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  • / ^ B FM 1-116

    ■ACTICS, TECHNIQUES, ANfe PROCEDURES FORTHE

    CAVALRY/ RECONNAISSANCE

    ^WÂagonSjarâry P|,■ A fTl^r M¡ ¡ iWy Docui » ^ ■ R,-»m l.^iSVentHST/î WjabÑnste .Sö3i0-iööt)

    FEBRUARY 1991

    Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

  • rfr'

    m

  • FIELD MANUAL NO 1-116

    ♦FM 1-116

    HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

    Washington, DC, 20 February 1991

    TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR THE

    AIR CAVALRY/ RECONNAISSANCE TROOP

    CONTENTS

    PREFACE

    Chapter 1. MISSION AND ROLES

    AlrLand Battle Doctrine

    Mission

    Organization

    Capabilities and Limitations

    Chapter 2. COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, AND INTELLIGENCE

    Commander’s and Subordinate Leaders’ Roles

    Command and Control Process

    Command and Control Facilities

    Communications

    Operations Security

    Chapter 3. EMPLOYMENT

    Page

    . iv

    1-1

    1-2

    1-3

    1-6

    2-1

    2-3

    2-4

    2-7

    2-8

    Section I TASK ORGANIZATION

    Employment Considerations

    Scout-Weapons Team Composition

    DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    ' *This publication supersedes FM 1-116,14 August 1986J

    Paitagcn Luxury (AHrt-PL) eCi r«v W'üiv.y LT 5-GC:'"e:7

    KV;:M ' A-i ? y ïger)

    3-1

    3-2

    i

  • Section II RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS

    Missions 3-5

    Fundamentals 3-6

    Techniques 3-7

    Route Reconnaissance 3-10

    Air Route Reconnaissance 3-15

    Zone Reconnaissance 3-15

    Area Reconnaissance 3-18

    NBC Reconnaissance 3-22

    Section III SECURITY OPERATIONS

    Purpose and Missions 3-27

    Fundamentals 3-27

    Screen Operations 3-28

    Guard Operations 3-32

    Covering Force Operations 3-34

    Air Assault Security Operations 3-34

    Section IV SPECIAL OPERATIONS

    Air Combat Operations 3-36

    Counterreconnaissance 3-41

    Passage of Lines 3-41

    Feint 3-44

    Demonstration 3-44

    Raid 3-45

    Section V OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

    Types 3-45

    Movement to Contact 3-45

    Hasty Attack 3-46

    Deliberate Attack 3-47

    Exploitation 3-49

    Pursuit 3-50

    Section VI DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

    Purpose and Mission 3-51

    Close Operations 3-51

  • Page

    Rear Operations 3-53

    Deep Operations 3-54

    Section VII RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

    Purpose and Mission 3-54

    Delay 3-55

    Withdrawal 3-56

    Retirement 3-57

    Chapter 4. COMBAT SUPPORT AND COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

    Section I COMBAT SUPPORT

    Fire Support 4-1

    Tactical Air Support 4-2

    Engineer Support 4-3

    Air Defense 4-3

    Signal Support 4-4

    Army Airspace Command and Control 4-4

    Section II COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

    Planning and Coordination 4-5

    Supply 4-6

    Maintenance 4-6

    Personnel Services 4-6

    NBC Detection and Decontamination 4-7

    Field Services 4-7

    Appendixes, Glossary, References, and Index

    Appendix A. RISK MANAGEMENT A-1

    Appendix B. THREAT OVERVIEW B-1

    Appendixe. NBC OPERATIONS C-1

    Appendix D. COMBAT ORDERS AND REPORTS D-1

    Appendix E. AEROSCOUT OBSERVER RESPONSIBILITIES E-1

    Appendix F. TARGET HANDOVER PROCEDURES F-1

    Appendix G. AERIAL OBSERVATION G-1

    Appendix H. KIOWA WARRIOR EMPLOYMENT H-1

    Glossary Glossary-1

    References References-1

    Index Index-1

    iii

  • PREFACE

    The air cavalry/reconnaissance troop is an organic element of the regimental aviation squadron, cavalry squadron, reconnaissance squadron, or air reconnaissance squadron. It is organized and equipped to perform reconnaissance and screening operations in support of the overall scheme of maneuver. Successful employment of this organization on the modem battlefield depends heavily on the synergistic efforts of combined arms forces.

    This publication describes the organizational structure of the air troop and its doctrinal and tactical employment on the modern battlefield. Appendixes A through H provide supplemental material on risk management, the threat, NBC operations, orders and reports, aeroscout observer responsibilities, target handover procedures, aerial observa- tion, and Kiowa Warrior employment. The L-series TOE serves as the basis for the unit discussed. This field manual is based on the doctrinal and tactical employment prin- ciples outlined in FMs 1-100, 1-111,1-114,1-117, 17-95, and 100-5. It is intended for air troop commanders as well as squadron commanders. It is also a practical tool for ground commanders, because ground and air troops will likely be employed in tandem.

    This publication applies to commanders and staffs who will lead, employ, or fight with an air troop and to soldiers assigned to this type of organization. It also serves as a reference for flight crews learning to understand and conduct reconnaissance and screening operations in the air troop.

    The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommenda- tions on DA Form 2028 directly to—

    Commander US Army Aviation Center and Fort Rucker ATTN: ATZQ-DOT-DD Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5263

  • This publication implements the following international agreements:

    STANAG QSTAG Air Std

    2014 506 (Edition Five)

    2112 (Edition Three)

    2253 174 (Edition Four)

    2398 (Edition One)

    2404 (Draft)

    2904 665 (Edition One)

    2999 (Edition One)

    3497 (Edition One)

    3805 45/6B (Edition Three)

    277

    Title

    Operation Orders, Warning Orders, and Administrative/Logistics Orders

    Radiological Survey

    Roads and Road Structures

    Friendly Chemical Attack Warning

    Joint Anti-Armour Operations

    Airmobile Operations—ATP-41

    Use of Helicopters in Land Operations—ATP-49

    Aeromedical Training of Aircrews in Aircrew NBC Equipment and Procedures

    Doctrine and Procedures for Airspace Control in the Combat Zone—ATP-40

    Procedures for the Employment of Helicopters in the Antiarmor Role—ATP-49

    This publication has been reviewed for operations security considerations.

    Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

    v

  • CHAPTER 1

    MISSION AND ROLES

    This chapter describes the mission and roles of the air cavalry/reconnaissance troops in AirLand Battle doctrine. It provides the organizational structure of air troops within the various squadrons assigned to divisions and armored cavalry regiments. It also describes the air troops’ capabilities and limitations. Subsequent chapters refer to the actual employment of air troops. The air troops serve as the squadron’s aviation scout-attack assets. They are one of the commander’s most critical HUMINT-gathering assets. They collect and dissemi- nate vital information that aids commanders in “seeing” the battlefield.

    AIRLAND BATTLE DOCTRINE

    AirLand Battle doctrine is based on seizing and retaining the initiative and employing aggressive offensive actions to impose our will on the enemy. This doctrine stresses the multidimensional nature of modern warfare. Air troop commanders must understand all dimensions of the battlefield. This understanding is vital for their decision on how to fight within a combined arms context. In previous conflicts, commanders employed forces on the battlefield in only two tiers of ground mobility: dismounted and mechanized. The evolution of aviation has added a third tier, air mobility, which has become increasingly essential to successful combat operations. Army aviation’s rapid, terrain-independent air mobility helps create tactical oppor- tunities for commanders at all echelons. Therefore, commanders can operate inside the enemy’s decision cycle and cause the enemy to make decisions that will disrupt its initial plan. The air troops play a vital role in AirLand Battle doctrine by performing reconnaissance and security operations and gathering intelligence. By effectively using air troops, the ground maneuver commander can take the initiative away from the enemy; he can conduct combat operations on his own terms with the ultimate goal of destroying the enemy.

    By knowing and effectively using the tenets of AirLand Battle, air troops can enhance the squadron, division, and corps commander’s ability to capitalize on opportunities against the enemy force. These tenets are agility, initiative, depth, and synchronization.

    Agility. Air troops greatly enhance the squadron’s agility because of the capabilities of Army aviation on the battlefield. Agility is the ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy. It is the first prerequisite for seizing and holding the initiative. Agility requires flexible organizations and quick-minded, flexible leaders. They must know of critical actions as they occur and act to avoid enemy strengths and attac

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