contamination, food allergens, and foodborne illness

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Contamination, Food Allergens, and Foodborne Illness. Foodborne Contaminants. Biological Fish toxins Shellfish toxins Plant and mushroom toxins Chemical Toxic metal poisoning Chemicals and pesticides Physical Metal shavings from cans, staples Fingernails, hair, bandages. 3-3. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Contamination, Food Allergens, and Foodborne Illness

  • Foodborne ContaminantsBiologicalFish toxinsShellfish toxinsPlant and mushroom toxinsChemicalToxic metal poisoningChemicals and pesticidesPhysicalMetal shavings from cans, staplesFingernails, hair, bandages3-3

  • Biological ToxinsThese ToxinsMay be produced by pathogens found on food May occur naturally in plants or animalsMay occur as a result of an animals diet

    3-4

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Fish ToxinsSome fish toxins are produced by the fish itselfcooking does not destroyPuffer fishMoray eelsFresh water minnowsSome occur when predatory fish consume smaller fish that have eaten the toxin

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Fish ToxinsFish Toxin IllnessesScombroid poisoning Ciguatera fish poisoning3-5

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Fish Toxins

    Illness:Scombroid poisoning Toxin:HistamineTunaBonitoMackerelMahi-mahiReddening of face and neckSweatingHeadacheBurning or tingling in mouth or throatPurchase fish from approved, reputable suppliersPrevent time-temperature abuse during storage and preparationFood Involved Common SymptomsPrevention3-6

  • Histamine PoisoningCaused by eating high levels of histamine in certain species of fishHistamine produced:By the bacteria on the fish when the fish are time-temperature abusedCannot be destroyed by:FreezingCookingSmokingCuring

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Fish Toxins

    Illness:Ciguatera fish poisoning Toxin:CiguatoxinPredatory reef fish:BarracudaGrouperJacksSnapperReversal of hot and cold sensationsNauseaVomitingTingling in fingers, lips, and toesJoint and muscle painFood Involved Common SymptomsPreventionPurchase fish from approved, reputable suppliers3-7

  • Symptoms of ciguatera poisoning include:Numbness and tingling of the mouth, hands or feetJoint pain; muscle painSensitivity to temperature changesVertigo, and muscular weaknessThere also can be cardiovascular problems including:Irregular heartbeat and reduced blood pressure.

  • Symptoms usually appear within hours after eating a toxic fishSymptoms usually go away within a few weeksIn some cases, neurological symptoms can last for months to yearsThere is no antidote for CFP; symptoms can be treated most effectively if diagnosed by a doctor with 72 hoursCFP is rarely fatal.

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Shellfish ToxinsShellfish Toxin IllnessesParalytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP)Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)3-8

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Shellfish ToxinsFood Involved Common SymptomsPreventionNumbnessTingling of mouth, face, arms and legsDizzinessNauseaVomitingDiarrheaIllness:Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)Toxin:SaxitoxinClamsMusselsOystersScallops

    Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers3-9

  • SaxitoxinFound in toxic algae in the Pacific and New England coastsAlgae filters through the shellfishDeath due to paralysis can occur if high levels are consumedNot destroyed by cooking or freezing

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Shellfish ToxinsFood Involved Common SymptomsPreventionTingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and throatDizzinessReversal of hot and cold sensationsVomitingDiarrheaPurchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliersClamsMusselsOystersIllness:Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP)Toxin:Brevetoxin3-10

  • Major Foodborne Illnesses from Shellfish ToxinsFood Involved Common SymptomsPreventionClamsMusselsOystersScallops

    Initially:VomitingDiarrheaAbdominal painLater: (Possibly)ConfusionMemory lossDisorientationSeizureComaPurchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliersIllness:Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)Toxin:Domoic Acid3-11

  • Domoic AcidToxin found in algae from the Pacific Northwest and CanadaCannot be destroyed by cooking or freezingCan be very severe based on the amount of toxin consumed

  • Mushroom ToxinsThese ToxinsAre present in certain varieties of wild mushrooms Can cause severe illnessAre not destroyed by cooking or freezing

    3-13

  • Mushroom ToxinsMost outbreaks associated with wild mushrooms collected by amateur huntersIf you serve wild mushrooms, you need written buyer specifications that:Identify the mushrooms common name, its Latin name, and its authorEnsure the mushroom was identified in its fresh stateIndicate the name of the person who identified the mushroom with qualifications must be a mushroom expertThere are none in the state of Nebraska!

  • Morel MushroomsIowa has mushroom specialist classesCan be purchased dry

  • Plant ToxinsFava beansRhubarb leaves, jimsonweed, & water hemlockApricot kernelsHoney from bees that have gathered nectar from mountain laurel or rhododendronsMilk from cows that have eaten snakeroot

  • Toxic When RawFava beansRed Kidney Beans**Only use commercially processed honey and properly cooked beans should be used

  • Chemical ToxinsToxic Metals Toxic metal poisoning can occur when:Utensils or equipment containing toxic metals are used to prepare food (especially acidic food)Lead in pewter pitchers, copper, zinc in a galvanized bucket, lead crystalCarbonated beverage dispensers are installed improperlyTo prevent this:Use food-grade utensils and equipment to prepare and store foodHave a professional install beverage dispensers3-14

  • Chemical ToxinsChemicals Store away from food, utensils, and equipmentFollow manufacturers directions for using themLabel them properly if they are transferred to new containersUse only food-grade lubricants or oils on kitchen equipment or utensilsNever store chemicals with food3-15

  • Physical ContaminantsOccurs when foreign objects are accidentally introduced:Metal shavings from cansStaples from cartonsGlass from broken light bulbsBlades from plastic or rubber scrapersFingernails, hair, and bandagesDirtBones3-16

  • Food DefenseFood Defensethe protection of food products from intentional adulteration by biological, chemical, physical or radiological agentsFood Safety the protection of food products from unintentional contamination by agents

  • Why the Food Supply?Economic, health, societal, psychological and political significanceDeliberate contamination could cause:Significant public health consequencesWidespread public fearDevastating economic impactLoss of public confidence in the safety of food and the effectiveness of the government

  • Intentional Incidents1984---Oregon cult members added Salmonella bacteria to 10 restaurant salad bars to throw an election751 illnesses, 45 hospitalizationsJanuary 2003---Michigan supermarket employee intentionally contaminated 200 pounds of ground beef with a nicotine-based pesticide92 individuals reported ill

  • Deliberate Contamination of FoodWho:Disgruntled employeesOrganized terroristActivist groupIndividual posing as a customerCurrent or former employeesVendorsCompetitorsAttacks are focused on a specific:Food itemProcessCompanyBusiness

  • Your jobmake it as difficult as possible to tamper with foodThree Potential Threat Areas:Human elementsInterior elementsExterior elements

  • The Human ElementTrain employees to report suspicious activitiesAllow only on-duty employees in work areasControl access to food production and food storage areas to non-employeesVerify identity of applicantsVerify referencesCheck ID

  • Interior ElementsControl entrances and exits to:Food DisplaysStorage areasKitchensLimit access to:DoorsWindowsRoofsFood storage areas

  • Interior ElementsEliminate hiding places in all areas of the operationInspect all food, never accept suspect foodRestrict traffic in food-prep areasMonitor self-service areas:Salad barsCondimentsExposed tableware

  • Exterior ElementsExterior of building is well litIdentify all delivery persons and their suppliersAsk suppliers how they are insuring food safetyNo access to the facility by non-employees

  • Allergy Facts2% of the U.S. population has a true food allergy (12 million)100 deaths per year from anaphylaxis1,080 food induced anaphylactic reactions per year

  • Increase in Allergy PrevalenceFood allergies have doubled in the past 5-10 years in the U.S.Possibly Due To:Hygiene hypothesisearly exposure to germsEarly introduction of foodsCooking practicesroasting peanutsVaccinesEnvironment

  • Food AllergensCommon Food AllergensMilk and dairy productsEggs and egg productsFishShellfishWheatSoy and soy productsPeanutsTree nuts3-17

  • Symptoms of an allergic reaction include:Itching in and around the mouth, face, or scalpTightening in the throatWheezing or shortness of breathHivesSwelling of the face, eyes, hands, or feetGastrointestinal symptomsLoss of consciousness and deathFood Allergens3-18

  • Allergic ReactionsDo not happen the first time someone comes in contact with the allergenReaction gets worse with each exposure

  • Food AllergensTo protect guests with food allergies:Be able to fully describe menu itemsIf you are unsure if an item is allergen free, urge the guest to order something elseEnsure that tableware and utensils used to prepare the guests food are allergen freeYou have their lives in your hands!3-19

  • Food AllergiesMore than 11 million Americans suffer from food allergies and predictions are that the incidence of food allergies is on the increase! http://supermarketguru.com/page.cfm/7512

  • Food Allergy Buddy

    **Instructor NotesFood is considered contaminated when it contains hazardous biological, chemical, or physical substances.Most foodborne illnesses are caused by bacteria, parasit

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