basic electronics vocabulary
Post on 05-Apr-2017
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VGEC EC (I) Presents
Basic Electronics Vocabulary
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Conductors, Semiconductors& insulators Materials that permit flow of
electrons are called conductors (e.g., gold, silver, copper, etc.).
Materials that block flow of electrons are called insulators (e.g., rubber, glass, Teflon, mica, etc.).
Materials whose conductivity falls between those of conductors and insulators are called semiconductors.
Semiconductors are “part-time” conductors whose conductivity can be controlled.
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Atom, The Basic Unit of Matter The atom is a basic unit of matter
that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons).
The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force.
An atom contains equal number of protons and electrons, so the atom is electrically neutral
A generic atomic planetary model, or the Rutherford model
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Atom parts’ weight, quarks form& Charge
Name Weight (kg)Quarks
Proton 1.6726 × 10−27 uud +1.6022 × 10-19
Neutron 1.6929 × 10−27 udd None
Electron 9.11 × 10−31 ddd -1.6022 × 10-19
Quarks ChargeUp quark – u +2/3
Down quark – d -1/3
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Voltage, electrical potential difference, or an electric tension
Voltage is the electric potential difference between two points, or the difference in electric potential energy of a unit test charge transported between two points.
Voltage is equal to the work done per unit charge against a static electric field to move the charge between two points.
A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system.
Units of Voltage : 1. joules per coulomb2. volt (SI Unit)
Batteries are sources of voltage in many electric circuits
Common symbol(s): V , V , EΔ
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Electric current An electric current is a flow of
electric charge. Electric charge flows when there is voltage present across a conductor.
In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in a plasma.
The direction of conventional current is defined arbitrarily to be the direction of the flow of positive charges.
SI Unit : Ampere (C/s)
The symbol for a battery in a circuit diagram.
DC & AC current Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar
cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow
through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams.
The electric charge flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC).
In alternating current (AC, also ac), the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction.
AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences.
The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves.
Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current.
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Resistor A resistor is a passive two-
terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:
I = V/R The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI
SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm.
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Color code for Resistances
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Resistivity and conductivity Electrical resistivity (also
known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho).
SI unit : ohm metre (Ω m)⋅ ⋅
Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current.
It is commonly represented by the Greek letter σ(sigma), but κ(kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or γ (gamma) are also occasionally used.
SI unit : Siemens per meter (S m⋅ −1)
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Q factor In physics and engineering the
quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, or equivalently, characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its center frequency.
Higher Q indicates a lower rate of energy loss relative to the stored energy of the resonator; the oscillations die out more slowly. A pendulum suspended from a high-quality bearing, oscillating in air, has a high Q, while a pendulum immersed in oil has a low one. Resonators with high quality factors have low damping so that they ring longer.
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N type silicon Pentavalent impurities such as phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth
have 5 valence electrons. When phosphorus impurity is added to Si, every phosphorus atom’s four
valence electrons are locked up in covalent bond with valence electrons of four neighboring Si atoms. However, the 5th valence electron of phosphorus atom does not find a binding electron and thus remains free to float. When a voltage is applied across the silicon-phosphorus mixture, free electrons migrate toward the positive voltage end.
When phosphorus is added to Si to yield the above effect, we say that Si is doped with phosphorus. The resulting mixture is called N-type silicon (N: negative charge carrier silicon).
The Pentavalent impurities are referred to as donor impurities.
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P type silicon Trivalent impurities e.g., boron, aluminum, indium, and gallium have 3 valence
electrons. When boron is added to Si, every boron atom’s three valence electrons are
locked up in covalent bond with valence electrons of three neighboring Si atoms. However, a vacant spot “hole” is created within the covalent bond between one boron atom and a neighboring Si atom. The holes are considered to be positive charge carriers. When a voltage is applied across the silicon-boron mixture, a hole moves toward the negative voltage end while a neighboring electron fills in its place.
When boron is added to Si to yield the above effect, we say that Si is doped with boron. The resulting mixture is called P-type silicon (P: positive charge carrier silicon).
The trivalent impurities are referred to as acceptor impurities.
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DiodeA diode is a 2 lead semiconductor that acts as a
one way gate to electron flow.Diode allows current to pass in only one direction.A pn-junction diode is formed by joining together
n-type and p-type silicon.The p-side is called anode and the n-side is called
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Forward Bias & Reverse Bias When the anode and cathode of a pn-junction diode are connected
to external voltage such that the potential at anode is higher than the potential at cathode, the diode is said to be forward biased.
In a forward-biased diode current is allowed to flow through the device.
When potential at anode is smaller than the potential at cathode, the diode is said to be reverse biased.
In a reverse-biased diode current is blocked.
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Rectifier: half wave and full wave A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
Full-wave rectifier Circuit
Half-wave rectifier Circuit
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Transistor A three lead semiconductor device that acts as:
– an electrically controlled switch, or– a current amplifier.
Transistor is analogous to a faucet.– Turning faucet’s control knob alters the flow rate of water coming out from the faucet.– A small voltage/current applied at transistor’s control lead controls a larger current flow through its other two leads.
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Capacitor Next to resistors, capacitors
are probably the second most commonly used component in electronic circuits.
A capacitor is a device that can temporarily store an electric charge.
Capacitors come in several different varieties, the two most common being ceramic disk and electrolytic.
SI Unit : Farad (F) Capacitance : C=Q/V
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The amount of capacitance of a given capacitor is usually measured in microfarads, abbreviated μF.
When capacitor is put in parallel the over all capacitance C is
C=C1 +C2 +C3 +C4+… and in series the over all
capacitance C is
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Transformer A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive
coupling between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in
the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding.
Transformers are thus used to vary the relative voltage of circuits, which, in some cases, also isolates them.
Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A wide range of transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power applications.
Symbol of Transformer
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The value of the ratio a being respectively higher and lower than unity for step-down and step-up transformers.
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Inductor An inductor, also called a coil or
reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric current passing through it.
It consists of a conductor such as a wire, usually wound into a coil.
When a current flows through it, energy is stored temporarily in a magnetic field in the coil.
When the current flowing through an inductor changes, the time-varying magnetic field induces a voltage in the conductor, according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, which opposes the change in current that created it.
SI Unit of inductance : Henry (H)
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LED 2 lead semiconductor device. Light emitting PN-junction diode. – Visible or infrared light. Has polarity. Recall diodes act as a one way
gate to current flow.– A forward-biased PN-junction diode allows current flow from anode to cathode.
An LED conducts and emits light when its anode is made more positive (approx. 1.4V) than its cathode.– With reverse polarity, LED stops conducting and emitting light.
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Photo Diode Photodiode is a 2 lead semiconductor
device that transforms light energy to electric current.
Suppose anode and cathode of a photodiode are wired to a current meter.– When photodiode is placed in dark, the current meter displays zero current flow.– When the photodiode is expose to light, it acts as a current source, causing current flow from cathode to anode of photodiode through the current meter.
Photodiodes have very linear light v/s current characteristics.– Commonly used as light meters in cameras.
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Solar cell Solar cells are photodiodes with
very large surface areas. Compared to usual
photodiodes, the large surface area in photodiode of a solar cell yields– a device that is more sensitive to incoming light.– a device that yields more power (larger current/volts).
Solar cells yield more power. A single solar cell may provide
up to 0.5V that can supply 0.1A when exposed to bright light.
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Switch a switch is an electrical
component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another
The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits.
Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is no conducting.
A relay is an electrically operated switch
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Magnetic Fluxmagnetic flux is the net
number of field lines passing through that surface; that is, the number passing through in one direction minus the number passing through in the other direction.
SI Unit : Weber (Wb)Symbol : ØB
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Lenz's law is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy.
An induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in magnetic flux.
Lenz's law is shown with the negative sign in Faraday's law of induction
• which indicates that the induced emf and the change in magnetic flux have opposite signs.
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A logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function, that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output.
Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches, but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements.
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Created By:Rathor Vijendrasingh
And Others:1. Lalit Kumawat2. Sneh Gandhi3. Nisarg Thakar4. Poorn Mehta