Assistive Technology Benefits for Students With Disabilities
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Assist ive Technology Benefits
hile special educators have used assistive technology W for some time, recent legislation has brought this technology into the mainstream classroom. Public Law 94- 142 and the Americans with Disabilities Act have given strength to efforts to adapt technology so that all students have equal access to educational opportunity. In addition, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA) reinforced the recognition that assistive technology devices can help disabled students meaningfully participate in educational opportunities. The movement toward inclu- sive classrooms has facilitated development of less expen- sive and more versatile assistive devices.2
Federal legislation defines an assistive technology device as any item, piece of equipment. or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of children with disabilities. These devices may include such low-tech devices as pencil grips, picture boards, taped instructions, and workbooks, or high- tech devices such as alternative keyboards, listening aids, speech-synthesis devices, voice recognition systems, data managers, talking calculators, variable speed tape recorders, and optical character recognition systems. Figure I lists a few of these devices and their distributors.
Types of Assistive Technology The types of assistive technology devices available
include: Computers and software. These devices include inter-
active instructional formats, simulation approaches, and educational games. These devices enable drill and practice sessions, teach problem solving skills through simulation, assist in speech or communication, facilitate physical movement and mobility, and increase motivation and atten- tion levels.
Peripheral devices. These devices which include adapted joysticks, enlarged keyboards, and touch screens, simplify information input and output for students with severe disabilities. Keyboard emulators allow students to input from devices other than a keyboard. Touch sensitive screens or tablets allow input to a computer by the touch of a finger or stylus. Screen magnification or zooming and tracking features can assist students who have difficulty using a standard monitor.
Compiled by Steve M. Dorman, PhD, MPH, FASHA, Assistant Editor for Technology, Journal of School Health, Depr. of Health Science Education. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 3261 I - 8210.
for Students With Disabilities
Switches. These devices allow students with movement difficulties and disorders to activate computers or other appliances through simple motions. Students may control the switches by controlling breathing (sip-and-puff devices), muscle tension, head movement or with voice activation.
Electronic communication devices. Augmentive and alternative communication (AAC) devices feature assistive technology devices that assist in the area of communica- tion. AAC devices are used to supplement or replace exist- ing verbal communication in students with communication difficulties. Electronic communication boards or speech synthesizers yield speech output in the form of synthesized speech which is a reproduction of the human voice. Text- to-speech devices allow the student to input the data in text form and output it in speech form.
Assistive devices have two major purposes. Some assis- tive devices are compensatory in nature. A compensatory device helps the learner to perform a specific task using the assistive technology. Other assistive devices are remedial in approach, and serve to improve deficiency areas of the learner.4
Contributions of Assistive Technology Assistive technology can contribute to the learning of
students with disabilities in several ways? Generalizing. Slow learners may have difficulty in
generalizing. Because of frequent failure, students may be too impatient to pull concepts together, learning only bits and pieces of information. Technology can help these students transfer knowledge from one learning experience to another, for example, from speech sounds to written symbols.
Sequential skill building. Technology can offer the disabled learner sequential drills and practice to decrease the difficulty these students may have in orienting to learn- ing. Large tasks can be broken into a sequence of compo- nent skills. The learner may branch to the specific location in a software program where they need help, omit areas they have learned, and take remedial or reinforcing practice sessions.
Control over the environment. Disabled learners, overwhelmed by the fast pace of learning, may find assis- tive technology allows them to gain a sense of personal control by giving a student the option to self-pace through the educational experience. This option fosters greater inde- pendence in the students and relieves anxiety imposed by their disability. In addition, students who gain competency with technology, experience heightened self-esteem as
120 Journal of School Health March 1998, Vol. 68, No. 3
Figure 1 Examples of Assistive Devices
Utility Distributors Adaptive devices and software improve
Feature Keytime (Seattle, WA) Keyboard Adaptations
Voice Recognition Systems
Speech Output Devices
use of the keyboard.
Students interact with the computer by touching a screen rather than working with a keyboard.
Students with severely limited physical abilities are provided with alternatives for controlling computers.
Output devices generate Braille rather than text.
Text is magnified on computer screen for students with vision difficulties.
2061522-8973 IntelliTools (Novato, CA)
Microsystems (Framingham, MA)
Keytee (Richardson, TX)
Troll Touch (Valencia, CA) 8001624-4289
8001201 - 1 1 60
Don Johnsotnn, Inc. (Wauconda, IL)
Mclntyre Computer Systems (Birmingham, MI)
Prentke Romich Co. (Wooster, OH)
Wacom (Vancouver, WA)
Duxbury Systems (Littleton, MA)
Humanware, Inc. (Loomis, CA)
New Concepts Marketing (Port Richey, FL)
Berkeley Access (Berkeley, CA)
Students control computer through voice inputs. Dragon Dictate Peter Cohen Associates (Palm Beach, FL) 5081655-771 1
Students with hearing disabilities can comprehend television and movies.
Students unable to speak are provided with a voice.
International Computers (Wauwatosa, WI)
Ultimate Learning Technology (Peabody, MA)
Sentient Systems (Pittsburgh, PA) 8001344- 1778
Journal of School Health March 1998, Vol. 68, No. 3 121
they are able to complete a task previously unable to accomplish.4
Continuous and efticient feedback. Feedback, correc- tion of simple errors, and the reward of achievement of goals are essential for learning and skill building. Disabled students in inclusive classrooms may not receive the imme- diate feedback from a teacher who is trying to provide feed- back for all students in a class. Assistive technology can provide immediate and continual feedback students desire and which facilitates learning.
Multisensory approach to learning. Assistive technol- ogy allows the student with disabilities to include more senses in the learning process than might otherwise be used. For example, students with limited physical mobility may participate in kinesthetic learning experiences by making people and objects in a computer program move about. Children with limited communication skills may assemble reports with software requiring little reading.
Barriers exist to integrating assistive technology into the classroom. Teachers are not always willing, able, or comfortable with modifying their instructional strategies to accommodate students with disabilities.b Perhaps related, some assistive devices are complex and may require the instructor to learn specialized software to operate. Additionally, while assistive devices are becoming more readily available, schools, teachers, and parents previously have had difficulty in securing the appropriate technologic device^.^
Purchase Guidelines When schools and teachers evaluate the purchase of
assistive technology, Semelfort has identified six guide- lines to consider:
Assemble a technology evaluation team. A team consisting of the student, teachers, parents, and appropriate professionals should assess the students strengths and weaknesses, deciding which assistive devices will have the greatest impact on the students social and academic life.
Consider input from the user (student). The student with the disability will benefit most directly from use of assistive technology equipment and should have a prime input into evaluation of potential assistive devices.
Consider the family of the disabled student. The primary care giver of the disabled student is probably a family member who will be directly affected by the assis- tive technology device as they assist the student in daily operation of the device.
Focus on function. Selection of a device should be shaped by how i t would make maximum use of the students functional abilities. How can the device help disabled students do what they currently cannot do?
Strive for simplicity. When possible the simplest and most inexpensive device should be used. Sometimes the only practical solution may be a custom-made device, espe- cially for an individual with extensive disabilities.
Generalize the benefits of the product. When consid- ering the purchase of an assistive device, evaluators should consider whether the device could benefit other individuals in the same environment.
Useful Web Sites
of the disabled, visit the following Web sites: http://www.spedassist.org/index.htm
The Special Education Assistive Technology Network provides information to professionals, parents, and others interested in how technology can help school programs for children with disabilities. http://nichcy.org/index.html
The National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities is a national information and referral center providing information on disabilities and disability-related issues for families, educators, and other professionals. http://www.cast.org/
CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) is a not- for-profit organization seeking to expand opportunities for individuals with disabilities through innovative computer technology. http://www.abledata.com
Assistive technology and disability related resources sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, U.S. Dept. of Education. http://www.asel.udel.edu/at-online/assistive.html
Assistive Technology On-Line Home Page provides an excellent assortment of assistive technology and disability related resources and links. http://www.resna.org
RESNA (Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America) is an interdiscipli- nary association for the advancement of rehabilitation and assistive technologies through the exchange ideas, discus- sion of service delivery and policy formation. http://www.rit.edu/-easi/
Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI) serves as a resource to the education community in the area of access-to-information technologies by individuals with disabilities. Describes developments and advancements within the adaptive computer technology field with applica- tion to colleges, universities, K-12 schools, libraries, and into the workplace. http://www.hood.edu/seri/
Special Education Resources on the Internet (SERI) is a collection of Internet accessible resources of interest to those involved in the fields related to Special Education. http://www.cec.sped.org/er-menu.htm
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC) is a clearinghouse in the ERIC system that focuses on the professional literature, informa- tion, and resources relating to the education and develop- ment of persons who have disabilities. http://www.eskimo.com/-jlubin/disabled.html
The disABILITY Information and Resources contains a collection of assistive technology and disability related resources and links. http://www.ucpa.org/htmYndex.html
United Cerebral Palsys National Homepage provides information on a variety of disability topics in order to advance the independence, productivity and full citizenship
To learn more about assistive technology and the needs
of people with cerebral palsy and other disabilities.
References 1. Milone MN. Technology for everyone: assistive devices for students
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with special needs. Technology and Learning. 1997;17(Feb):44-49. 2 . Goodman S. Cook M. Assistive Technology Funding and Systems
Change Project: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). ONLINE: http://www.ucpa.or~tm~innovative/atfsc/idea3.htrn~ 3. Weber D. Dernchak M. Using assistive technology with individuals
4. Day SL. Edwards BJ. Assistive technology for postsecondary
students with learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil. 1996;29(5):486-492.
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5 . Barry J , Wise BJ. Fueling inclusion through technology. Sch Admin.
6. McGregor G , Pachuski P. Assistive technology in schools: are
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