cloud computing adoption and usage in community colleges

Download Cloud computing adoption and usage in community colleges

Post on 20-Dec-2016




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • This article was downloaded by: [University of Haifa Library]On: 22 October 2013, At: 09:20Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Behaviour & Information TechnologyPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:

    Cloud computing adoption and usage in communitycollegesTara S. Behrend a , Eric N. Wiebe b , Jennifer E. London b & Emily C. Johnson ca Department of Organizational Sciences & Communication , The George WashingtonUniversity , Washington, DC, 20052, USAb Friday Institute for Educational Innovation, North Carolina State University , Raleigh,North Carolina, USAc Federal Management Partners, Inc. , Alexandria, Virginia, USAPublished online: 15 Jul 2010.

    To cite this article: Tara S. Behrend , Eric N. Wiebe , Jennifer E. London & Emily C. Johnson (2011) Cloudcomputing adoption and usage in community colleges, Behaviour & Information Technology, 30:2, 231-240, DOI:10.1080/0144929X.2010.489118

    To link to this article:


    Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.

    This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at

  • Cloud computing adoption and usage in community colleges

    Tara S. Behrenda*, Eric N. Wiebeb, Jennifer E. Londonb and Emily C. Johnsonc

    aDepartment of Organizational Sciences & Communication, The George Washington University, Washington DC 20052, USA;bFriday Institute for Educational Innovation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; cFederal

    Management Partners, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, USA

    (Received 15 September 2009; nal version received 21 April 2010)

    Cloud computing is gaining popularity in higher education settings, but the costs and benets of this tool have gonelargely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that lead to technology adoption in ahigher education setting. Specically, we examined a range of predictors and outcomes relating to the acceptance ofa cloud computing platform in rural and urban community colleges. Drawing from the Technology AcceptanceModel 3 (TAM3) (Venkatesh, V. and Bala, H., 2008. Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a research agenda oninterventions. Decision Sciences, 39 (2), 273315), we build on the literature by examining both the actual usage andfuture intentions; further, we test the direct and indirect eects of a range of predictors on these outcomes.Approximately 750 community college students enrolled in basic computing skills courses participated in this study;ndings demonstrated that background characteristics such as the students ability to travel to campus hadinuenced the usefulness perceptions, while ease of use was largely determined by rst-hand experiences with theplatform, and instructor support. We oer recommendations for community college administrators and others whoseek to incorporate cloud computing in higher education settings.

    Keywords: cloud computing; Technology Acceptance Model; higher education; community college; educationaltechnology

    1. Introduction

    Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular asa way to deliver technology to secondary and post-secondary education environments and other organi-sations. Industry leaders estimate that revenues fromcloud computing enterprises will reach $160 billion,and dene cloud computing as an emerging ITdevelopment, deployment and delivery model, en-abling real-time delivery of products, services andsolutions over the Internet (Fowler and Worthen2009). With its emphasis on the delivery of low-cost orfree applications anywhere on the Internet, cloudcomputing is a promising prospect for educationalinstitutions faced with budget restrictions and mobilestudent population. Commercial providers are eager toencourage educational adoption of cloud computing;for example, Google has created a special educationedition of their cloud-based Google Apps and touts ontheir website the number of educational institutionsthat have adopted this suite (Google 2009). Successfulimplementation of cloud computing in educationalsettings, however, requires careful attention to anumber of factors from both the student and schoolsperspective. This study examines the implementation

    of a cloud computing initiative in a community collegesetting with the goal of identifying the factors that leadto successful implementation.

    1.1. Cloud computing

    The term cloud computing describes the softwareapplications or other resources that exist online andare available to multiple users via the Internet, ratherthan being installed on a particular users localcomputer. Users can access these applications fromany computer with a high speed Internet connectionwhile having no other connection to the hardware thatholds the source software (Gruman 2008). Becausecomputation takes place on a remote server, the usershardware requirements are much lower than theywould be otherwise, reducing both cost and main-tenance requirements (Erenben 2009). For this reason,cloud computing holds appeal for school adminis-trators who seek to reduce information technology(IT) budgets (Behrend et al. 2008a). For many schoolsystems, cloud computing allows students to accesssoftware that was previously unavailable either due tocost or due to capability limitations in the local

    *Corresponding author. Email:

    Behaviour & Information Technology

    Vol. 30, No. 2, MarchApril 2011, 231240

    ISSN 0144-929X print/ISSN 1362-3001 online

    2011 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2010.489118




    by [U


    ity of


    a Libr

    ary] a

    t 09:2

    0 22 O


    r 201


  • computer hardware (Jerald and Orlofsky 1999). Alter-nately, applications can be oered through cloudsolutions because they are easier to maintain ascentralised services. Some well-known providers ofsuch applications are email service providers such asGmail or Yahoo. Similarly, Google provides GoogleDocs (2007), a popular, free program that allows a userto upload a document and specify other users who canhave access to it.

    Cloud computing can be highly benecial ineducational settings. Among the possible benets isthe enhanced usefulness of the existing technology.Because processing is done outside a users computer,older computers can remain useful for longer periodsof time. In addition, installing software or repairingerrors can be done centrally at the server level by theschool IT sta, as opposed to that at the individualcomputer level, which can result in less time expendedon these tasks (Chen 2004, Erenben 2009).

    Community colleges have begun to oer moredistance learning courses in the hopes that with agreater exibility to complete their coursework, morestudents will be able to enrol. In this scenario, cloudcomputing oers a way to ensure that students are ableto access and run the required course software,regardless of their location or local computer proces-sing power. Without cloud computing, the potential ofdistance learning is often not realised for technology-intensive courses, as students would need to travel tocampus to access the software they need in schoollaboratories.

    Rural students may have the most to gain fromcloud computing initiatives. Students who attend ruralschools are typically dispersed and have to commutelonger distances to get to campus. Cloud computingcan meet these students needs by providing a commoninterface to a class or a school and by providing richcontent that allows the students to engage in learningregardless of location. The prospect of completingtechnology assignments from home instead of stayingafter school to use laboratory computers may mean thedierence between staying enrolled and dropping out,as high transportation costs can become unmanageablefor many low-resource students (Sander 2008).

    Along with the substantial benets of cloudcomputing, though, come potential pitfalls that canimpede usefulness and cause substantial frustration.One concern is the prospect of uncontrollable down-time, which will vary by provider, and can occur asserver maintenance is performed or as unforeseenoutages occur (Stone 2008). Because software isaccessed remotely, there may be a perceived or actuallack of control over when it will be available for use.Another concern is the lack of training and support forkey stakeholders, such as instructors, administrators or



View more >