artificial tissue and organ generation valerie fortin bme 281

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  • Artificial Tissue and Organ GenerationValerie FortinBME 281

  • Organ TransplantsAutograftsTransplanted within a patientSurplus, nonvital, or regenerating tissuee.g. skin graftsAllograftsTransplanted from a separate living or deceased donorIsographsTransplant from genetically identical individuale.g. twins

  • Types of DonationsOrgansHeartLiverKidneysLungsPancreasIntestinesTissuesCorneaSkinHeart ValvesTendons

  • ProblemsAvailabilityIn 2012, 28,051 people received organsOn average, 79 people receive organs daily, but 18 people die due to shortageRejectionIn allografts, donor tissue differs geneticallyTriggers an immune response

  • Ethical ConcernsOrgan donation has caused some controversyWHO has released guiding principlesMay only harvest from deceased persons with legal permission OR there is no reason to believe that the deceased person objected to such removalOpt Out systemIn general living donors should be genetically, legally or emotionally related to their recipients.Donors cannot be monetarily compensatedConcerns of trafficking and profiteeringOrgans or tissues which were obtained through coercion or exploitation should not be used

  • Regenerative MedicineUses a patient's own cells to restoreIncludes use of stem cellsCan grow tissues and organs on sterile scaffold

  • ScaffoldsArtificial structureCells are seeded onto itWhich then grow to form the desired tissueMaterialsBiodegradable preferredCollagen, polyestersPolylactic acidDegrades into lactic acidPolyglycolic and polycaprolactone for differing degradation speeds

  • Scaffolds (cont.)Can also decellularize extracted tissue samplesSterilized cellular matrices act as scaffoldVascular graft

  • Scaffolds (cont.)Rat heart grown around a decellularized scaffold

  • BenefitsAll genetic material supplied by patientEliminates potential for rejectionBypasses need for donorNo wait listNo compatibility issuesNo moral qualms

  • DrawbacksCurrently limitedCan only produce simple hollow structuresFew cell layersStomach, bladder, blood vesselsSolid organs are more complexNew procedureDoubts that grown organs are as durable or effective as donated onesWill be expensive

  • FuturePractice will become more widespread, commonplaceBe able to better assess quality of grown organsDevelop means of synthesizing more complex structures

  • CitationHeike Mertsching, Thorsten Walles, Michael Hofmann, Johanna Schanz, Wolfram H. Knapp, Engineering of a vascularized scaffold for artificial tissue and organ generation, Biomaterials, Volume 26, Issue 33, November 2005, Pages 6610-6617, ISSN 0142-9612, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.04.048.

    "All About Donation." What Organs Can Be Donated. New York Organ Donor Network, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. ."Human Cell and Tissue Transplantation." WHO. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. .Human organ and tissue transplantation. World Health Organization 26 Mar. 2009. Neck, Haddam. "Doctors Grow Organs from Patients' Own Cells." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. ."The Need Is Real: Data." Organdonor.gov. Division of Transplantation, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. . NOONAN, DR. JESSICA. "Lab-Grown 'Custom' Organs May Be Future of Medicine." ABC News. ABC News Network, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. .