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  • Session 5: Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms

    Cloud-Based Machine & Deep Learning

    Pr. Jean-Claude Franchitti

  • Basic Concept of Machine Learning

    ▪ Machine Learning is a scientific discipline that explores the construction and study of algorithms that can learn from

    data.

    ▪ Machine learning algorithms operate by building a model from executing example inputs and using that model to

    make predictions or decisions.

    ▪ Machine Learning is a subfield of computer science stemming from research into artificial intelligence. It has

    strong ties to statistics and mathematical optimization.

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Machine Learning Based on Learning Styles

    Supervised Learning Algorithms

    (a)

    Unsupervised Learning Algorithms

    (b)

    Semi-supervised Learning Algorithms

    (c)

    Figure 4.1 Machine learning algorithms grouped by different learning styles

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Machine Learning Based on Similarity Testing

    ⚫ This model offers a supervised approach using statistical learning. The

    regression process is iteratively refined using an error criterion to make

    better predictions. This method minimizes the error between predicted value

    and actual experience in input data.

    ⚫ This models a decision problem with instances or critical training data, as

    highlighted by the solid dots in. Figure(b) The data instance is built up with a

    database of reliable examples. A similarity test is conducted to find the best

    match to make a prediction. This method is also known as memory-based

    learning.

    ⚫ This method extends from the regression method that regulates the model to

    reduce complexity. This regularization process acts in favor of simpler

    models that are also better for generalization. Figure(c) shows how to sort

    the best prediction model among various design options.

    Regression Algorithms (a)

    Instance-based Algorithms

    (b)

    Regularization Algorithms

    (c)

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Machine Learning Based on Similarity Testing

    ⚫ The model is based on observation of the data’s target values along various

    feature nodes in a tree-structured decision process. Various decision paths

    fork in the tree structure until a prediction decision is made at the leave node,

    hierarchically. Decision trees are trained on given data for better accuracy in

    solving classification and regression problems.

    ⚫ The model is often applied in pattern recognition, feature extraction and

    regression applications. A Bayesian network is shown in Figure(e), which

    offers a directed acyclic graph (DAG) model represented by a set of

    statistically independent random variables. Both prior and posterior

    probabilities are applied in making predictions.

    ⚫ This is a method based on grouping similar data objects as clusters. Two

    clusters are shown in Figure(f). Like regression, this method is unsupervised

    and modeled by using centroid-based clustering and/or hierarchal clustering.

    All clustering methods are based on similarity testing.

    Decision tree Algorithms

    (d)

    Bayesian Algorithms (e)

    Clustering Algorithms (f)

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Machine Learning Based on Similarity Testing

    ⚫ These are unsupervised with training data. Instead, the method generates

    inference rules that best explain observed relationships between variables in

    the data. These rules, as shown in Figure(g), are used to discover useful

    associations in large multidimensional datasets.

    ⚫ These are cognitive models inspired by the structure and function of

    biological neurons. The ANN tries to model the complex relationships

    between inputs and outputs. They form a class of pattern matching

    algorithms that are used for solving deep learning.

    ⚫ These extend from artificial neural networks by building much deeper and

    complex neural networks, as shown in Figure(i). Deep learning networks are

    built of multiple layers of interconnected artificial neurons. They are often

    used to mimic human brain processes in response to light, sound and visual

    signals. This method is often applied to semi-supervised learning problems,

    where large datasets contain very little labeled data.

    Association Rule Learning Algorithms

    (g)

    Artificial Neural Network Algorithms

    (h)

    Deep Learning Algorithms

    (i)

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Machine Learning Based on Similarity Testing

    ⚫ These exploit the inherent structure in the data in an unsupervised manner.

    The purpose is to summarize or describe data using less information. This is

    done by visualizing multi-dimensional data with principal components or

    dimensions. Figure(j) shows the reduction from a 3-D e space to a 2-D data

    space.

    ⚫ These are often used in supervised learning methods for regression and

    classification applications. Figure(k) shows how a hyperplane (a surface in a

    3-D space) is generated to separate the training sample data space into

    different subspaces or categories.

    ⚫ These are models composed of multiple weaker models that are

    independently trained. The prediction results of these models are combined

    in Figure(l), which makes the collective prediction more accurate. Much

    effort is put into what types of weak learners to combine and the ways in

    which to combine them effectively.

    Dimensional Reduction Algorithms

    (j)

    Support Vector Machine Algorithms

    (k)

    Ensemble Algorithms (l)

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms

    ML Algorithm Classes Algorithm Names

    Regression Linear, Polynomial, Logistic, Stepwise, OLSR (Ordinary Least Squares Regression), LOESS (Locally Estimated Scatterplot Smoothing), MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines)

    Classification KNN (k-nearest Neighbor), Trees, Naïve Bayesian, SVM (Support Vector Machine), LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization), SOM (Self-Organizing Map), LWL (Locally Weighted Learning)

    Decision Trees

    Decision trees, Random Forests, CART (Classification and Regression Tree), ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3), CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection), ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3), CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection)

    Bayesian Networks Naïve Bayesian, Gaussian, Multinomial, AODE (Averaged One-Dependence Estimators), BBN (Bayesian Belief Network), BN (Bayesian Network)

    Table 4.1 Supervised machine learning algorithms

  • Taxonomy of Machine Learning Algorithms

    Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms

    ML Algorithm Classes Algorithm Names

    Association Analysis A priori, Association Rules, Eclat, FP-Growth

    Clustering Clustering analysis, k-means, Hierarchical Clustering, Expectation Maximization (EM), Density-based Clustering

    Dimensionality Reduction

    PCA (principal Component Analysis), Discriminant Analysis, MDS (Multi- Dimensional Scaling)

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)

    Perception, Back propagation, RBFN (Radial Basis Function Network)

    Table 4.2 Some unsupervised machine learning algorithms

  • Regression Methods for Machine Learning

    Basic Concepts of Regression Analysis

    ▪ Regression analysis performs a sequence of parametric or non-parametric

    estimations. The method finds the causal relationship between the input

    and output variables.

    ▪ The estimation function can be determined by experience using a priori

    knowledge or visual observation of the data.

    ▪ Regression analysis is aimed to understand how the typical values of the

    output variables change, while the input variables are held unchanged.

    ▪ Thus regression analysis estimates the average value of the dependent

    variable when the independent variables are fixed.

  • Regression Methods for Machine Learning

    Basic Concepts of Regression Analysis

    ▪ Most regression methods are parametric in nature and have a finite

    dimension in the analysis space. We will not deal with nonparametric

    regression analysis, which may be infinite-dimensional.

    ▪ The accuracy or the performance of regression methods depends on the

    quality of the dataset used. In a way, regression offers an estimation of

    continuous response variables, as opposed to the discrete decision

    values used in classification.

  • Regression Methods for Machine Learning

    Formulation of A Regression Process

    To model a regression process, the unknown parameters are often denoted as β,

    which may appear as a scalar or a vector. The independent variables are denoted by

    an input vector X and the out is the dependent variable as Y. When multiple

    dimensions are involved, these parameters are vectors in form. A regression model

    establishes the approximated relation between X, β. and Y as follows:

    Y = f (X, β)

    ▪ The func