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Skull F i lb Cranium Thoracic cage (ribs and Facial bones Clavicle Scapula Sternum (ribs and sternum) Vertebral column Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ul Sacrum column Ulna Carpals Phalanges Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.1a (a) Anterior view Metatarsals Phalanges AXIAL SKELETON - consists of 80 bones Consists of 3 MAJOR REGIONS SKULL (29) 8 cranial bones + 14 facial bones + 6 auditory ossicles + 1 hyoid VERTEBRAL COLUMN (26) 7 cervical + 12 thoracic + 5 lumbar vertebrae + 1 sacrum + 1 coccyx THORACIC CAGE (25) 1 sternum + 24 ribs Upper Limb Lower Limb

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Axial Skeleton - Visual presentation of the Skull

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Skull F i l bCranium

Thoracic cage(ribs and

Facial bonesClavicleScapulaSternum(ribs and

sternum)

Vertebralcolumn

SternumRibHumerusVertebraRadiusUlSacrum

column UlnaCarpals

PhalangesPhalangesMetacarpalsFemurPatellaTibiaFibula

Tarsals

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.1a

(a) Anterior viewMetatarsalsPhalanges

AXIAL SKELETON- consists of 80 bones

Consists of 3 MAJOR REGIONS

SKULL (29)8 cranial bones + 14 facial bones + 6 auditory ossicles + 1 hyoid

VERTEBRAL COLUMN (26)7 cervical + 12 thoracic + 5 lumbar vertebrae + 1 sacrum + 1 coccyx

THORACIC CAGE (25)1 sternum + 24 ribs

Upper Limb

Lower Limb

Bones of cranium (cranial vault)

Coronal

Squamoust

Coronalsuture

suture

Lambdoid Facialsuture bones

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cranial and facial divisions of the skull

- framework of the face- CAVITIES for special sense organs for sight, taste, and smell- OPENINGS for air and food passage- SITES of ATTACHMENT for teeth and muscles of facial expression

FACIAL BONES

CRANIAL BONES

- Enclose BRAIN in CRANIAL CAVITY(Cranial vault = calvaria)(Cranial base = anterior,middle, and posteriorcranial fossae)

- Provides SITES ofATTACHMENT forhead and neck muscles

Anterior cranialfossa

Middle cranialMiddle cranialfossa

Posterior cranialPosterior cranialfossa

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Superior view of the cranial fossae

FRONTAL BONE Anterior portion of craniumForms most of ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSAForms superior wall of ORBITSContains air-filled FRONTAL SINUS

Cranial Bones

• Frontal bone

• Parietal bones (2)

O i it l b• Occipital bone

• Temporal bones (2)p ( )

• Sphenoid bone

• Ethmoid bone

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Frontal boneGlabella

Parietal bone

Squamous part

GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

(notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

Optic canal

Zygomatic bone

MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

Middle nasalconcha

Perpendicularplate

Ethmoidbone

Mandible

Mentalforamen

Inferior nasal conchaVomer

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

foramen

(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

Coronal suture Frontal boneS h id bSphenoid bone(greater wing)Ethmoid bone

Lacrimal bone

Parietal bone

Temporal bone

Lacrimal fossa

Nasal bone

Lambdoidsuture

Squamoussuture Nasal bone

Zygomaticbone Maxilla

sutureOccipitalbone

Occipitomastoid

Zygomaticprocess

Alveolarmargins

sutureExternal acousticmeatusMastoid processStyloid process

MandibleMental foramen

Mandibular condyleMandibular notchMandibular ramus

Mandibular angle Coronoid process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

(a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull

Mandibular angle Coronoid process

Figure 7.5a

Cranial

Facial

Parietal Bones and Major Associated SuturesSutures• Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault• Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal

bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones:1 C l t b t i t l b d f t l1. Coronal suture—between parietal bones and frontal

bone

2 Sagittal suture between right and left parietal bones2. Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones

3. Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and occipital boneoccipital bone

4. Squamous (squamosal) sutures—between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

and temporal bones on each side of skull

Sagittal suture

Sutural

Parietalbone

Lambdoidsuture

Suturalbone

suture

Occipita l bone

Superior nuchal line

Externaloccipital Mastoidoccipitalprotuberance

Occipitomastoidsuture OccipitalExternal

Inferiornuchalli

Mastoidprocess

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4b

suture(b) Posterior view

condyleoccipitalcrest

line

Occipital Bone- Forms most of skull's POSTERIOR WALL and POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA- Articulates with 1st VERTEBRA (ATLAS)- SITES of ATTACHMENT for the LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE and many neck and back muscles

Incisive fossaIntermaxillary suture

Maxilla(palatine process)

H d Median palatine suturey

Infraorbital foramenMaxilla

Sphenoid bone

(p p )Hardpalate

Zygomatic bone

Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

Sphenoid bone(greater wing)

Foramen ovaleForamen spinosum

Temporal bone(zygomatic process)

VomerForamen lacerumCarotid canalExternal acoustic meatusStylomastoid

MandibularfossaStyloid process Stylomastoid

foramenJugular foramen

Occipital condyle

Mastoid processTemporal bone(petrous part)Pharyngeal tubercle

Inferior nuchal line

Superior nuchal lineExternal occipital crestE t l i it l

Pharyngeal tubercleof basilar region ofthe occipital boneParietal bone

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

Foramen magnumExternal occipitalprotuberance(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

SquamousExternalacoustic

t

Squamousregion

Mastoidregion

meatus

Z ti

Mastoidprocess Tympanic region

Mandibular fossaZygomatic process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.8

process Styloid process

y p g

Temporal Bones (2)

Articular tubercle

- Forms inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of CRANIAL FLOOR

- 4 MAJOR REGIONS:- SQUAMOUS- TYMPANIC- MASTOID- PETROUS

PETROUS region

Incisive fossaIntermaxillary suture

Maxilla(palatine process)

H d Median palatine suturey

Infraorbital foramenMaxilla

Sphenoid bone

(p p )Hardpalate

Zygomatic bone

Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

Sphenoid bone(greater wing)

Foramen ovaleForamen spinosum

Temporal bone(zygomatic process)

VomerForamen lacerumCarotid canalExternal acoustic meatusStylomastoid

MandibularfossaStyloid process Stylomastoid

foramenJugular foramen

Occipital condyle

Mastoid processTemporal bone(petrous part)Pharyngeal tubercle

Inferior nuchal line

Superior nuchal lineExternal occipital crestE t l i it l

Pharyngeal tubercleof basilar region ofthe occipital boneParietal bone

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

Foramen magnumExternal occipitalprotuberance(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

Frontal boneCribriform plateEthmoidb Crista galli

Olfactory foramina

Optic canal

bone Crista galli

Sphenoid

Anterior cranial fossa

Lesser wing

Hypophyseal fossaof sella turcica

Foramen rotundumForamen ovaleForamen spinosum

Sphenoid Lesser wingGreater wing

of sella turcicaMiddle cranialfossaTemporal bone

Foramen lacerumInternal acousticmeatus Temporal bone

(petrous part)

Posterior Foramen magnum

Jugular foramenHypoglossal canal

cranial fossa

Parietal bone

Occipita l bone

View

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.7a

Occipita l bone

(a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed

SuperiorOptic canal Lesser wing

Greater Foramenrotundum

Superiororbital fissure

p

wingHypophysealfossa of

rotundumForamenovaleForamen

sella turcicaForamenspinosumBody of sphenoid

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9a

(a) Superior view

SPHENOID BONE- Complex, bat-shaped bone- KEYSTONE BONE: articulates with all other cranial bones

3 pairs of processes:- GREATER WINGS- LESSER WINGS- PTERYGOID PROCESSES

Body of sphenoid Lesserwing

Greaterwing

Superiororbital

wing

gfissure

Pterygoidprocess

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9b

(b) Posterior view

CribriformOlfactoryforamina

Crista galliCribriformplate

foramina

Orbitalplate Left lateral massplate

Ethmoidalair cells

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.10

Perpendicularplate Middle nasal concha

ETHMOID BONE- Deepest skull bone- Superior part of NASAL SEPTUM- Roof of NASAL CAVITIES- Contributes to MEDIAL WALL of ORBITS

Frontal boneGlabella

Parietal bone

Squamous part

GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

(notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

Optic canal

Zygomatic bone

MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

Middle nasalconcha

Perpendicularplate

Ethmoidbone

Mandible

Mentalforamen

Inferior nasal conchaVomer

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

foramen

(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

Frontal boneCribriform plateEthmoidb Crista galli

Olfactory foramina

Optic canal

bone Crista galli

Sphenoid

Anterior cranial fossa

Lesser wing

Hypophyseal fossaof sella turcica

Foramen rotundumForamen ovaleForamen spinosum

Sphenoid Lesser wingGreater wing

of sella turcicaMiddle cranialfossaTemporal bone

Foramen lacerumInternal acousticmeatus Temporal bone

(petrous part)

Posterior Foramen magnum

Jugular foramenHypoglossal canal

cranial fossa

Parietal bone

Occipita l bone

View

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Occipita l bone

(a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed

Figure 7.7a

Sagittal suture

Sutural

Parietalbone

Lambdoidsuture

Suturalbone

suture

Occipita l bone

Superior nuchal line

Externaloccipital Mastoidoccipitalprotuberance

Occipitomastoidsuture OccipitalExternal

Inferiornuchalli

Mastoidprocess

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4b

suture(b) Posterior view

condyleoccipitalcrest

line

Sutural bones = tiny, irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures

Facial Bones

• Mandible • Lacrimal bones (2)

• Maxillary bones (maxillae) (2)

• Palatine bones (2)

• Vomer• Zygomatic bones (2)

• Nasal bones (2)• Inferior nasal conchae

(2)asa bo es ( ) ( )

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mandibular fossaTemporomandibular

CoronoidMandibularMandibular notch

of temporal boneTemporomandibularjoint

process

Mandibular foramen

Mandibularcondyle

MentalRamusofmandible

Alveolarmargin

foramen

Mandibularangle

mandible

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.11a

angle Body of mandible(a) Mandible, right lateral view

MANDIBLE - lower jaw- largest, strongest facial bone

only freely moveable joint in skull

Articulates withf t l bFrontal processfrontal bone

Orbitalsurface

A t i l

Infraorbitalforamen

surface Zygomaticprocess

Anterior nasalspine

Alveolar

(cut)

Alveolarmargin

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.11b

(b) Maxilla , right lateral view

MAXILLARY BONES- medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton- KEYSTONE BONES: articulate with all other facial bones, except mandible

Frontal boneGlabella

Parietal bone

Squamous part

GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

(notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

Optic canal

Zygomatic bone

MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

Middle nasalconcha

Perpendicularplate

Ethmoidbone

Mandible

Mentalforamen

Inferior nasal conchaVomer

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

foramen

(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

MAXILLARY BONES

Incisive fossaIntermaxillary suture

Maxilla(palatine process)

H d Median palatine suturey

Infraorbital foramenMaxilla

Sphenoid bone

(p p )Hardpalate

Zygomatic bone

Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

Sphenoid bone(greater wing)

Foramen ovaleForamen spinosum

Temporal bone(zygomatic process)

VomerForamen lacerumCarotid canalExternal acoustic meatusStylomastoid

MandibularfossaStyloid process Stylomastoid

foramenJugular foramen

Occipital condyle

Mastoid processTemporal bone(petrous part)Pharyngeal tubercle

Inferior nuchal line

Superior nuchal lineExternal occipital crestE t l i it l

Pharyngeal tubercleof basilar region ofthe occipital boneParietal bone

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

Foramen magnumExternal occipitalprotuberance(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

MAXILLARY BONES

Coronal suture Frontal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)Ethmoid bone

Lacrimal bone

Parietal bone

Temporal boneLacrimal bone

Lacrimal fossa

N l b

LambdoidsutureSquamoussuture Nasal bone

Zygomaticbone Maxilla

sutureOccipitalbone

Occipitomastoid

Zygomaticprocess

Alveolarmargins

psutureExternal acousticmeatusMastoid processStyloid process

MandibleMental foramen

Mandibular condyleMandibular notchMandibular ramus

Mandibular angle Coronoid process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5a

(a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull

Mandibular angle Coronoid process

ZYGOMATIC BONES - cheekbones- INFEROLATERAL margins of ORBITS

Frontal boneGlabella

Parietal bone

Squamous part

GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

(notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

Optic canal

Zygomatic bone

MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

Middle nasalconcha

Perpendicularplate

Ethmoidbone

Mandible

Mentalforamen

Inferior nasal conchaVomer

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

foramen

(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

NASAL BONES - form the BRIDGE of the NOSE - in MEDIAL WALLS of ORBITS

- LACRIMONAL FOSSA houses the LACRIMAL SAC

LACRIMAL BONES

Incisive fossaIntermaxillary suture

Maxilla(palatine process)

H d Median palatine suturey

Infraorbital foramenMaxilla

Sphenoid bone

(p p )Hardpalate

Zygomatic bone

Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

Sphenoid bone(greater wing)

Foramen ovaleForamen spinosum

Temporal bone(zygomatic process)

VomerForamen lacerumCarotid canalExternal acoustic meatusStylomastoid

MandibularfossaStyloid process Stylomastoid

foramenJugular foramen

Occipital condyle

Mastoid processTemporal bone(petrous part)Pharyngeal tubercle

Inferior nuchal line

Superior nuchal lineExternal occipital crestE t l i it l

Pharyngeal tubercleof basilar region ofthe occipital boneParietal bone

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

Foramen magnumExternal occipitalprotuberance(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

PALANTINE BONES VOMER- forms posterior third of HARD PALATE- forms POSTEROLATERAL WALLS of NASAL CAVITY- small part of the ORBITS

- plow-shaped- forms lower part of SEPTUM

Frontal boneGlabella

Parietal bone

Squamous part

GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

(notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

Optic canal

Zygomatic bone

MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

Middle nasalconcha

Perpendicularplate

Ethmoidbone

Mandible

Mentalforamen

Inferior nasal conchaVomer

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

foramen

(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

(2) - form part of LATERAL WALLS of NASAL CAVITY

Frontal sinusSuperiorSuperior middle and Superiornasal conchaMiddlenasal concha

Ethmoidbone

Superior, middle, andinferior meatus

Inferior nasalconcha

Nasal bone

Anterior nasal spine

asa bo e

Maxillary bone(palatine process)

Pterygoid

SphenoidsinusSphenoid

bone

te o asa sp e

Palat ine bone(perpendicular plate)

Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.14a

(a) Bones forming the left lateral w all of the nasal cavity(nasal septum removed)

Roof of orbit Supraorbital notch O ti l

Superiororbital fissureRoof of orbit Supraorbital notch Optic canal

• Lesser wing ofsphenoid bone• Orbital plate off t l b

Medial w all

Lateral w all of orbit

frontal bone

• Sphenoid body• Orbital plate

• Zygomatic processof frontal bone• Greater wing ofsphenoid bone

of ethmoid bone• Frontal processof maxilla• Lacrimal bone

Floor of orbit

Nasal bone

Inferior orbital fissure

• Orbital surface ofzygomatic bone

Zygomatic boneInfraorbital groove

I f bit l f

• Orbital process ofpalatine bone• Orbital surface ofmaxillary bone

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Infraorbital foramen(b) Contribut ion of each of the seven bones forming the right orbit

• Zygomatic bone

Figure 7.13a

- encase EYES and LACRIMAL GLANDS- SITES of ATTACHMENT for EYE MUSCLES- formed by parts of 7 BONES

ORBITSETHMOID, SPHENOID, FRONTAL,LACRIMAL, NASAL, PALATINE,ZYGOMATIC, MAXILLA

Crista galliCribriformEthmoid Cribriformplate

Ethmoidbone

Frontalsinus Sella turcica

Nasal bone

Perpendicularplate of

Sella turcica

S h id

Septal cartilage

plate of ethmoid bone

Sphenoid sinus

VomerPalat inebone Alveolar margin

of maxillabone Palatine processof maxilla

Hardpalate

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.14b

(b) Nasal cavity w ith septum in place show ing the contribut ionsof the ethmoid bone, the vomer, and septal cart ilageanterior

NASAL CAVITY

Frontalsinus Frontalsinus Ethmoidalair cells(sinus)Sphenoid

FrontalsinusEthmoidalair cells Sphenoid

Maxillarysinus

Sphenoidsinus

Maxillarysinus

Sphenoidsinus

(a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.15

PARANASAL SINUSES - mucosa-lined, air-filled SPACES- LIGHTEN the skull- enhance the RESONANCE- found in FRONTAL SPHENOID ETHMOID and MAXILLARY BONES

Greater horn

Lesser hornLesser horn

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.12

Body

- not a bone of the skull- does not articulate directly with another bone- SITE of ATTACMENT for mucsles of swallowing and speech

HYOID BONE

Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull

• Infant skull has more bones than the adult skull

• Skull bones such as the mandible and frontal bones• Skull bones such as the mandible and frontal bones are unfused

At birth sk ll bones are connected b fontanelles• At birth, skull bones are connected by fontanelles

• Fontanelles

• Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal skull bones

• Four fontanelles

• Anterior posterior mastoid and sphenoid

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

• Anterior, posterior, mastoid, and sphenoid

Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature

• Thoracic and sacral curvatures are obvious at birth

• These primary curvatures give the spine a C p y g pshape

• Convex posteriorlyConvex posteriorly

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature

• Secondary curvatures• Cervical and lumbar—convex anteriorly

• Appear as child develops (e g lifts head• Appear as child develops (e.g., lifts head, learns to walk)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Developmental Aspects: Old Age

• Intervertebral discs become thin, less hydrated, and less elasticand less elastic

• Risk of disc herniation increases

• Loss of stature by several centimeters is common by age 55

• Costal cartilages ossify, causing the thorax to become rigid

• All bones lose mass

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.