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© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Chapter 10

Reporting and Interpreting Bonds

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Business Background

The mixture of debt and equity used to finance a company’s operations is called the capital

structure:

Debt - funds from creditors

Equity - funds from owners

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Significant debt needs of a company are often filled

by issuing bonds.

Significant debt needs of a company are often filled

by issuing bonds.

Business BackgroundCapital Structure - Bonds

Bonds Cash

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Business Background

Bonds can be traded on

established exchanges that

provide liquidity to

bondholders.

Bonds can be traded on

established exchanges that

provide liquidityliquidity to

bondholders.

As liquidity increases . . .

. . . Cost of borrowing decreases.

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Business Background

Advantages of bonds:• Bonds are debt, not equity, so the

ownership and control of the company are not diluted.

• Interest expense is tax-deductible.• The low interest rates on bonds

allow for positive financial leverage.

Advantages of bonds:• Bonds are debt, not equity, so the

ownership and control of the company are not diluted.

• Interest expense is tax-deductible.• The low interest rates on bonds

allow for positive financial leverage.

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Business Background

Disadvantages of bonds:• The scheduled interest

payments are legal obligations and must be paid each period.

• A single, large principal payment is required at the maturity date.

Disadvantages of bonds:• The scheduled interest

payments are legal obligations and must be paid each period.

• A single, large principal payment is required at the maturity date.

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Key Ratio Analysis

The debt-equity ratio is an important measure of the balance between debt and

equity.

High debt-equity ratios indicate more leverage and risk.

Debt/equity ratio = Total liabilities Owners' equity

Debt/equity ratio = Total liabilities Owners' equity

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Characteristics of Bonds Payable

Company Issuing Bonds

Company Issuing Bonds

$ Bond Issue Price $Investor Buying Bonds

Investor Buying Bonds

Bond Certificate

At Bond Issuance Date

Bonds payable are long-term debtfor the issuing company.

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Characteristics of Bonds Payable

Company Issuing Bonds

Company Issuing Bonds

PeriodicInterest Payments$ $

Investor Buying Bonds

Investor Buying Bonds

Face Value Payment at End of

Bond Term$ $

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1. Face Value = Maturity or Par Value, Principal2. Maturity Date3. Stated Interest Rate4. Interest Payment Dates5. Bond Date

Characteristics of Bonds Payable

Other Factors:6. Market Interest Rate7. Issue Date

BOND PAYABLE

Face Value $1,000 Interest 10%6/30 & 12/31

Maturity Date 1/1/10Bond Date 1/1/01

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Characteristics of Bonds Payable

• When issuing bonds, potential buyers of the bonds are given a prospectus.

• The company’s bonds are issued to investors through an underwriter.

• The trustee makes sure the issuer fulfills all of the provisions of the bond indenture.

• When issuing bonds, potential buyers of the bonds are given a prospectus.

• The company’s bonds are issued to investors through an underwriter.

• The trustee makes sure the issuer fulfills all of the provisions of the bond indenture.

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Bond Classifications

• Debenture bondsNot secured with the pledge of a specific asset.

• Callable bondsMay be retired and repaid (called) at any time at the option

of the issuer.• Redeemable bonds

May be turned in at any time for repayment at the option of the bondholder.

• Convertible bondsMay be exchanged for other securities of the issuer

(usually shares of common stock) at the option of the bondholder.

•• Debenture bondsDebenture bondsNot secured with the pledge of a specific asset.

•• Callable bondsCallable bondsMay be retired and repaid (called) at any time at the option

of the issuer.•• Redeemable bondsRedeemable bonds

May be turned in at any time for repayment at the option of the bondholder.

•• Convertible bondsConvertible bondsMay be exchanged for other securities of the issuer

(usually shares of common stock) at the option of the bondholder.

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• Senior Debt receives preference over other creditors in the event of bankruptcy or default.

• Subordinated Debt is riskier than senior debt.

•• Senior Debt Senior Debt receives preference over other creditors in the event of bankruptcy or default.

•• Subordinated Debt Subordinated Debt is riskier than senior debt.

Bond Classifications

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Measuring Bonds Payable and Interest Expense

Present Value of the Principal (a single payment)+ Present Value of the Interest Payments (an annuity) = Issue Price of the Bond

Present Value of the Principal (a single payment)+ Present Value of the Interest Payments (an annuity) = Issue Price of the Bond

The issue price of the bond is determined by the market, based on the time value of money.

The interest rate used to compute the present value is the market interest ratemarket interest rate.

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Measuring Bonds Payable and Interest Expense

The stated ratestated rate is only used to compute the periodic interest payments.

Interest = Principal × Stated Rate × TimeInterest = Principal × Stated Rate × Time

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Bond Premium and Discounts

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value There is no differenceRate Rate Price of the Bond to account for.

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond discount.

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond premium.

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value There is no differenceRate Rate Price of the Bond to account for.

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond discount.

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond premium.

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Issuing Bonds

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 6% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually.

The market rate is 8% annually.

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 6% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually.

The market rate is 8% annually.

Are Harrah’s bonds issued at par, at a discount, or at a premium?

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On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 6%

annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually. The

market rate is 8% annually.

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 6%

annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually. The

market rate is 8% annually.

Issuing Bonds

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond discount.

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond discount.< <

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Issuing Bonds

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 6%

annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually. The

market rate is 8% annually.

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 6%

annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually. The

market rate is 8% annually.

Compute the issue price of Harrah’s bonds.

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Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor

Issuing Bonds

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Use the present value of a single amount table to find the

appropriate factor.

Use the present value of a single amount table to find the

appropriate factor.

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Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0%

Issuing Bonds

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Use the market rate of 8% to determine present value. Interest is

paid semiannually, so the rate is i=4% (8% ÷ 2 interest periods per year).

Use the market rate of 8% to determine present value. Interest is

paid semiannually, so the rate is i=4% (8% ÷ 2 interest periods per year).

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0%, n=20

Issuing Bonds

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Though the maturity period is 10 years, there are 2 interest periods per year. For the present value computation, use n=20

(10 years × 2 periods per year).

Though the maturity period is 10 years, there are 2 interest periods per year. For the present value computation, use n=20

(10 years × 2 periods per year).

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Issuing Bonds

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0%, n=20

= 1,000,000$ × 0.4564 = 456,400$

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Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor

Issuing Bonds

"Compute the present value of the interest payments.

The interest payment is computed as:

$1,000,000 × 6% × 6/12

= $30,000

The interest payment is computed as:

$1,000,000 × 6% × 6/12

= $30,000

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 30,000$

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 30,000$

Issuing Bonds

"Compute the present value of the interest payments.

Use the same i=4.0% and n=20 used for the present value of the principal,

but use the present value of an annuity table.

Use the same i=4.0% and n=20 used for the present value of the principal,

but use the present value of an annuity table.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Issuing Bonds

"Compute the present value of the interest payments.

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 30,000$ × 13.5903 = 407,709$

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 30,000$ × 13.5903 = 407,709$

Now, the issue price of the bonds can be computed.

Now, the issue price of the bonds can be computed.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Issuing Bonds

#Compute the issue price of the bonds.

456,400$ Present Va lue of the Principa l + 407,709 Present Va lue of the Interest

= 864,109$ Present Va lue of the Bonds

456,400$ Present Va lue of the Principa l + 407,709 Present Va lue of the Interest

= 864,109$ Present Va lue of the Bonds

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

456,400$ Present Va lue of the Principa l + 407,709 Present Va lue of the Interest

= 864,109$ Present Va lue of the Bonds

456,400$ Present Va lue of the Principa l + 407,709 Present Va lue of the Interest

= 864,109$ Present Va lue of the Bonds

Issuing Bonds

#Compute the issue price of the bonds.

The $864,109 is less than the face amount of

$1,000,000, so the bonds are issued at a discount of

$135,891.

The $864,109 is less than the face amount of

$1,000,000, so the bonds are issued at a discount of

$135,891.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

GENERAL JOURNAL Page 97Date Description Debit Credit

May 1 Cash 864,109Discount on Bonds Payable 135,891 Bonds Payable 1,000,000to record issuance of bonds

Recording BondsIssued at a Discount

$Prepare the journal entry to record the issuance of the bonds.

This is a contra-liability account and appears in the liability section of the balance sheet.

This is a contra-liability account and appears in the liability section of the balance sheet.

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Harrah'sPartial Balance Sheet

At May 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 6% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011 Less: Bond Discount (135,891) Total L-T Liabilities 864,109$

Bonds Issued at a DiscountFinancial Statement Presentation

The discount The discount will be will be

amortizedamortizedover the 10over the 10--

year life of the year life of the bonds.bonds.

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Harrah'sPartial Balance Sheet

At May 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 6% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011 Less: Bond Discount (135,891) Total L-T Liabilities 864,109$

Harrah'sPartial Balance Sheet

At May 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 6% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011 Less: Bond Discount (135,891) Total L-T Liabilities 864,109$

Bonds Issued at a DiscountFinancial Statement Presentation

Two methods Two methods of amortization of amortization are commonly are commonly

used:used:StraightStraight--lineline

ororInterest MethodInterest Method

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Straight-Line Amortization of Bond Discount

!Identify the amount of the bond discount.

"Divide the bond discount by the number of interest periods.

#Include the discount amortization amount as part of the periodic interest expense entry.The discount will be reduced to

zero by the maturity date.

!Identify the amount of the bond discount.

"Divide the bond discount by the number of interest periods.

#Include the discount amortization amount as part of the periodic interest expense entry.The discount will be reduced to

zero by the maturity date.

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Straight-Line Amortization of Bond Discount

Harrah’s issued their bonds on May 1, 2001. The discount was $135,891. The bonds have a 10-year maturity

and $30,000 interest is paid semiannually.

Compute the periodic discount amortization using the straight-line method.

Harrah’s issued their bonds on May 1, 2001. The discount was $135,891. The bonds have a 10-year maturity

and $30,000 interest is paid semiannually.

Compute the periodic discount amortization using the straight-line method.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Harrah’s issued their bonds on May 1, 2001. The discount was $135,891. The bonds have a 10-year maturity

and $30,000 interest is paid semiannually.

Compute the periodic discount amortization using the straight-line method.

and $30,000 interest is paid semiannually.

Compute the periodic discount amortization using the straight-line method.

Straight-Line Amortization of Bond Discount

Discount Total Number ofAmortization = Discount ÷ Interest Periods

Discount Total Number ofAmortization = Discount ÷ Interest Periods

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

and $30,000 interest is paid semiannually.

Compute the periodic discount amortization using the straight-line method.

and $30,000 interest is paid semiannually.

Compute the periodic discount amortization using the straight-line method.

Straight-Line Amortization of Bond Discount

Discount Total Number ofAmortization = Discount ÷ Interest Periods

= 135,891$ ÷ 20

= 6,795$ per period (rounded)

Discount Total Number ofAmortization = Discount ÷ Interest Periods

= 135,891$ ÷ 20

= 6,795$ per period (rounded)

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Straight-Line Amortization of Bond Discount

Prepare the journal entry to record the payment of interest and the discount amortization for the six months ending on November 1, 2001.

Prepare the journal entry to record the payment of interest and the discount amortization for the six months ending on November 1, 2001.

GENERAL JOURNAL Page 123Date Description Debit Credit

Nov. 1 Interest Expense 36,795 Discount on Bonds Payable 6,795 Cash 30,000To record payment of interest

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Bonds Issued at a DiscountFinancial Statement Presentation

As the discount is

amortized, the carrying

amount of the bonds

increases.

Harrah'sPartial Balance SheetAt November 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 6% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011 Less: Bond Discount (129,096) Total L-T Liabilities 870,904$

Harrah'sPartial Balance SheetAt November 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 6% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011 Less: Bond Discount (129,096) Total L-T Liabilities 870,904$

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Zero Coupon Bonds

• Zero coupon bonds do not pay periodic interest.

• Because there is no interest annuity . . .

• This is called a deep discount deep discount bondbond.

PV of the Principal = Issue Price of the BondsPV of the Principal = Issue Price of the Bonds

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Issuing Bonds at a Premium

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value There is no differenceRate Rate Price of the Bond to account for.

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond premium.

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value There is no differenceRate Rate Price of the Bond to account for.

=

>

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=

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 10% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is

paid semiannually. The market rate is 8% annually.

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 10% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is

paid semiannually. The market rate is 8% annually.

Are Harrah’s bonds issued at par, at a discount, or at a premium?

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

On May 1, 2001, Harrah’s issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a stated rate of 10% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is

paid semiannually. The market rate is 8% annually.

paid semiannually. The market rate is 8% annually.

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Interest Bond Accounting forRates Price the Difference

Stated Market Bond Par Value The difference is accountedRate Rate Price of the Bond for as a bond premium.> >

Let’s compute the issue price of the bonds.

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Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × FactorPresent ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Use the present value of a single amount table to find the

appropriate factor.

Use the present value of a single amount table to find the

appropriate factor.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0%Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0%

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Use the market rate of 8% to determine present value. Interest is paid

semiannually, so the rate is i=4.0% (8% ÷ 2 interest periods per year).

Use the market rate of 8% to determine present value. Interest is paid

semiannually, so the rate is i=4.0% (8% ÷ 2 interest periods per year).

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

!Compute the present value of the principal.

The maturity period is 10 years, there are 2 interest periods per year. For the present value computation, use n=20

(10 years × 2 periods).

The maturity period is 10 years, there are 2 interest periods per year. For the present value computation, use n=20

(10 years × 2 periods).

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

!Compute the present value of the principal.

Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 1,000,000$ × 0.4564 = 456,400$

Present ValueSingle Amount = Principal × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 1,000,000$ × 0.4564 = 456,400$

Next, we compute the present value of the interest payments.Next, we compute the present value of the interest payments.

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Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

"Compute the present value of the interest payments.

The interest payment is computed as:

$1,000,000 × 10% × 6/12

= $50,000

The interest payment is computed as:

$1,000,000 × 10% × 6/12

= $50,000

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 50,000$

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 50,000$

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

"Compute the present value of the interest payments.

Use the same i=4.0% and n=20 that were used to compute the present

value of the principal. Now, however, the factor comes from the present value of an annuity table.

Use the same i=4.0% and n=20 that were used to compute the present

value of the principal. Now, however, the factor comes from the present value of an annuity table.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

"Compute the present value of the interest payments.

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 50,000$ × 13.5903 = 679,515$

Present ValueAnnuity = Payment × Factor, i=4.0% , n=20

= 50,000$ × 13.5903 = 679,515$

Now, the issue price of the bonds can be computed.

Now, the issue price of the bonds can be computed.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

456,400$ Present Va lue of the Principa l + 679,515 Present Va lue of the Interest

= 1,135,915$ Present Va lue of the Bonds

456,400$ Present Va lue of the Principa l + 679,515 Present Va lue of the Interest

= 1,135,915$ Present Va lue of the Bonds

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

#Compute the issue price of the bonds.

The $1,135,915 is greater than the face amount of $1,000,000, so the bonds are issued at a premium of

$135,915.

The $1,135,915 is greater than the face amount of $1,000,000, so the bonds are issued at a premium of

$135,915.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

GENERAL JOURNAL Page 97Date Description Debit Credit

May 1 Cash 1,135,915 Bonds Payable 1,000,000 Premium on Bonds Payable 135,915

Issuing Bonds at a Premium

$Prepare the journal entry to record the issuance of the bonds.

This is called an adjunct account and appears in the liability section.This is called an adjunct account

and appears in the liability section.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Harrah'sPartial Balance Sheet

At May 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 10% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011Add: Bond Premium 135,915 Total L-T Liabilities 1,135,915$

Harrah'sPartial Balance Sheet

At May 1, 2001

Long-Term LiabilitiesBonds Payable, 10% 1,000,000$ Due April 30, 2011Add: Bond Premium 135,915 Total L-T Liabilities 1,135,915$

Bonds Issued at a PremiumFinancial Statement Presentation

The The premium premium

will be will be amortizedamortized

over the 10over the 10--year life of year life of the bonds.the bonds.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Effective-Interest Amortization of Bond Discounts and Premiums

Bond Carrying Value × Market RateBond Carrying Value × Market Rate

The effective-interest method computes interest as:

Principal amount of the bonds less any unamortized discount or plus any unamortized premium.

Principal amount of the bonds less any unamortized discount or plus any unamortized premium.

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Effective-Interest Amortization of Bond Discounts and Premiums

This is the same market rate used to determine the

present value of the bond.

This is the same market rate This is the same market rate used to determine the used to determine the

present value of the bond.present value of the bond.

Bond Carrying Value × Market RateBond Carrying Value × Market Rate

The effective-interest method computes interest as:

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Effective-Interest Method

Recall our first example of Harrah’s. On May 1, 2001, the company issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a

stated rate of 6% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually. The

market rate is 8% annually.

Recall our first example of Harrah’s. On May 1, 2001, the company issues $1,000,000 in bonds having a

stated rate of 6% annually. The bonds mature in 10 years and interest is paid semiannually. The

market rate is 8% annually.

GENERAL JOURNAL Page 97Date Description Debit Credit

May 1 Cash 864,109Discount on Bonds Payable 135,891 Bonds Payable 1,000,000to record issuance of bonds

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Effective-Interest Method

Principal amount of bonds 1,000,000$ Less: unamortized discount (135,891) Bond Carrying Value 864,109 Market interest rate 4.00%Interest expense - 11/1/01 34,564$

Interest is paid semi-annually, so the market rate

is 8% ÷ 2 = 4%.

Interest is paid semi-annually, so the market rate

is 8% ÷ 2 = 4%.

The cash paid to bond holders if $30,000 ($1,000,000 × 3%)

The cash paid to bond holders if $30,000 ($1,000,000 × 3%)

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Effective-Interest Method

The journal entry to record the first interest payment is:

GENERAL JOURNAL Page 123Date Description Debit Credit

Nov. 1 Interest Expense 34,564 Discount on Bonds Payable 4,564 Cash 30,000To record payment of interest

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Effective-Interest Method

The new bond carrying value of the next interest payment period is:

Principal amount of bonds 1,000,000$ Less: unamortized discount (131,327) Bond Carrying Value 868,673

Unamortized discount 135,891$ Less: amount amortized (4,564) New unamortized discount 131,327

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Understanding Alternative Amortization Methods

• Effective-interest method of amortization is preferred by GAAP.

• Straight-line amortization may be used if it is not materially different from effective interest amortization.

• Effective-interest method of amortization is preferred by GAAP.

• Straight-line amortization may be used if it is not materially different from effective interest amortization.

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Early Retirement of Debt

• Occasionally, the issuing company will call (repay early) some or all of its bonds.

• Gains/losses incurred as a result of retiring bonds, should be reported as an extraordinary item on the income statement.

• Occasionally, the issuing company will callcall (repay early) some or all of its bonds.

• Gains/losses incurred as a result of retiring bonds, should be reported as an extraordinary itemextraordinary item on the income statement.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001Irwin/McGraw-Hill

End of Chapter 10