ch. 15 ppt ferment and reform of culture charles g. finney dorothea dix great awakening
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- Ch. 15 PPT Ferment and Reform of Culture Charles G. Finney Dorothea Dix Great Awakening
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- TMWK CH 15 1.Pg 321 What were the Protestant camp meetings like and what did they spark? 2.Pg 322 Picture & Quote Describe Charles G. Finneys work as an evangelist and his beliefs
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- Liberalism & Revival of Religion Deism: Relied on reason instead of revelation, science rather than Bible. Denied Christs divinity. Unitarianism: God existed in one person (uni) and not in the Trinity (God the Father, God the Son, Holy Spirit.) Denied Christs divinity. Salvation through good works. Transcendentalism: Leader Ralph Waldo Emerson Belief in ideal spirituality that "transcends" the physical and empirical - Realized only through the individual's intuition (inner light) instead of doctrines of established religions. Rose up as protest against Unitarianism. Growing liberalism (Deism and Unitarianism) in religion brought religious revival in 1800.
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- Second Great Awakening Religious revival brought: conversion of souls, shattered and reorganized churches, new sects of religion, reform movements. Spread to frontier by huge camp meetings. Preachers taught spiritual worth of women and their role in bringing their family back to God. Feminization of religion: Middle-class women were 1st and most fervent revivalists - made up most of new church members. Women formed charitable organizations and began crusades for reforms.
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- Leaders in the Awakening Methodist Peter Cartwright: traveling frontier circuit preacherthousands of souls converted to Christianity Charles Finney 1830s: led revivals in NY. Denounced alcohol & slavery. Encouraged women to pray in public. Later became Pres of Oberlin College. Charles G. Finney
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- Denominational Diversity 1830s Central and Western NY Burned-Over District: this area was heavily evangelized. Millerites or Adventists: named after William Miller - 1830s several hundred thousand believers in Burned Over District, 1857 Presbyterians of North and South divided.
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- TMWK 3. Pg 325 Where did the Mormons move after Joseph Smiths death? Name two Mormon settlements.
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- Mormonism Latter Day Saints Founder Joseph Smith: received Book of Mormon from an angel. Issues: Polygamy, voting as a church unit, drilling their militia for defense Joseph Smith murdered; Brigham Young became leader of Mormons. 1846-1847: led Mormons to Utah; became a prosperous frontier theocracy. Congress passes anti-polygamy law in 1862 & 1882.
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- Free Schools Free public schools opposed by many, since tax money needed to be used to pay for schools. 1825-1850: tax supported education grew needed for social stability and democracy. Early schools stayed open only few months. Horace Mann: campaigned for more & better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers. 1828 Noah Webster (improved textbooks): reading lessons used by millions of students. Developed dictionary which standardized American language. William McGuffey: McGuffeys grade-school readers
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- TMWK 4. Pg 327 Which was the first co-educational school for higher education that accepted women?
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- Higher Learning Religious zeal led to planting of denominational liberal arts colleges in South and West. 1st state supported universities sprang up in South, beginning with N. Carolina. 1819: Univ of Virginia Thomas Jefferson Emma Willard: established the Troy, Female Seminary Oberlin College in Ohio Mary Lyon: established womens school Mount Holyoke Seminary (College) in MA. Lyceum Lecture Associations: Traveling lecturers gave talks on science, literature, philosophy (ie Ralph Waldo Emerson)
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- TMWK 5. Pg 329 What reform did Dorothea Dix champion?
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- Age of Reform Imprisonment for debt continued thru 1830; gradually state legislatures abolished debtors prisons. Capital offenses reduced - brutal punishments slowly being eliminated. New idea: prisons shouldnt only punish, but reform criminals. Dorothea Dix: New England teacher traveled & gathered data on poor treatment of mentally ill; became their advocate. Resulted in improving mental health care conditions in asylums. American Peace Society 1828: Leader William Ladd - Established to make war on war
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- Prominent Women Emma Willard Dorothea Dix Mary Lyon
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- Reforms Cont. American Temperance Society 1826: temperance pledge to abstain from drinking distilled beverages. Neal Dow: Father of Prohibition sponsored 1851 Maine Law - prohibited manufacture/sale of liquor. 12 states passed similar laws; some were repealed or declared unconstitutional.
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- TMWK 6. Pg 331 Which two prominent women played an important role in womens rights? In what spheres did they work for womens rights?
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- Women in Society Women = keepers of societys consciences - responsibility to teach children how to be good and productive citizens. Cult of Domesticity home was womans sphere. Gender differences strongly emphasized. Womens Rights Movement: 1. Lucretia Mott Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, pro womens rights. 2. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Leader of womens rights: Declaration of Sentiments written at 1st Womens Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, NY.
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- Leaders in Womens Rights Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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- Utopias More than 40 utopian (cooperative & communistic) communities set up people living together sharing common beliefs, possessions, resources, sometimes income/work. -Robert Owen: New Harmony, Indiana set up by religious group = Harmonists. -Oneida Community 1848: Religious commune (communal property and possessions) in NY; manufactured silverware and steel animal traps. All expected to work. -Shakers 1770s: Leader Ann Lee; religious communities set up Celibacy and gender equality.
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- TMWK 7. Pg 341 Quote Describe two points of Henry David Thoreaus argument for Civil Disobedience.
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- National Literature Washington Irving: Rip Van Winkle, Legend of Sleepy Hollow, and Knickerbockers History of NY. James Fenimore Cooper: 1st American novelist, Leatherstocking Tales, Last of the Mohicans. Henry David Thoreau: Walden: Or Life in the Woods, Civil Disobedience (Influenced Gandhi and Dr. MLK, Jr.) Louisa May Alcott: Little Women Poet Emily Dickinson: Refused to publish poems. At her death - 2,000 poems found and printed.
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