Convergence of Occupational and Environmental Exposure Science: the Whole Picture

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The presentation was given at the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES) in Cincinnati (www.ISES2014.org). It describes work in the HEALS project (www.HEALS-eu.eu). This project has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 603946. .

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<ul><li> 1. Convergence of Occupationaland Environmental ExposureScience: the Whole PictureJohn CherrieISES 2014: Exposure Science Integration to Protect Ecological Systems,Human Well-Being, and Occupational HealthINSTITUTE OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE . Edinburgh . UK www.iom-world.org</li></ul> <p> 2. A situation in which people orthings gradually become thesame or very similar. 3. Summary Coal and coal workers pneumoconiosis 60 years is a long time! The advent of personal exposure monitoring Modern approaches to exposure assessment Things just keep getting better The exposome The occupational exposome The HEALS project 4. Past exposure to dust In British coal mines in the 1940s dustlevels could be very highTotal(mg/m3)Respirable(mg/m3)Longwall stalls 394 14Narrow places 215 20Bedford and Warner (1943) Chronic pulmonary disease in South Walescoalminers II Environmental studies. London: HMSO. 5. Exposures decreased over time 6. Lead poisoning in Britain 7. Our streets were polluted 8. Black smoke in London 9. Sampling was not easy 10. Nor in the workplace 11. The advent of personal samplingSherwood and Greenhalgh (1960)Cherrie, J. (2003). The beginning of the science underpinning occupationalhygiene. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 47(3), 179185. 12. Environment affects exposureCherrie, J. (2003). The beginning of the science underpinning occupationalhygiene. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 47(3), 179185. 13. Personal monitoringSCOPUS search term: ( TITLE-ABS-KEY ( personal monitoring" exposure )AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( occupational OR work ) ) 14. Papers on biological monitoringSCOPUS search term: ( TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "biological monitoring" exposure )AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( occupational OR work ) ) 15. Personal monitoring 16. Modeling exposure 17. Omics 18. ISES papers 19. ConclusionAssessment methods are convergingtowards measurement or modeling ofpersonal exposure: Biological monitoring Personal sampling / monitoring Models omics assessment 20. Work exposures decreaseCreely KS et al. (2007) Trends in inhalation exposure--a review of the data inthe published scientific literature. Ann Occup Hyg.; 51(8): 665-678. 21. And in the environmentLaden et al. (2006). Reduction in Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality. AmericanJournal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173(6), 667672. 22. And we can go back in time! 23. ConclusionExposure levels in workplaceand non-workplaceenvironments are decreasing(converging?) 24. Regulations In Europe, the REACH regulations bringsome coherence to supplied chemicals Companies are responsible for collectinginformation on the properties and the uses ofsubstances (&gt;1 tonne per yr) Make an assessment of the hazards andpotential risks presented by the substance Environmental protection and public health Worker protection and work-related publichealth Consumer protectionRegistration, Evaluation, Authorisation &amp; restriction of CHemicals (REACH) 25. REACH and models Heavy reliance on exposure modeling, but Models generally imprecise and inaccurate No consistent approach either within orbetween exposure contexts ART and dART Based on a source-receptorconceptual model Bayesian process to combinemeasurements and model Eteam project Initiative to benchmarkscreening models 26. E-teamprojecthttp://www.baua.de/en/Topics-from-A-to-Z/Hazardous-Substances/Workshops/ETEAM-2014/ETEAM-2014.html 27. ART, the Advanced REACH ToolRespiratory tractPersonalbehaviourInhalation boundary 28. 29Example from pharmaceuticalindustry1000001000010001001010.0001 0.01 1 100 100000.10.010.001Estimated concentration (mg/m3)AS JWC PMcD1:1 lineMean measured concentration (mg/m3)Cherrie et al. (2009). Modelling exposure to pharmaceutical agents (Vol. 151).Presented at the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 29. ConclusionThere will probably be increasingregulatory convergence forenvironment, consumer andworker exposure assessment 30. Scientific convergenceConvergence means a broad rethinking ofhow all scientific research can beconducted, so that we can capitalize on arange of knowledge bases, frommicrobiology to computer science toengineering design. In other words, theconvergence revolution does not rest ona particular scientific advance but on anew integrated approach for achievingadvances.The Third Revolution: The Convergence of the Life Sciences,Physical Sciences and Engineering, MIT 2011 31. Scientific convergenceConvergence means a broad rethinking ofhow all scientific research can beconducted, so that we can capitalize on arange of knowledge bases, frommicrobiology to computer science toengineering design. In other words, theconvergence revolution does not reston a particular scientific advance buton a new integrated approach forachieving advances.The Third Revolution: The Convergence of the Life Sciences,Physical Sciences and Engineering, MIT 2011 32. The ExposomeThe exposome is composed of everyexposure to which an individual issubjected from conception to death. It comprises: processes internal to the body such asmetabolism, gut microflora, inflammation external exposures including infectious agents,chemical contaminants, diet social, economic and psychologicalinfluences.Wild, C. P. (2012). The exposome: from concept to utility. InternationalJournal of Epidemiology, 41(1), 2432. 33. HEALS Health and Environment-wide Associationsbased on Large population SurveysHEALS presentations also: Th-O-A1-04 and Th-P-26 29 collaborating institutes throughoutEurope Main outcome to provide guidelines andprocedures for a larger EU environment andhealth surveyThis project has received funding from the European Unions SeventhProgramme for research, technological development anddemonstration under grant agreement No 603946 34. The HEALS paradigmExposuremodellingSystems Effects /Individual exposomeCommunityEffects / CohortsGI tract portal veinLiverHeartBrainMusclesSkinKidneysAdiposeBonesBreastUterus - gonadsLungsGI tract portal veinLiverHeartBrainMusclesSkinKidneysAdiposeBonesBreastUterus - gonadsLungsmetaboliteformationArterialbloodVenousbloodArterialbloodVenousbloodEWASCellular/tissueeffectsMolecularinitiating eventsTranscriptomicsUbiquitouspersonal sensorsEnvironmentalsensorsRemotesensingEnvironmentalmodeling / datamanagementEnvironmentalanalysisHumanbiosamplingAgent basedmodellingMetabolomicsFluxomics(dynamic fluxbalance analysis)Bioinformatics / Pathway analysissystems biologyEpigenetics 35. EXHES:A transgenerational study Women with twins Women with asingleton born inthe same day, ofthe same sex as thetwins Women withsingletonsThis project has received funding from theEuropean Unions Seventh Programme forresearch, technological development anddemonstration under grant agreement N603946 36. Exposome in birth cohortsThis project has received funding from theEuropean Unions Seventh Programme forresearch, technological development anddemonstration under grant agreement N603946 37. ** ********This project has received funding from theEuropean Unions Seventh Programme forresearch, technological development anddemonstration under grant agreement N603946 38. EXHES exposome data Data collected post-partum and periodicallyover the following 3-years Cord blood, cord tissue, pieces of placenta,colostrum/meconium and mothers andfathers hair and urine Data on location and activity andenvironmental measurements used formodeling personal external exposure Questionnaires, e.g. diet, home etc. 39. The occupational exposome 40. Convergence challenges We need a common theoretical paradigmfor exposure science to progress This needs to integrate internal andexternal exposure assessment within theexposome paradigm We should promote population andworkplace cohorts that track individualsand biobank material 41. QuestionsThis project has received funding from the European UnionsSeventh Programme for research, technological developmentand demonstration under grant agreement No 603946 </p>

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