background information: a growing divide

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Background Information: A Growing Divide Northern and Southern states develop in very different ways over the centuries before and after the American Revolution NORTH: Many port cities (Boston, New York, Philadelphia). Industrial Revolution influenced Northern states the most. Economy based on foreign trade, commerce, shipbuilding. N embraces manufacturing (esp. textile mills). Farmers specialized in one or two crops/livestock, sold to urban markets, used cash to buy necessities from store. Items usually made in the North. Did not need much labor (wheat, corn), so less need for slave labor. Slavery was present though, as was racial prejudice. Allowed for MARKET ECONOMY. Ag. and manufacturing supported each other.

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Background Information: A Growing Divide. Northern and Southern states develop in very different ways over the centuries before and after the American Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


The Union In Peril: Civil War and Reconstruction

Background Information: A Growing DivideNorthern and Southern states develop in very different ways over the centuries before and after the American RevolutionNORTH: Many port cities (Boston, New York, Philadelphia). Industrial Revolution influenced Northern states the most. Economy based on foreign trade, commerce, shipbuilding. N embraces manufacturing (esp. textile mills). Farmers specialized in one or two crops/livestock, sold to urban markets, used cash to buy necessities from store. Items usually made in the North. Did not need much labor (wheat, corn), so less need for slave labor. Slavery was present though, as was racial prejudice. Allowed for MARKET ECONOMY. Ag. and manufacturing supported each other.Background Information: A Growing DivideSOUTH: Economy based almost solely on AGRICULTURE. Region began as rural society of self-sufficient plantations (single-crop for sale, not feed/food: tobacco, rice, indigo). Used rivers instead of ports to ship goods to North and eventually on to Europe. Plantation owners produce what they need, so did not need shops, bakeries, markets. Used slave labor to meet high demands of labor. Cotton became most profitable and dominant cash-crop in the South. Fueled by industrialized (need for cotton in textile mills). KING COTTON/COTTON KINGDOM1793: Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin (gin=engine). Removed seeds from fibers so processing was easier and faster. Cotton production was more profitable, causing planters to increase crops and need for slave labor. The Emergence of SlaverySlavery in existence since ancient times (Egypt, China, Greece, Rome, Inca, Aztec). Muslims in Middle East and N. Africa in business of capturing and trading people from Africa, C. Europe. Portuguese begin business of African slave trade. Spanish and Portuguese bring enslaved W. Africans to C. America/Caribbean in early 1500s to replace Native Americans as forced slave labor.First Africans in America= 20 Africans brought to Jamestown, VA by Dutch in 1619 .Early slaves in N. America were treated more like indentured servants. Were seen as workers and not necessarily property.Many worked alongside European laborers, were more expensive to bring in than white workers, and seen as morally/intellectually inferior.By 1700s, slave trade between Europe, W. Africa, and America was booming (Triangular Trade). Slavery in North AmericaBoston, New York, and Charlestown were important ports in the slave trade.Estimated around 500,000 Africans were brought into North America by 1770.Value and presence of enslaved Africans grew in VA and the southern colonies in mid-1600s. White indentured servants wanted to be treated like EnglishmenSupply of indentured servants began to decline (some ran away, many found jobs in England working in industry, commerce, shipping)Increase in life span= indentured servants survived to reach freedom!Africans could not blend in to run away, couldnt demand humane treatment, justice, or land.Africans well suited for climate conditions and intense labor of crops in the deep south

Slavery in the SouthWith surge of cotton in south due to Englands insatiable need for cotton and the cotton gin, use of slave labor increased.No more importing of slaves after 1808In South, not many whites owned slaves (400,000/9 mil.)If did own slaves, most owned less than 20. 12% owned 20 or more (=a planter) and only 1% owned 50+. 56% of all slaves worked on a plantation (20+). Means typical slaveholder only had handful of slaves, but typical slave lived on plantation of great size.Slave codes (laws) put in place to control and maintain order over slaves. Were considered chattel property- property that can be moved- with zero rights. As western areas of U.S. begin to open up, new cotton production began and higher need for slaves caused them to be very profitable."...We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." -Abraham Lincoln-The Gettysburg addressThe Union In Peril:Civil War and ReconstructionEssential QuestionsUnit Essential QuestionHow did the Civil War and the failure of Reconstruction change the course of our nation?Lesson Essential QuestionsCAUSES: What were the causes of the Civil War?Do you think that the conflict could have been avoided? How?MAJOR BATTLES:What were the strengths of both sides at the beginning of the Civil War? What battles were turning points in the war?What were the strategies for each side during the war?How did the Emancipation Proclamation affect the outcome of the War? What events led to the Souths surrender?

Lesson Essential Questions, continued. . .Effects of the Civil War and ReconstructionWhat Reconstruction plans were developed for the South after the war?How did the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments influence the rights of African Americans?How did the role of African Americans change throughout Reconstruction?Why did Reconstruction fail?How did Southern whites regain political power during Reconstruction?

Background Information- A Growing DivideOrigins and development of slavery in the U.S.MO CompromiseWhy do we need slavery and why should slavery be spread?Industrial v. Agricultural economiesBlack stereotypes (view of blacks in N and S)New territories, states and issues that brought upThe Divisive Politics of SlaveryI have, Senators, believed from the first that the agitation of the subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some timely and effective measure, end in disunion. . . The agitation has been permitted to proceed. . . Until it has reached a period when it can no longer be disguised or denied that the Union is in danger. You have thus had forced upon you the greatest and the gravest question that can ever come under your consideration: How can the Union be preserved?- John C. Calhoun, The Compromise of 1850New territories apply to become states and enter the UnionSouthern states want to gain more slave statesNorthern states did not want slavery to spread.

Dec. 1849- Issues arise over future statehood of CA. Southerners assume CA will be slave state b/c CA had land below 36/30 line (=open to slavery in MO Compromise), but Northerners try to stop it. Disputes cause several Southern states to threaten to secede

A Compromise is MadeHenry Clay negotiates between N & S and brings forward the Compromise of 1850.North: California enters Union as a free stateSouth: a new Fugitive Slave Law was put in place. By law, anyone who found an alleged runaway slave had to capture/arrest him or be fined $1,000. If helped a runaway slave, could be jailed and fined. Reward for returned runaways.Both: In territories of NM and UT, slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty (people of the land would vote for/against). Role of Stephen DouglasSeptember, 1850- Compromise of 1850 became law. Crisis of slavery, secession swept under the rug.

Protest, Resistance, and ViolenceMany in the North (abolitionists, partial supporters) surprised as harsh Fugitive Slave Law. Vigilante groups formed to help get African-Americans north to Canada. Harriet Beecher Stowe- wrote Uncle Toms Cabin in 1852Anti-slavery novel; slavery was a political contest and moral struggle that could be overcome by Christian love; told of reality of slavery

Underground Railroad established as secret network between white abolitionists and runaway slaves. If caught trying to escape, slaves could be shot, hung, whipped, or worse. Travel was at night, through woods, water, little food, and with no sense of direction. The North Star and other natural signs guided slaves to freedom.Slave patrols on horseback often caught runaways and returned to their owners.

The Underground RailroadA series of safe houses and shelter for runaway slaves.Conductors would take risk of helping hide runaway slaves, feed them and give them water, rest, clothing. Often helped runaways to next stop on the way to freedom.Harriet TubmanSlave in MD B. 1820/1821. Fear of being sold after her owner died run away to Philadelphia, 1849. Fugitive Slave Law Tubman served as a conductorMoses.Estimated she made 19 trips back and forth to SouthRumored that she helped over 300 slaves (including her parents)

Tension Rises. . .Senator Douglas wanted popular sovereignty to be used to decide issue of slavery in territory of Nebraska. But territory was north of 36/30 line (MO Compromise) and was supposed to be closed to slavery.

SD sponsor Kansas-Nebraska Act Split into Nebraska (N) and new territory of Kansas (S) Allow popular sovereignty to determine slavery in territories/states.Would repeal the MO Compromise and 36/30 lineBitter debate N politicians saw bill as plot to turn territories into slave states. S supported bill.1854- Kansas-Nebraska Act passed and became law.

. . .Violence follows.The Race for Kansas: Supporters and opponents of slavery rush to Kansas to try and win votes for the territory. People set up camps and even small towns of abolitionists or slave holders. Bleeding Kansas: Situation turns violent as people attack, fight, and kill each other over the issue. People were tarred and feathered, kidnapped, killed.By 1855, enough people to vote. Border Ruffians illegally voted pro-slavery legislature (Lecompton)MO was a slave stateImmediately , multiple pro-slavery acts passed.Abolitionists set up separate government in Topeka.Again, bloody violence followed as try to outgain in each other.John Brown led abolitionist group to attack a proslavery town. Drug 5 men from their homes and hacked them to death.

Violence also spread to the Senate as Charles Sumner (MA) gave a two-day speech (the Crime Against Kansas) attacking the South, slavery, and Senator Andrew Butler (SC) for proslavery views.Butlers nephew, Preston S. Brooks, upset about attacks. Considers a duel, but is told that duels are only suited for gentlemen of equal standing (Sumner used harsh language in speech and compared slavery to a mistress).Brooks walked into Senate, beat Sumner on head with his cane until the cane broke. Sumner suffered brain damage and was unable to return to the Senate for 3 years. Sumner became a hero in the North, Butler became a hero in the South

New Political Parties EmergeKnow-Nothing Party: aka American Party. Supported nativism, but split over issue of slavery in territories. Liberty Party: Anti-slavery party with goal of abolitionFree-Soil Party: Anti-slavery opposed to extension of slavery into territories.Not based on support for African-AmericansMany not abolitionists and support racist lawsObjected to slaverys competition with white workers and wage-based labor force

Republican Party (1854): Opposed spread of slavery. Took in many from other parties, including antislavery and nativists. One extreme want to resurrect MO Compromise, the other were radical abolitionists.Republican= national interest above sectional

Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott v. SanfordScott a slave who was moved from slave state (MO) to free territories (IL/WI).Argued this gave him freedom from owner1857- Supreme Court ruled AGAINST ScottScott had no legal standing to sue b/c he was not a citizen5th Amendment protected property. Slaves=property, so no territory could exclude slavery since it deprived slaveholders of property.Northerners upset at influence of South on gov.Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Illinois, 1858: Democrat Stephen Douglas vs. Republican Abraham LincolnNeither want slavery in territoriesDouglas popular sovereigntybelieved Lincoln slavery immoral, but knew would take constitutional amendment to abolishDouglas won, but Dems splitLincoln garner attention

John Browns Raid at Harpers FerryJohn Brown believed his calling to lead uprising of abolitionists and help slaves revolt.Secretly had backing from Northern abolitionistsOct. 16th, 1859- Brown and 21 men (black and white) stormed Harpers Ferry, VA (now WVA).Attempted to seize federal arsenal to support slave rebellionTroops called in to end rebellionBrown sentenced to death.In North, seen as hero. Bells rang, gun salute, crowds gather in his name to hear speeches against the South.In South, white mobs assault other whites with antislavery views and suspected abolitionists

Lincoln is Elected PresidentElection of 1860: Republican Lincoln vs. Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas vs. Southern Democrat John Breckinridge vs. Constitutional Party (Know-Nothings)Democrats split on issue of slaveryNorthern Democrats support Douglas/popular sovereigntySouthern Democrats support Breckinridge/Dred Scott DecisionLincoln ran as a moderate. No intention to allow slavery to spread, but tried to reassure Southerners that he would not interfere with them, their slaves, or in anything about their slaves.Southerners still see Lincoln as an enemyLincoln wins without any electoral votes from Southern states and with less than majority of popular vote.

Southern SecessionFor Southerners, issue of slavery was underlying issue. Was masking issues of power of states and self-determination vs. federal government control.Who should have highest authority?Southerners believe have lost voice in National Gov.Southern way of life challenged and could be turned upside downSouth Carolina decided to ACT. December 20th, 1860: SC secedes from the Union6 more follow: MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TXFebruary, 1861: Delegates from 7 states meet in Montgomery, AL and form Confederate States of America (the Confederacy).Constitution drawn up with protections of slaveryConfederates unanimously elect Jefferson Davis (former Senator from MS) as President of CSA

Ch. 4, Sec. 2:The Civil War BeginsThis country will be drenched in bloodThe people of the North are not going to let this country be destroyed without a mighty effort to save itBesides, where are your men and appliances of war to contend against them?...You are rushing into war with one of the most powerful, ingeniously mechanical and determined people on earth- right at your doorsOnly in spirit and determination are you prepared for war. In all else you are totally unprepared.-William Tecumseh ShermanAfter secession, Confederate soldiers seize Union Federal Installations (forts) throughout the SouthLincoln must decide whether to defend or give over to CSAFort Pickens- Pensacola, FLCSA troops from AL and FL attempt to seize the fort. Reach a truce to avoid war: North wont reinforce fort; South wont attackFort Sumter- Charleston, SCOff coast of SC, near Charleston. Lincoln decided to send in rations (food) and supplies- no weaponsApril 12th, 1861: WAR BEGINS!Confederate batteries pound Fort Sumter causing Union to surrender the Fort.

The War is on. . .April/May of 1861: After Fort Sumter and Lincolns declaration of war, four more states secede and join the CSA.Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, TennesseeFour slave states stayed in the Union:Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri1863: Western area of VA opposed slavery, so seceded from VA and entered Union (U.S.) as West VirginiaUnion and Confederacy not an equal match in war. Each have to come up with military plan for their strengths, resources, and objectives.UnionConfederacyAdvantages were their resources: had morePeopleFactoriesFood productionExtensive rail system3- Point Strategy:Navy blockade of Southern ports (Anaconda Plan)Conquer the MS River/Split CSA in twoCapture Richmond, VA (capital)Advantages were:Highly trained/effective generals, motivated soldiers, resourcefulness, fighting in own territoryStrategy:Defend the CSAAttack Union when opportunity arisesThe Union vs. The ConfederacyFirst Battle of Manassas or The Battle of Bull RunJuly, 1861: First bloodshed on the battlefieldBattle took place near Bull Run creek/city of Manassas (near Washington, DC).Battle went back & forth between Union and CSA, but by afternoon Confederates had won the first victory!North led by Brig. General Irvin McDowell South led by Brig. General P.G.T. Beauregard, General Thomas JacksonThere stands Jackson like a stone wall! Jackson earned nickname Stonewall after standing his ground against Union troopsCol. Francis Bartow- 1st Commander to die in the Civil WarConfederate troops exhausted after battle, so do not pursue Union troops or attack DC.Battle of ShilohAfter Union loss @ First Manassas, Lincoln put troops near DC under General George McClellan. Also starts campaign in the west under General Ulysses S. Grant.Feb., 1862: Grant led Union army to invade West Tennessee and to capture Ft. Henry on the Tennessee River and then Ft. Donelson on the Cumberland River.Battle of Shiloh: Grant moves deeper into TN on his campaign into the west. Camped near TN river near the Mississippi borderConfederates under Beauregard and Johnston surprise attacked Grants Union forces. Confederates have early success, but Union troops regroup and ultimately able to defeat the CSA troops.Battle of Shiloh was bloodiest battle yet in the war.

The Unions Three-Point PlanAttack the CSA capital: McClellans troops (near DC) are primed to stage an attack on Richmond and continue an assault on the CSA in their own territoryControl the MS river and cut the South in two: April 1862: David Farragut and a Union fleet seized New Orleans from the CSA. By June, the Union controlled much of the lower MS river.

Blockade the South (Anaconda Plan): U.S. has control of the seas because of the strength and size of their navy. Able to blockade Norfolk and Richmond, VA. Goal is to stop cotton exports out of the South and stop manufactured goods from entering the South. Want to isolate the South from any outside aide by blockading the coast and controlling the MS river.

Battle at SeaMarch, 1862: USS Monitor vs. CSS VirginiaConfederate Sec. of Navy was Stephen R. Mallory (Florida)Mallory commissioned old USS Merimack- raised from sea- be turned into an ironclad warship for CSA navy. Name it CSS Virginia.Battle is the first meeting of ironclad warshipsConfederates want to use new CSS Virginia to break through Union blockade of Norfolk/Richmond.Battle lasted about 3 hours. CSS Virignia met and destroyed wooden Union ship (USS Minnesota) before engaged the Union ironclad, USS Monitor.After 3 hours, CSS Virginia returned to shipyard. USS Monitor remained on water and with blockade, so technically a Union victory.As international naval powers learn of battle, stop building wooden ships and begin to build ships out of iron

The War So Far

The war had not been going well for the Union armies around Washington, D.C.

The Union had lost every major battle in which it had fought in 1861 and 1862.51

The War So FarWhat is the war about?Preserving the Union or Freeing the Slaves?

The stated purpose of the war by the United States was to save the Union. However, abolitionists and Republicans were pressuring Lincoln to making freeing the slaves a goal of the war. 52The War So Far

Reasons a Victory was Needed:Lincoln wanted to show that his government was strong and could support or back up the proclamation.Lincoln didnt want it to appear that his government was weak, and that he was asking the slaves to rebel against their masters.Before freeing the slaves could be added to the war aims Lincoln felt strongly that the Union needed a victory.

53AntietamSeptember 17, 1862


Activity As a group read the Battle of Antietam Summary.


The result of the Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg, as the Confederates called it), the Confederate army left Maryland and went back into Virginia, allowing the Union to claim a victory.

56War for Capitals: AntietamSpring, 1862: General Robert E. Lee takes control of Confederate Army of Northern VirginiaGeneral Johnston wounded in battle with Union Gen. McClellanSept., 1862: Confederate attempts to move ANV towards DC. Lee and ANV cross Potomac into Union state of MD.One of McClellans men found Lees plans/orders wrapped around cigars. Tell of Lee and Stonewall Jackson being separated for a bit on march north.McClellan order men to pursue LeeSept. 17th: Union and Confederate troops engage near Antietam Creek. Twelve hour battle that began with Union attacks on Confederate troops. Both sides stubbornly hold lines and continue fighting.By the next day, both sides gather wounded, bury dead. Bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history. Nearly 26,000 wounded/dead.Lee retreats back to VA, leaving the Union with a victory.Union Gen. McClellan chose not to pursue retreating Confederates.Lincoln removes him from command because of this

Emancipation Proclamation After Confederate defeat and retreat back into Virginia, Union President Lincoln uses opportunity to change purpose of war.Had written draft of EP prior to battle. Wanted to use it to weaken the CSA.As Commander in Chief of U.S., war powers allow Lincoln to order troops to seize enemy resources. If slaves property, then troops could emancipate them just as they could seize supplies. Lincoln is not able to free slaves/abolish slavery within U.S. though- 5th Amendment still protects property. Battle of Antietam was perfect timing to launch formal EP. Proclamation made Sep. 22, 1862, but would go into effect on Jan. 1, 1863.Before, war about economics of slavery, states v. federal rights, and to save the Union (or Southern independence). Now, war also about moral issue of slavery.


Abraham Lincoln now had a victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.61Emancipation

However, Lincoln had some challenges to overcome before he wrote the Emancipation Proclamation.62Emancipation

His first challenge was that the U.S. Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Individual states could outlaw slavery, but not the U.S. Government.63Emancipation

Lincoln used his background as a lawyer to come up with a solution more or less based on the following questions that I would like you to answer:64Emancipation

Question: How did slave owners legally consider their slaves (and horses, buildings, etc)?65Emancipation

Answer: Slaves were considered to be property.66Emancipation

Question: What happens to property that armies capture from their enemy during a war?Image courtesy Library of Congress67Emancipation

Answer: The property captured (called contraband) belongs to the army that captured it and its government.68Emancipation

ActivityLook at your excerpt from the Emancipation Proclamation.

Lets read the second paragraph together.Image courtesy Library of Congress

69Lincoln therefore stated in his Emancipation Proclamation that any property (slaves) captured by U.S. military forces would be freed.70Emancipation

The war was no longer just about preserving the union, it was also about freeing the slaves.71Emancipation

The Union demonstrated its ability to fight and win against the Confederate army. In addition, most Europeans did not like slavery. Therefore, now that the war was about freeing the slaves, they decided not to get involved with either the Union or the Confederacy.72United States Colored Troops

Lincoln had some other challenges. He wanted African American men interested in joining the United States military to be able to do so. However, some white, Union soldiers did not want to serve with African American soldiers. There were also concerns about how well African Americans would fight since most of them did not have any military service.

73United States Colored Troops

In the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln addressed the enlistment of African Americans in the United States armed forces.

ActivityIn paragraph #8 Lincoln discusses them being accepted into the military. Lets read it together. Image courtesy Library of Congress

74United States Colored Troops

ActivityLets read an excerpts from General Order 143, which created the United States Colored Troops (USCT).Image courtesy National Archives

75United States Colored Troops

Question: What do you think were some advantages for the United States in having African Americans serve in the military?76United States Colored Troops

Answer:African Americans joined the United States military in large numbers. Which led to a larger army, one of the deciding factors in the United States defeating the Confederacy.77CSA SupportCSA hoped that Great Britains dependence on Southern cotton would allow them to formally recognize the CSA as independent country. GB acquired large amounts of cotton prior to war, so did not need to rely on South. Did need wheat/corn from North.GB decided to stay NEUTRAL.Trent Affair: British built several warships for CSA. USS San Jacinto intercepted British ship carrying two CSA diplomats (James Mason/John Slidell) heading to rally support for CSA in GB and France.US took men prisoner. Some in North want Lincoln to declare war vs. GB/France. Lincoln know not smart to do that. In Europe, people outraged. GB ask for formal apology and prisoners to be released. Lincoln does so to avoid war.Mason/Slidell go on to Europe, but have no luck gaining military support for the South.

Life During WartimeNot a lot of unity for the war in the Union or CSA:Lincoln and Davis suspend writ of habeas corpus (no longer had to be charged with a crime to be held by the gov.)Both also have to turn to conscription (draft) and force men to serve in army. In Union, see riots break out because of this.Many deserters from both armies during war

African-Americans in military for both sidesUnion: Served in separate regiments under white command, were paid less, faced much discrimination. 180,000 serve.Confederacy: Served in several ways.Non-military: Were continuous labor that fueled the economy and maintained food production during the warCould be rented or drafted by the CSA to build infrastructureUsed as a work force to move food/suppliesWent to war as servants, cooks, etc. (about 85% served in this way)

Illusion of the Civil War as a glorious affair faded quickly as soldiers and citizens deal with realities of war.Soldiers: Casualties on battlefields very high, living conditions were crowded, unhealthy, dirty. Food very scarce and medical care was lacking.

Camps littered with rubbish/garbage and open latrines.Diseases spread quickly (dysentery, diarrhea, lice)Prison camps also very bad:In South, huge lack of food and tent canvas. Some prisoners kept in cow pens and barns. Spaces crowded and unsanitary. In winter, no heat. Pneumonia spread quickly, many died. Approximately 15% of Union soldiers in CSA camps died, 12% of Confederate soldiers in Union camps died.

Women very important for war effort. Union: nearly 3,000 serve in army as nurses. Clara Barton served and eventually founded American Red Cross after the war. Often cared for sick/wounded at front lines of battle.CSA: Women play similar role. Sally Tompkins commissioned a Capt. in army for heroics as nurse on battlefields. Women also must keep families and farms running while men away.Economy in both Union and Confederacy highly effected by war.Union: Economy grew as factories/industries continued to produce. Army needed supplies that came from woolen mills, steel foundries, etc. Wages in North did not keep up with prices, so standard of living declined. Men still at work go on strike, factories begin to hire free blacks, immigrants, women. First income tax issued to help pay for war (tax on a percentage of income)CSA: Economy shattered. Shortage of food throughout the South. Very large lack of manpower as men are off at war and enslaved field workers were being lost (Union armies came through and freed them, some ran away, others joined Confederate army)Food prices in South skyrocketed and inflation rose 7,000%

Ch. 4, Sec. 3: The War Turns1863 began well for Confederates:Battle of Fredericksburg, VA: Dec., 1862Confederates held high ground and fought back six attempts by Union to cross open land belowGen. Burnside/Union suffer 12,000+ casualties, has army retreatBattle of Chancellorsville, VA: May, 1863Confederate Gen. Lee vs. Union Gen. HookerConfederates able to storm through Union lines on 2nd day, cause Union troops to scatterOn 3rd day, Lee wins as Hooker retreatsComes at a high price- Stonewall Jackson shot by friendly fire, May 2nd. Left arm amputated. Jackson died from pneumonia a week later (May 10th, 1863).

An Invasion into the NorthLee intent to invade North by going through Maryland and into Pennsylvania.In North, support for war very minimal. Many soldiers deserting and some try to undermine Lincoln and his war effortThe Battle at GettysburgJuly 1st, 1863: Battle near town of Gettysburg, PAConfederates under Gen. Hill meet Union cavalry under Gen. Buford on a bridge. Buford had men surround town, take defensive positions behind hills/ridges.As Hill approached, Buford and men were waiting. Shooting begins between the two. Causes each side to call in reinforcements.By end of first day, over 90,000 Union troops had taken field under Gen. George Meade against 75,000 Confederates under Gen. Lee

July 2nd: Confederates drove Union troops from the town, took control of Gettysburg. Union still held position at Cemetery Ridge (high ground south of town). Lee ordered an attack on the ridge.Confederates head from Seminary Ridge (peach orchard, wheat field between them and Union) toward Union lines to attack. Union lines hold.July 3rd: Lee ordered artillery barrage on center of the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge. Fighting lasted 2 hours and could be heard in Pittsburgh, PA. Confederates charge Union lines thinking guns had silenced, but as march across farmland toward Union high ground, Northern barrage began again- artillery, infantry fire on approaching soldiers.

Breaking the charm of Robert E. Lees invincibilityConfederates are devastated and head back to their lines. Union army victorious.Loss causes Lee to abandon hope of invading the north. Takes his army back to Virginia.After the 3 days of battle:23,000 Union men killed/wounded28,000 Confederates killed/woundedMore than 30% of manpowerGettysburg AddressNovember 1863: Ceremony held to dedicate a cemetery at Gettysburg battlefield.Lincoln gave 2 minute speech at dedication ceremonyEffect of speech- allowed people to see U.S. in a new wayWas not a collection of individual states, but a UNIFIED NATIONVicksburgUnion Gen. Grant led army to take Vicksburg on Mississippi River. Located on a hill that overlooked the river. Allowed whoever controlled the town to also control movement along river.Spring 1863: Grant sent cavalry through MS to destroy rail lines and distract Confederate troops from his Union infantry marching towards Vicksburg.Grant landed troops south of Vicksburg on April 30 and sent men to search for confederate troops.

May 14th, Union troops able to take Jackson, MS (capital). Allows Union confidence to be very high.Grant order troops to rush city of Vicksburg and take it. Two attacks sent, neither successful.By end of May, Grant decides to besiege the city.Every day, artillery fire on city from river and landForces people to move away, into caves dug out of hillsidesGrant cut off food supplies, people in city desperate (dogs, mules). Confederate command in Vicksburg appeals to Grant for surrenderJuly 4th, 1863: Vicksburg falls to Union forces.July 9th: Port Hudson, LA also fell to Union.Was last Confederate stronghold on MS RiverUnion achieves goal of cutting south in two

The Confederacy Wears DownLosses and high casualties at Vicksburg and Gettysburg leave Confederacy with lack of manpowerCSA experiencing shortage of food, shoes, uniforms, guns, ammunition.1862: Bread Riots- Richmond, VABy 1864, $1 (CSA) = $.05 in goldPrinted $1 billion Confederate dollars- caused inflationIssued $150 million bonds in exchange for moneyConfederate plan changes: No need to hang on long enough to weaken Union morale and work toward armistice (cease-fire).Southern morale sank every day. Many in Confederacy caller peace or to end the war. Tired of fighting.

Submarine WarfareFeb. 1864- Confederate submarine HL Hunley attempt an attack on USS Housatonic off coast of Charleston.8 men inside to turn hand cranks to move propeller CSS Hunley ramed into USS Housatonic and planted 135 lb. torpedo into ship. Hunley backed away and Housatonic exploded, burned 3 min., sunk to bottom (5 killed).Signal for success sent to Confederates back on land. Hunley turned and began return to land. Sometime between signal and return to land, the Hunley disappeared. Found buried in Atlantic off coast of Charleston in 1995. Total War By March of 1864, Lincoln has two trusted Generals who will FIGHT!Ulysses S. Grant- commander of all Union armiesWilliam Tecumseh Sherman- commander of division of MSKnow fighting only continues because of strength of willpower on both sides.If destroy will of the CSA to fight, then CSA would collapse.

Both believe in total war.War that is limitless. No distinction between civilian and soldier. Would use all resources to destroy will and ability of enemy to resistEx: eliminate food sources, resources, infrastructure, artillery, MORALE!

Total War in ActionGrants strategy: decimate Lees Army of N. VirginiaEven if Union lost more men in the fight, they could afford it and the South could notShermans March to the Sea: Spring, 1864- Sherman begins total war tactics. Began march across SE from Mississippi through Georgia. Created wide path of destruction along way.Army plunder, destroy, burned railroads, houses, crops. Took supplies, killed livestock.Sherman wanted to make Southerners so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it.By November 1864- path of destruction across south. Atlanta/Savannah burned, many othersHeaded north through SC and NCShermans forces + 25,000 former slaves head north to help Grant destroy Lee

Election of 1864Lincoln faced upcoming reelection and much opposition from Northern Democrats, some Republicans.People shocked, disappointed at length of war, high casualtiesRegains support with victories and news of Shermans marchNovember- Lincoln wins reelection over opposition! George McClellan (Democrat)- Upset at being dismissed by Lincoln, had support of CopperheadsJohn C. Fremont (Radical Republican)- Wanted immediate emancipation of all slavesConservative Republicans: gradual emancipationModerate Republicans: grant emancipation, but with reservations

Surrender at Appomattox CourthouseApril 3rd, 1865: Union troops conquered Richmond, VA (capital of CSA). Southerners had abandoned city on April 2nd and set fire to it to keep Union from taking it.April 9th at Appomattox Courthouse, VA: Lee and Grant met at a private home to arrange surrender of Confederacy army to Union army. Lincoln very generous in terms of surrender. Grant took over Lees soldiers, sent them home w/ possessions and few days worth of rations.By May, all Confederate resistance collapsed. The Civil War had ended- the Union had won.Death toll almost as many deaths as all other US wars combinedUnion- 360,000CSA- 260,000TOTAL: 620,000

The War Changes the NationPolitical & Economic Changes:War increased Federal Gov. power and authority over peopleDuring war, laws passed that allow gov. to have more control over individual citizens (income tax, conscription)Gap between economy of N and S widenedIn North- dependence on factories, industry for war effort= growthIn South- economy busted. Slavery ended as source of labor, fighting destroyed farmland and any industry the S did haveWarfare Revolution:=First Modern WarTechnology: Rifle, ironclad ships, minie ball (more destructive lead bullet), early form of hand grenade & land/sea mines13th AmendmentEmancipation Proclamation only freed slaves in the CSA. After war, Lincoln fear people will see EP as temporary since slavery still existed in border states.US Government knows can only end slavery by constitutional amendment to abolish slavery13th Amendment to U.S. Constitution passed on Dec. 6, 1865= 1st Reconstruction Amendment abolishes slavery

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation

Lincoln AssassinationMarch, 1865: John Wilkes Booth and friends plan kidnapping of LincolnWould take to Richmond, VA and exchange for release of Confederate prisonersLincoln did not arrive at time/place, so plan failedApril, 1865: Plot to save Confederacy by killing Lincoln, VP Andrew Johnson, and Sec. of State William Seward all on same nightApril 14th, 1865: Lincolns to Fords Theater in DC to see a play (Our American Cousin). During 3rd act, unknown shooter entered box and shot Lincoln behind headSic Semper Tyrannus= Thus always to tyrants!Lincoln paralyzed and died the next day (April 15th, 1865)Booth caught 12 days later in in VirginiaOther two parts of plan failed

Ch. 4, Sec. 4: Reconstruction and its EffectsVP Andrew Johnson succeeds Lincoln as President in April, 1865Reconstruction= period of rebuilding the United States and bringing Confederate States back into the Union

LINCOLNJOHNSONVery lenientConfederates pardoned if swore allegiance to Union & accept 13th Amend.Except high rank officers, any accused of war crimes10% of 1860 voters need to take oath before any states allowed to re-enter politics/the UnionVA, AR, LA, TNNo high-ranking Confederates or wealthy southerners could take oathPurpose was to break planters powerBUT, also says White men alone must manage the SouthFL, GA, AL, NC, SC, MS, TXReconstruction PlansCivil Rights Act of 1866Passed to establish Freedmans Bureau- would provide food, clothing, hospitals, education, legal protection to former slaves and poor whitesGave citizenship to African AmericansForbid states from passing discriminatory laws (black codes) that restricted African-American livesJohnson vetoed Act, but was overridden by Congress14th Amendment: Prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. citizenPurpose was to overrule the Dred Scott decision

Reconstruction Act & Impeachment1867: Act sets up official plan for reconstruction.= Congressional ReconstructionCSA divided into military districts- states were under martial law. Right to vote had to be given to African-Americans and all had to ratify 14th amendment to reenter Union.Johnson vetoed, Congress overruled1868: Pres. Johnson removed Edwin Stanton as Sec. of War.Radical Republicans looking for war to get Johnson out of office. Charge Pres. with violation of Tenure of Office ActHouse voted to impeach Johnson, but was not convicted of crime, so remained in officeUlysses S. Grant wins presidency in 1868.15th Amendment: No one could be kept from voting based on race, color, previous condition of servitude. Ratified in 1870.

Reconstructing SocietyAfter the war ends, Northerners begin to infiltrate South:South left in ruins and needed to be rebuiltNortherners take advantage of financial/political opportunityInvestment into rebuilding projectsRepublican government officialsScalawags= white southerners who joined the Republican partyOften seeking to improve life/economic conditionsTo stop wealthy planters from regaining powerUsually did not share Republican commitment to civil rights for blacksCarpetbaggers= Northerners who moved south to take advantage of economic opportunitiesOwned very little, so fit everything into carpet bagSome came south to work in schools to education freedmen

A New Life for Former SlavesMany slaves illiterate, so educating freedmen becomes importantPublic schools open in southern states as part of Reconstruction governmentsChurches serve as education centersReconstruction brings in 16 African-Americans into CongressHiram Revels is first. Black Senator from MississippiSharecropping:Freedmen and poor white farmers have little to no land, so no way to make money or feed families.Landowners divide land and assign few acres to family. Supply seed, tools for family to farm land for owner. Family can keep a share of what is produced, but rest goes to owner.Tenant Farming:Man/Family able to rent a piece of land. Keep entire harvest.

Collapse of ReconstructionVigilante Groups form as some Southerners unable to accept changes from Reconstruction and with Civil RightsUsed violence to intimidate blacksKu Klux Klan: Confederate terrorist organizationFounded in 1865, Pulaski, TNBegan as social club for former ConfederatesEvolved into violent vigilante group First Grand Wizard was Nathan Bedford Forrest, a highly successful Confederate GeneralKu Klux KlanGoal to destroy Republican party, overthrow Reconstruction governments in southern states, give power back to planters, prevent blacks from exercising political rights.Often use violence to threaten, intimidateWhites from all classes joined to preserve law & order in white-dominated societyViolence also against white Republican leadersMobs would go through black areas of town to cause riots, would attack blacks at suffragist meetings, intimidate all who try to vote RepublicanMany Southern states fight back against KKK (TN, TX, NC, SC),. Not much success stopping organization because many local judges, policemen, mayors were KlansmenKKK able to gain local power over state or federal authorities

Congressional Acts of 1870, 1871, 1872Enforcement Acts: 1870- Provided that there be federal supervision of elections Also, gave President power to use federal troops in any area where Klan was activeAmnesty Act: 1872Returned rights to over 150,000 former confederatesRight to vote, right to hold federal/state officesSame year (1872), Freedmens Bureau expiredBoth the Act and expiration of FB allowed Southern Democrats able to regain political power

The Fall of ReconstructionNational support for Reconstruction was fadingRepublican party divided over post-war issuesRadical Republicans failing to convince others to let them keep running the southPanic of 1873: Bank failures sent country into 5 year depressionPolicies and decisions of Fed. Gov. began to undo social & political changes of radical RepublicansElection of 1876: Samuel Tilden (D) v. Rutherford B. Hayes (R)Tilden won popular vote, but not electoral voteSouthern Democrats agree to accept Hayes IF the Republicans would guarantee that federal troops would be withdraw from the SouthRepublicans agree, Hayes becomes president, and RECONSTRUCTION ENDS (1876/1877)

The Jim Crow SouthWith end of Reconstruction, Southern Democrats regain control in the South. For Southerners, this is redemption- ability to regain control from RepublicansRedeemer governments push Jim Crow lawsJumping Jim Crow- song/dance performed in blackface, popular in 1830s/1840s. Jim Crow synonymous with an African-AmericanUsed to describe the south and laws made to segregate whites and blacksLaws passed to restrict votingPoll taxes, literacy and comprehension tests, residency/record-keeping requirements, the Grandfather clauseReduced number of blacks and poor white voters in the South