climate and season change.
The research was conducted from May 2010 to November 2011 in the two villages of Minyambaw sub district and district of Jayawijaya at mountain ecosysitems. Minyambouw sub dustrict consists of 56 villages as a result of area enlargement under special autonomy laws. The locations of the research are shown in the Figure 1 and 2 below.
Figure 1: Location of Minyambow sub district
2.1 Research Procedure
Data devided to primary and secondary data which are collected by field and literature studies. Survey was applied by open ended interview to the key informant and semi structural interview to householders including conducted of group discussion.
The key informants such as custom leaders, community leaders, village leaders and other elders in the group of tribes were asked the topic questions and let them explained all things in detail. Samples of interview were taken 10% because it is relatively similar. For example in Minyambouw, the interview was conducted to 19 persons because number population is 190 persons. Nevertheles, mostly interviews were group discussion because people prefers come and join their guests (researcher) in the guest house and have chat and meal together at every meal time.
Data were collected consisted of socioeconomy and biophysic aspects. For example house income, social networking and informasi access, topography, environment condition and land cover. The aspects were continually arranged as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity.
2.2 Data Analysis
Vulnerability (V)= f(E,S,AC); where V= Vulnerability; E= Exposure; S= Sensitivity; AC=Adaptive Capacity Exposure is data of rainfall from Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika for 10 (ten) years. Sensitivity is the social and economy aspects such as number of population and householders source of income, source of water and food as well as history of disaster like erotion and flood. Adaptive Capacity is a local wisdom of community to preserve the biodiversity and to manage their life in the different situation. Data were then processed as tabulation.
Located in the different mountains areas which are Arfak mountains at vogelcop area at the birdhead of Papua island where as Jayawijaya mountain is at the series of central mountains of Papua island, the lifestyle in the local communities shows similarities in the practice of gardening, hunting and collecting in the forest. People mostly live their lives through garden. One garden belongs to the members of the family, because they share same location eventhough they are married.
Kinship relations are very close and young couples who get married at a very young age are generally still living together with parents including widows or widowers. Thus in one house may consist of two or more families. In Wamena, one house consists of a husband with many wives in the place named honay.
3.1 Living on Arfak Mountain
Arfak mountain society is a society that spread across multiple Hatam led by a chieftain of the Hatam. But in each and every area of the village there is a leader of indigenous affairs or the elder people to make decisions concerning indigenous peoples. The structure of Hatam government can be seen in the Figure 3 below.
Figure 3: Hatam government
Hatam tribe is known as mountain people who live by the farming, gathering and hunting. They also live in a house with a stage model, also called rumah kaki seribu millipedes house (iymama). This house consists of seven grounds or floors from bottom to top: ninghimma, ngimabaha, siraga, bitaua, buhmnewa, tindangan and ijcowa. The seven-story symbolizes the legend of the origin of Arfak. There are two main rooms in the house of a thousand feet , the women's room (ngimsi) and male space(ngimdi).
In society, there is no difference welfare based on ownership between farmer, except ownership of house and electronic goods. Generally, community inhabites rumah kaki seribu, but some families have permanent housing (concrete) and the home boards and electronic appliances, such as televisions, gangset, radio and other electronic devices.
Hatam indigenous peoples have a their own traditional concept in order to utilize and manage land and forest named Igya ser hanjob. Igya ser hanjob comes from the Hatam, igya means standing, ser means maintaining and hanjob meaningful limits, so igya ser hanjob means standing to guard the borders. Limit here is not just mean the area boundary, but the limits in all aspects of Arfak community life. In the Moule language, igya ser hanjop is as same as mastogow hanjob.
3.2 Living on Jayawijaya Mountain
The communities in the Jayawijaya mountain are lead by a general custom leader. The general custom leader is a leader of the big tribe. The leader has indeed many leader assistants in
the group or villages who have responsibilities to handle all the custom bussiness in the community, such as conflicts between tribe members, married and other occasions in the tribe. Where as, the custom institution is also supported by LMA (Lembaga masyarakat adat) and the elders in the communities.
In order to fulfill their needs of food, People in Wamena are mostly doing gardening. Garden is also source of income beside rising pigs and chickens. The food also can be gathered from forest and people in Wamena have local knowledge about source of food based on the type and function of the forest:
1. Tomoba, area consits of hills and mounts. 2. Wiramokama; a source of small size forest coconuts (wiramo). 3. Sakalimo; no wood but small grass. 4. Dimekama; from word dim means big size forest coconut. 5. Pilikhila; The cornerest area is a place for pig hunting. 6. Hawisekama; a big size trees for timber and construction. 7. Ikewa/bidiba (Trikora peak); Alpine vegetation. 8. Hasuba; no human and pig.
3.3 Climate Change in Papua
In the research areas, communities has felt that the air temperature has turned into a warmer. In Arfak mountain, people point to the construction of roads into remote district as the cause of air temperature changes. But when well observed, the extrimely change is not exis which can be pointed out as the cause of climate or local climate change. There is indeed some area opening for settlements and road, but no immigration even in some villages it appears that the name of head of household listed as village residents were live in the city. More over, the susti region is relatively adequate for agriculture, so ecology is intact. Then it can be ascertained that the changes that occur at this time really is the effects of global climate change (global climate change).
In Jayawijaya mountain, the area was opening for governmental area enlargement like new villages, new sub districts and new districts like Yalimo district, Puncak Jaya district and other new districts. Moreover, a high demand of firewood in the area for daily basis and area development were making rapid timber extraction in the remains forest. Those conditions migh be affected change of micro climate in Wamena and it‘s around.
3.4 Interpretation of Vulnerability to Climate Change
Local community generally live in the Arfak mountain and Jayawijaya mountains by planting appropriate plant at low temperatures, between 14-220C, such as plant leeks, cabbage, mustard greens, strawberries, pumpkins, passion fruit, tomatoes and potatoes. That is the source of their life. The existence of cash can only be obtained if people can sell their agricultural yield to the market. However, the results obtained almost at the cost of transport that is used to market. The goods are generally sold with a kilogram in a sack because the public wants immediate cash to pay for transportation.
Household income can only be used for the low purchase of nine staples (food) in a minimal amount. There is no other income for a full time farmer, but civil servants and teachers of the church (church ministers) who still have extra income. A strong dependence on agriculture, of course, would be vulnerable in the event of extreme climate changes affect the life of existing plants. Until this time, agriculture was still adequate and sufficient consumed and sold. But if there is extreme heat and affect the crops planted in the garden then of course this will affect its revenue and community life. Need to think about alternative crops that are resistant to higher temperatures which are species in accordance with local biophysical. People have tried to cultivate tubers, such as cassava, sweet potato, and another plant like banana, but these plants take a long time to bear fruit over 5 months and 12 months.
The warmer temperature cause the presence of other plant species in gardens and agricultural areas that were previously not, like grass of the city, a kind of betel plant forests (amuan) (paper sp), purple flowers (lepsau mbre). These plants can grow fast and strong roots so that complicate the cleanup and become weeds for agricultural land.
In the sub district of Minyambow, communities are many who migrated to the city to attend school, especially the younger generation. BPS, 2008, mentions that the population appears to have declined Minyambouw namely 2003 (10 815 inhabitants), 2004 (11 417 inhabitants), 2005 (5566 inhabitants), 2006 (6021 inhabitants), and 2007 (6367 inhabitants) allegedly because of urbanization and the formation of a new district. Many people also moved into the area Warmare, Prafi Umbui village. When staying long in the city, there is a return to the village but some are not or rarely returned for reasons not stand the cold air. They feel more at home in the city because it is more crowded, close to markets to sell crops and not cold. Meanwhile, people in Minyambouw say that today the temperature is warmer than the air temperature before. It is estimated that in the 1990s, the air temperature is about 100C.
With good road access to the areas that previously could only be reached by walking for ± 6 (six) hours of Warmare, can now be reached in less than 2 hours. Vulnerability to external migration and the need for development will encourage the expansion of areas for development by cutting down bahamti to be susti. Villages are located in areas of steep slopes would be difficult in regional development.
From the study, obtained information that the conditions in the mountains began to appear a change because of development. The road network into remote areas are began to be built which is marked by the opening of roads and street violence. The opening of roads and settlements is directly resulted in the felling of trees and land clearing. Roads are made for connecting the Manokwari district with districts in the mountainous district Arfak, like Minyambouw and Anggi district. At this present time the people who occupied the village and building a house is not solid but if the number of people and settlements grew so will result in a reduction of bahamti, damage to the ecology and erotion.
Communities in Minyambouw stated that the current situation Minyambouw region has begun to change more advanced. The existing road has come to the region to deliver vehicles that had been accessible only on foot. Communities can see vehicles passing right in front of their house. The development of the region participated Minyambouw perceived impact to the natural changes and the temperature in the area. Temperatures now range between 14-230C felt warmer than previously estimated ± 100C. Previous society requires a lot of firewood for burning stove fireplace that serves as the heating in the house when the bed but now is not the case anymore. Firewood is taken only once every three days for heating. Society are began to establish permanent and semi permanent houses and millipedes homes turned into kitchens.
Construction millipede house with stove fire in the house useful as a heater / warmer in the house. But now the furnace fire can take place outside the home or in the kitchen, not in the main house. In addition, people expressed about the presence of mosquitoes. Society says that "the mosquitoes come with car." Mosquitoes are mentioned as animals from the city, which previously did not exist in Minyambouw. Mosquito Suitable live in hot areas because mosquitoes have a very good heat receptors. In addition, the mosquitoes that come from forests become strong wings when the forest is opened and they are exposed to direct heat (Media Indonesia, 2010). In Manokwari, clinical malaria, the highest ranked 34,628 or approximately 25% of the types of illnesses reported affects more people (CBS, 2008). For access to information, radio waves (RRI) was relatively well received in the district Minyambouw. Other telecommunication networks like Telkomsel signal, only acceptable in certain places in the district Minyambouw.
In the district of Minyambow, there is no recording of climate data or rainfall data. The closed data could be found in Manokwari regency data which is difficult to depict the condition
on Arfak Mountain. The days of rainfall and monthly rainfall (mm) in Manokwari can be seen in Figure 4 below.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics of Manokwari district
Figure 4: The days of rainfall and monthly rainfall (mm) in Manokwari regency
In the district of Jayawijaya, Wamena, there is unpredictable flood that causes gardens in the valley fail to harvest. People have to find another source of income for a couple months for their living. Their is no possibility to move to other places because of limited ownership. So, to maintain sustainability of hasvest, cultivation of suitable plants will be very necessary. Nowadays, plants that consider as hot temperature plants which were not grow and bear a fruit in the cold temperature, recently become grow and fruitfull as well such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), avocado and other plants.
The days of rainfall and monthly rainfall (mm) in Manokwari can be seen in Figure 5 below.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics of Jayawijaya district
Figure 5: The days of rainfall and monthly rainfall (mm) in Jayawijaya
Thus an existing vulnerability can be detailed at Table 1 as follows:
Table 1. Vurnerability of People and Enviroment to the Climate Change
Aspect Vulnerability Vulnerability Level
Community Social very vulnerable
- Need explanation on climate change and how to anticipate the change.
- Use efficient materials
very vulnerable - Provide other alternative sources of income, such as develop bussiness on fruits, flowers, honey, butterflies etc.
- Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Office
Urbanization vulnerable - Need an appropriate regional planning,
- Job creation
Deforestation Vulnerable - Provide clear spatial planning
A new type
Loss of plant species highly susceptible
- identify local species and conservation of local species
Wildlife reduced very vulnerable - there should be animal hunting ban
Hydrology water discharge is reduced
Susceptible - Protecting water sources
The water does not healthy
Vulnerable - Reduced land clearing near a spring.
Flooding (Wamena)
The result of the research can be concluded that: 1. Arfak mountain and Jayawijaya are districts that fall into vulnerable category in case of
extreme climate changes due to socio-economic conditions which is agriculture as the only
source of income.
2. Biophysical Conditions is very vulnerable due to extreme climate. Settlements and gardens are located in a skewed and dangerous are which is danger to erosion and flood.
3. Adaptation of the community in line with the changes.
Recommendations: 1. Government need to give an explanation or elucidation about global climate change and its effects. 2. Government and stakeholders work together to explore other potential source of income and give trainings to improve people‘s skill. 3. Improve spatial planning to make room for the development of residential areas and farming.
BPS (2008): Kabupaten Manokwari Dalam Angka. Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Manokwari.
Gleick, P H (1989): Climate Change, Hydrology and Water Resources, Rev. Geophys. 27(3):329– 344.
Hamlet, A F and Lettenmaier D P (1999): Effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the Columbia River basin. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35(6):1597- 1623.
Handoko, I, Sugiarto, Y and Syaukat, Y (2008): Keterkaitan perubahan iklim dan produksi pangan strategis: telaah kebijakan independen dalam bidang perdagangan dan pembangunan. Seameo Biotrop for Kemitraan (Partnership). Bogor.
Kapissa, N (2008): Balai Pementapan Kawasan Hutan Wilayah X Papua: Integrasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Dalam Kebijakan Pengelolaan Hutan berkelanjutan di Papua. Makalah Dalam Seminar Forum Komunikasi Multi Pihak di Tanah Papua-Swiss_Belhotel, 28 Juli 2008. Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manokwari.
Kayoi, M (2008): Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Papua Barat: Strategi dan Kebijakan Pembangunan Kehutanan di Papua Barat. Makalah Dalam Seminar Forum Komunikasi Multi Pihak di Tanah Papua- Swiss_Belhotel, 28 Juli 2008. Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manokwari.
Media Indonesia (2010): Hutan Terbuka, Nyamuk Malaria Masuk Kota
Partnership (2008): Supporting Indonesia in Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptasi. Bogor. ( Februari 2010.
INAFOR 11H-065
Section H Community and Social Forestry
Growth and Production of Porang (Amorphopallus oncophillus Prain) under Damar (Agathis borneensis) Stand
Murniati and Sumarhani
The Center for Research and Development on Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation Jl. Gunung Batu 5, Bogor 16610, INDONESIA
Paper prepared for The First International Conference of Indonesian Forestry Researchers (INAFOR)
Bogor, 5 – 7 December 2011
INAFOR SECRETARIAT Sub Division of Dissemination, Publication and Library
Growth and Production of Porang (Amorphopallus oncophillus Prain) under Damar (Agathis borneensis) Stand
Murniati and Sumarhani
The Center for Research and Development on Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation Jl. Gunung Batu 5, Bogor 16610, INDONESIA
Porang (Amorphopallus oncophillus Prain) is a perrennial herb and a shade demanding plant, which produces tubers. The plant grow naturally in tropical forests and recently started to be cultivated due to its high economic value tubers. The research aimed to analyse the growth and production of the porang plant under two age classes of damar (Agathis borneensis) stand in forest area of KPH Banyumas Timur, Perhutani in the period of 2007 until 2009. The research was an experiment using Split Plot Design with three replications. The main plot was age classes (KU) of damar stand (KU II and KU V). The sub-plots cover two factors i.e.: A: source of planting materials (A1: tuber and A2: bulbil or bupil; bupil is a like fruit produce at each of branch); B: lime (B0: without lime and B1: with lime, 2 ton per ha). Age class of damar stand did not lead to a significant effect on survival rate of porang at three months old, but after a dormant period the survival rate of porang under KU V was significantly higher than KU II. Lime treatment gave a negative impact to the survival rate of porang derived from tuber, in contrary it gave a positive impact to those derived from bupil. Height of the plant, number of branches and dry weight of tubers produced under KU V of damar stand, with only 19% of light intensity reached the forest floor, were significantly higher than those under KU II, with 71% light intensity reached the forest floor. The height and number of branches of the plants derived from tuber were significantly higher than those derived from bupil. Interaction between source of planting materials and lime treatments was lead to a significant effect to the harvested dry weight of the tubers production, where the treatments of tuber without lime have the highest harvested dry weight of tuber production. It is recommended to develop porang plantation under five or more age class of damar stand by using tubers as planting materials without lime or bupil with lime.
Keywords: Shad tolerant, tuber, bupil, lime, age classes, light intensity
Porang (Amorphopallus oncophillus Prain) is a perennial herb plant. The plant is shade demanding and produces tubers. It naturally grows in tropical regions. Recently, the plant has been started to be cultivated for tuber production which can be used as foods and medicines raw materials. The tubers can also be used to produce alcohol and acids. The tubers have a high economic value and have a good prospect to be developed in a large scale. The flour prepared from the tubers is used industrially in China and Japan because gluco-mannan content in the flour is useful in preparing stabilizers and emulsifiers for food, drinks, and cosmetics. Therefore, the tubers have international market opportunities (export) to Japan, China and some of Europe countries. In some regions, the porang plant was used as traditional medicines against dysentery, cholera, respiratory problems, to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels, to cure rheumatic pains and digestive problems. In addition, all species of Amorphophallus can be cultivated for ornaments (Jansen et al., 1996).
Amorphopallus oncophillus Prain belong to family Araceae and synonym to Amorphopallus muelleri Blume. Genus Amorphophallus has four species, i.e. A. konjac, A.muelleri, A. Paeoniifolius and A.variabilis (Jansen et al.,1996). There are several local names of porang in Indonesia such as
badur (Javanese), acung (Sundanese), and kerubut (Sumatra). Genus Amorphophallus originates from and is mainly distributed in the Old World, especially in the tropics regions, from Africa to the Pacific Islands, including Thailand, Philippine and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Flores and Timor), and also extending to the temperate areas in China, Japan and Burma. From the four species of Amorphophallus, it was reported that A. muelleri or A. onchophyllus have been wider cultivated in Java (Backer and van den Brink, 1968).
The four species of