deforming the earth’s crust faults and folds
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DESCRIPTIONDeforming the Earth’s Crust Faults and Folds. Chapter 7 Section 4. Deformation. The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress . There are two types of stress that occur in rocks: Compression Tension. Compression. Compression occurs when rock is squeezed. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Deforming the Earths CrustFaults and FoldsChapter 7 Section 4
DeformationThe process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress.There are two types of stress that occur in rocks:CompressionTension
Compression Compression occurs when rock is squeezed.
Compression happens when two plates collide at a convergent boundary.
Compression occurs and forms large mountain ranges.
Compression/ Mountain BuildingThe Himalayas, for example, were raised by the compression that accompanied collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate. Another example is Europe's Alps and Jura mountains which were also formed by horizontal compression, generated in their case by collision with the African plate and the Eurasian plate.
TensionTension occurs when an object is stretched.Tension occurs when plates move away from each other at plate boundaries.At the Mid-Atlantic ridge the seafloor is spreading at a rate of about 3cm per year. The frequency of earthquakes at a mid-ocean ridge will depend on how much tension is happening at that point. The more tension means the more seafloor spreading, resulting in a higher frequency of earthquakes at a particular mid-ocean ridge.
FoldingFolding is the bending of rock layers due to stress in the Earths crust.Depending on how rock layers deform, different types of folds occur:AnticlineSynclineMonocline
AnticlineAn anticline is an upward-arching fold.An anticline is formed when there is horizontal stress on rock layers.Horizontal stress
SynclineSynclines are downward folds.They are also caused by horizontal stress.Horizontal Stress
MonoclineMonoclines are rock layers that are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal.
FaultsSome rock layers break when stress is applied to them.The surface along which rocks break is called a fault.The blocks of crust on each side of the fault are called fault blocks.A fault has a foot wall and a hanging wall.
FootwallFootwallYou could walk up this face of the fault, on foot, hence the name footwall.
Hanging WallYou could hang from this wall.Hanging WallThis is a normal fault. Notice how the rock layers are the same at the red lines.
Hanging wall and Footwall
3 Types of FaultsNormal FaultReverse FaultSlip-Strike Fault
Normal FaultRocks are pulled apart because of tension.In a normal Fault, the hanging wall slides down the footwall.FootwallHanging wall
Reverse FaultIn a reverse fault the hanging wall is pushed upward due to compression.
Strike-Slip FaultOpposing forces cause rocks to move horizontally. Earthquakes occur along these faults.
San Andreas Fault, CaliforniaStrike-Slip Fault
3 Most Common Types of MountainsMountains exist because tectonic plates are continually moving around and colliding with each other.There are 3 types of mountains, named for how they form:Folded MountainsFault-Block MountainVolcanic Mountain
Folded MountainsFolding is a process in which the Earth's plates are pushed together in a roller coaster like series of high points and low points. Folding bends many layers of rocks without breaking them. The Appalachian Mountains and Rocky Mountains of the United States, and the Alps of Europe are examples of mountain ranges that were formed by folding. Folded Strata (Layers)
Fault- Block MountainsMountains sometimes form when many layers of the Earth's crust are moved vertically upward at fault lines by pressures caused by plates colliding. Fault lines are great cracks in the crust. The mountains that are formed in this way are called fault-block mountains. The Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Nevada, and the Grand Teton range of Wyoming are examples of fault-block mountains. Fault block mountains form when tension causes large blocks of crust to drop down relative to other blocks.
Volcanic MountainsVolcanic mountains are forms when magma erupts from a divergent boundary and hardens. Many volcanic mountains exist under the sea.Some volcanic mountains rise above the surface of the ocean to from islands, Hawaii for example.