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MEGIDDO VTHE 2004-2008 SEASONS
MATTHEw J. ADAMS, ERAN ARIE, ERIC H. CLINE, ISRAEL FINkELSTEIN, NORMA FRANkLIN, MARIO A.S. MARTIN,
EditorsISRAEL FINkELSTEIN, DAVID USSISHkIN, ERIC H. CLINE
Contributions byMatthew J. Adams, Yaniv Agmon, Eran Arie, Carolina Aznar,
David Ben-Shlomo, Julye Bidmead, Noga Blockman, Elisabetta Boaretto, James M. Bos, Baruch Brandl, Eric H. Cline, Margaret E. Cohen, Adi Eliyahu-Behar, Julie Ellis, Lev Eppelbaum,
Israel Finkelstein, Norma Franklin, David Friesem, Yuval Gadot, Mor Gafri, Boaz Gattenio, Ayelet Gilboa, Philippe Guillaume, Christian Herrmann, Sonia Itkis, Othmar keel, Adi keinan,
Inbar ktalav, Nili Liphschitz, Shmuel Marco, Mario A.S. Martin, Assaf Nativ, Alexander Pechuro, Rachel Pelta, Laura A. Peri, Daniel Rosenberg, Galit Sameora, Inbal Samet, Benjamin Sass, Aharon Sasson, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Ilan Sharon, David Ussishkin, Lior weissbrod, Naama Yahalom-Mack,
Project coordinatorSivan Einhorn
EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGYTEL AVIV 2013
Monograph Series under the auspices of theFriends of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University
Published by the Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology(Bequeathed by the Yass Estate, Sydney, Australia)
of the Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University
All rights reserved
Printed in Israel
Graphics by Michal Semo-kovetz, TAU Graphic Design Studio
In the 2004-2008 seasons the Megiddo Expedition was carried out under the auspices of Tel Aviv University, with George washington University as the senior American partner.
Consortium Institutions: George washington University, Chapman University, Loyola Marymount University and Vanderbilt University.Supporting Institutions: Israel Nature and National Parks Authority and the Israel Exploration Society.
The excavations of 2004-2008, the processing of the finds and the publication of this report were
Chaim katzmanVivian and Norman Belmonte
Eugene M. GrantFrederick L. Simmons
The Jacob M. Alkow Chair for the Archaeology of Israel in the Bronze and Iron AgesThe Austria Chair for the Archaeology of the Land of Israel in the Biblical Period
The Fritz Thyssen Foundation (Germany)
Under the patronage of Viscount Allenby of Megiddo
This chapter deals with two unique cylinder seals, one made of ivory and the other of glass. The two objects were made of fragile materials and hence were found in a bad state of preservation. The ivory object lost part of its carved surface, while the glass object was broken into many small fragments. In the case of the ivory seal, it is only on the basis of the modern impression that the central motif an elephant standing on a three-peaked-mountain could be identified. In the case of the glass item, it was impossible to produce a modern impression or to make a continuous-exposure image by putting it on a rotating disc.1 Therefore, the eight separate photographs that were taken by the restorer without the aid of a tripod were used as an alternative.2 Consequently, the images differ in their angles and in their distortions.
The dimensions used in this publication are: C = circumference (or length of the impression); D = diameter; H = height. Egyptian hieroglyphic signs are referred to as they appear in Gardiners Sign-list (1973: 438548) with additional identifications given later by Allen (2000: 423452). In general, only excavated parallels with known provenance are referred to in this work; the few parallels from collections are referred to only when they are essential to the discussion.
At the end of the description and discussion devoted to each of the two cylinder seals an additional discussion is added in order to provide more detailed observations, which in my opinion need to be separated from what was written previously, rather than be incorporated into it.
DESCrIpTION aND DISCuSSION
CyLInDEr SEaL 04/J/95/ar1 (FIg. 18.1; ChaPTEr 15, no. 637)
pieiehu leFhe hplheLevel/Phase: J-6, Phase J-6a. Material: ivory,3 hippopotamus, large lower incisor,4 yellowish colour.5
Dimensions: the seal: H = 13.5 mm, D = 10.25 mm, C = 33.5 mm. The perforation: D (top) = 3.75 mm, D (bottom) = 3.25 mm (Fig. 18.2).
1 This technique was used by B. zuckerman on a haematite Syrian cylinder seal from Moza Illit that was produced in Workshop A at Ugarit (Brandl 1996: 11, Fig. 5, n. 1).
2 This solution was used, e.g., with a red-painted Neo-Assyrian cylinder seal from Tell Abu el-kharaz in Jordan, where six separate photographs were taken, most probably before producing the modern impression (Fischer et al. 2009: 143144, Figs. 67; keller and Tuttle 2010: 513, Fig. 5).
3 For the extended usage of the term ivory in addition to the dentine of elephants tusk, see krzyskowska and Morkot 2000: 320.
4 For the morphology and structure of hippopotamus incisors, see krzyszkowska 1990: 3842, Figs. 1416, Pls. 911.5 Despite the general statement that hippopotamus ivory retains its whiteness over time (Reese 1985: 392; kolska
Horwitz and Tchernov 1990: 67).
Method of Manufacture: sawing, abrading, drilling, incising and carving.Workmanship: good to excellent (see Additional Discussion below).Technical Details: perforated off centre and drilled from top to bottom. Linear engraving or incising and carving in low relief.Preservation: the seal is almost complete, but lost part of its decoration, as evident by several scars on the carved surface. Sometime between its exposure and study, it split into three pieces which were then glued together.
hiilpeThe seal, shown in Fig. 18.1 in four views, comprises a single scene in one horizontal register, with border lines on the top and bottom. The scene (Fig. 18.2) includes pictorial or rather written elements that can be divided into three parts:
On the right are two men dressed only in girdles,6 apparently wearing daggers on their distant side, of which only the tips are visible.7 Both men have short beards. The first figure has a pigtail and seems
6 Compare with the figures drawn on the mural in the Naqada IIC Tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis (Quibell and Green 1902: Pls. 75, 76, 79).
7 Compare with: 1) two men incised on the upper side of an ivory object (kept in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo) quibell
Fig. 18.1: Four views of Cylinder Seal 04/J/95/AR1 (Chapter 15, No. 637).
CChapie h8: Cyulehie iihui
to be holding something that is now lost in the right hand, while the left hand hangs down, with an open palm and four fingers.
The second figure has an eye indicated, and raises the right hand towards his mouth, while the left hand hangs down. Both hands of this figure are shown in side view, with their thumbs separated.
In the centre and facing the two figures on the right an elephant with its trunk hanging down is depicted in low relief; it is standing on three triangles that were elsewhere identified as a three-peaked-mountain.8
19041905: 310 , Pl. 64 ) that is carved in the shape of an elephants trunk (Quibell 1900: 7, Pl. 13: 2); 2) two men on a limestone cylinder seal (in the same museum; Quibell 19041905: 279 , Pl. 59 ); 3) a man on a steatite cylinder seal found near Tomb 40 at Helwan (Saad 1947: 165166, Fig. 14; williams 1988: 39, Figs. 3b, 44; khler 1999; 2004: 307310, Fig. 7: A lower right corner).
8 Elephants and three-peaked-mountains appear separately on standards of ships drawn on Egyptian D-ware Predynastic vessels dated to Naqada IID1 (Petrie and Quibell 1896: 4849, Pl. 67: 1314; Petrie 1901: Pl. 4 [standards of ships]; Baumgartel 1947: 8182, Pl. 11; Crowfoot Payne 1993: Nos. 865866). Recently they were found together (but with four-peaked-mountains) once even on a standard of ship on a rock carving in wadi Magar in the Theban western Desert (Darnell 2009: 9697, Fig. 18). This carving was dated stylistically to the Naqada IID period. Together they appear in four contexts that are related to Narmer or the Naqada IIIA2 period: 1) on the Cairo Museums Coptos colossal statue of Min (Petrie 1896: 79, Pl. 3: 3, 4; williams 1988: 43, Fig. 2d; kemp 1991: 7982, Fig. 28: c;
Fig. 18.2: One view and the modern impression of Cylinder Seal 04/J/95/AR1. Additional drawings and photos of the top and bottom of the cylinder seal show its inside morphology (Chapter 15, No. 637).
On the left is a third human male figure, resembling the other two, facing the elephants back, with an unidentified element located under his raised arm. His other hand is missing. A narrow vertical strip of the seal between that figure and the elephant has been completely erased (Fig. 18.2).
On the basis of the references given above it seems that the three elements seen on the Megiddo cylinder seal bearded men dressed in girdles and wearing daggers, an elephant and a three-peaked- mountain appear on Egyptian art that dates to the period between Naqada IIC to Naqada IIIA2. This time span can be shortened thanks to the re-excavation of Cemetery U at Umm el-qaab (Abydos). There, in Tomb U-j of the Naqada IIIA1 period, ivory and bone labels (or tags) were discovered that contain parallels to all the elements incised on the Megiddo item:
* Labels 4547 show bearded male figures with pigtails wearing daggers (Dreyer 1998: 118119, Nos. 4547, Pl. 29: 4547).9
* Label 51 shows a bearded man dressed in a girdle (ibid.: 118119, No. 51,