Designing a science methods course for early childhood preservice teachers

Download Designing a science methods course for early childhood preservice teachers

Post on 10-Jul-2016

213 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>*OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATIONs&amp;ALLs </p><p>*OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATION6OL.O&amp;ALLPP$EPARTMENTOF#URRICULUMAND)NSTRUCTION#OLLEGEOF%DUCATIONAND(UMAN3ERVICES7ESTERN)LLINOIS5NIVERSITY</p><p>$ESIGNINGA3CIENCE-ETHODS#OURSEFOR%ARLY#HILDHOOD0RESERVICE4EACHERS6ALARIE,!KERSON)NDIANA5NIVERSITY</p><p>0REPARINGEARLYCHILDHOOD+TEACHERSTOTEACHSCIENCEPRESENTSSPECIALCHALLENGESFORTHE SCIENCEMETHODS INSTRUCTOR%ARLYCHILDHOODPRESERVICE TEACHERS TYPICALLYCOME TOTHEMETHODSCLASSROOMWITHLITTLESCIENCECONTENTKNOWLEDGETHEYALSOLACKCONFIDENCEIN THEIR OWNABILITIES TO TEACH SCIENCE4HIS PAPERPRESENTS A THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDREFLECTIONS OF A METHODS INSTRUCTOR AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHING AN EARLYCHILDHOODSCIENCEMETHODSCOURSE</p><p>)THASBEENFOUNDTHATPRIMARYANDELEMENTARYTEACHERSARERARELYSPECIALISTSIN SCIENCE AND INDEED OFTEN AVOID TEACHING IT BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT CONFIDENTTHEYCANTEACHITWELL.ATIONAL3URVEYOF3CIENCEAND-ATHEMATICS%DUCATION !TWATER 'ARDENER +IGHT #OX #ARPENTER 0ERKES 3CHOENEBERGER2USSELL4ILGNER)THASBEENSHOWNTHATELEMENTARYTEACHERSGENERALLYDONOTHAVEASOLIDUNDERSTANDINGOFSCIENCECONTENTEXHIBITINGMISCONCEPTIONSINPHYSICALSCIENCEINPARTICULAR,AWRENZ2ESEARCHSHOWSTHAT PRIMARY TEACHERS HOLDMISCONCEPTIONS ABOUTMOTION CHANGES INMATERIALS+RUGER 3UMMERS FORCES ENERGY +RUGER 0ALACIO 3UMMERS ANDLIGHTANDSHADOW3MITH.EALEHOWEVERALLPRIMARYANDELEMENTARYTEACHERSAREREQUIREDTO TEACHSCIENCEREGARDLESSOF THEIRQUALIFICATIONS THEYAREALSOEXPECTEDTOHELPTHEIRSTUDENTSMEETNATIONAL"ENCHMARKS!!!3AND.ATIONAL3TANDARDS.2#"ESIDESCONCERNSWITHCONTENTKNOWLEDGEANDCONFIDENCEINTEACHINGSCIENCE</p><p>EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHERS HAVE OTHER ISSUES TO CONSIDER &amp;OR INSTANCE ARE THEDEVELOPMENTAL LEVELSOFTHEIRSTUDENTSSUFFICIENTTOALLOWTHEMTOCONCEPTUALIZESPECIFIC SCIENCE CONTENT 4HERE IS DISAGREEMENT OF WHAT ACTUALLY CONSTITUTESDEVELOPMENTALAPPROPRIATENESSOF SCIENTIFIC IDEAS INSTRUCTIONANDCURRICULA FORYOUNGCHILDREN+UHN-ETZ(OWDOPRIMARYTEACHERSIDENTIFYSCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS OF CHILDREN WHO OFTEN HAVE NOT YET DEVELOPED STRONGWRITINGSKILLS!NDHOWDOWEHELPTHESETEACHERSBECOMEMORECOMFORTABLEINTHEIRABILITIESTOTEACHSCIENCETOYOUNGCHILDREN4HEPURPOSEOF THISPAPER IS TODESCRIBEGOALS FORANEARLYCHILDHOODSCIENCE</p><p>METHODSCOURSEWITHTHEDESIGNOFTHECOURSESETUPTOHELPPRESERVICETEACHERSMEETTHOSEGOALS4HEEXPERIENCESPROVIDEDINTHECOURSEWEREDESIGNEDTOHELPPRESERVICETEACHERSBUILDBOTHTHEIRSCIENCEANDPEDAGOGICALUNDERSTANDINGSASWELLASFORTHEPRESERVICETEACHERSTOPRACTICETHEMWITHYOUNGCHILDRENINORDERTO BUILD PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE 3HULMAN )T IS HOPED THAT THEPAPERWILLINFORMOTHERSWHOPREPAREEARLYCHILDHOODTEACHERSTOEFFECTIVELYTEACHSCIENCE</p></li><li><p> *OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATIONs&amp;ALLs</p><p>#ONTEXTOFTHE#OURSE</p><p>4HE%ARLY#HILDHOOD3CIENCE-ETHODSCOURSEISPARTOFASERIESOFCOURSESTAKENBY STUDENTS IN THE %ARLY #HILDHOOD "! AND #ERTIFICATION 0ROGRAM AT A LARGE-IDWESTERNUNIVERSITY-OSTEARLYCHILDHOODMAJORSINTENDTOTEACHKINDERGARTENASPRACTICINGTEACHERSBEINGCERTIFIEDINEARLYCHILDHOODEDUCATIONISCURRENTLYTHEONLYWAYTOBECOMECERTIFIEDTOTEACHKINDERGARTENINTHISSTATE7ITHTHEIR%ARLY#HILDHOODCERTIFICATIONTHEYCANTEACHPRESCHOOLTHROUGHTHIRDGRADE!SPARTOFTHEIR CREDIT DEGREEPROGRAM THEY TAKE ONLYNINE SEMESTER HOURS OF SCIENCEINCLUDING A GENERAL CONTENT COURSE FOR ELEMENTARY TEACHERS AND A TECHNOLOGYCOURSE 4HEY THEN SELECT A THREECREDIT ELECTIVE SCIENCE COURSE FROM A CHOICE OFCONTENTAREAS4HISNINECREDITHOURREQUIREMENTISTHREECREDITSFEWERTHANWHATELEMENTARYMAJORSTAKEATTHESAMEUNIVERSITY4HESTUDENTSINTHEEARLYCHILDHOODPROGRAMDOENROLLINTWOSCIENCEMETHODSCOURSESTAKENASACOHORTTHEFIRSTTOPREPARETHEMTOTEACHBOTHMATHANDSCIENCETOYOUNGCHILDRENTOYEARSOLDANDTHESECONDTOPREPARETHEMTOTEACHMATHANDSCIENCETOKINDERGARTENTOPRIMARYAGESTUDENTSAGES4HEGOALSOFTHE%ARLY#HILDHOOD0ROGRAMARETOACTIVELYENGAGESTUDENTSINAVARIETYOFEXPERIENCESANDACTIVITIESTOENABLETHESTUDENTSTO ACQUIRE THE KNOWLEDGE SKILLS AND DISPOSITIONS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEACHERDEVELOPSENSITIVITYTOISSUESOFDIVERSITYOFALLFORMSIERACECLASSCULTUREGENDERDISABILITYANDEMBRACEETHICALSOCIALANDINTELLECTUALCOMMITMENTSTOYOUNGCHILDRENUNIVERSITYDOCUMENT6IRTUALLYALLPRESERVICETEACHERSWHOAREPARTOFTHE%ARLY#HILDHOOD0ROGRAMAREFEMALEANDTHEMEANAGEIS4HEREAREAPPROXIMATELYTOSTUDENTSENROLLEDINEACHSECTION!SPARTOFTHESEMESTERINWHICHTHEYTAKETHE+SCIENCEMETHODSCOURSETHE</p><p>PRESERVICETEACHERSARECONCURRENTLYENROLLEDINAFIELDPLACEMENT4HEYSPENDONEFULLDAYEACHWEEKINA+CLASSROOM7ITHINTHATDAYTHEYAREREQUIREDTOTEACHLESSONSFROMALLCONTENTCOURSES INWHICHTHEYARECURRENTLYENROLLED INCLUDINGSCIENCETHEOTHERCOURSESINCLUDELANGUAGEARTSMATHSOCIALSTUDIESANDSPECIALEDUCATION'OALS FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS THAT ARE SPECIFIC TO THE EARLY CHILDHOOD SCIENCE</p><p>METHODS COURSE INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING TO INCREASE THEIR CONFIDENCE ANDCOMFORTLEVELFORTEACHINGSCIENCETOACQUIRESTRATEGIESFORTEACHINGSCIENCETOTOYEAROLDSTUDENTSTODEMONSTRATEANAWARENESSOFTHEDEVELOPMENTALAPPROPRIATENESSOFVARIOUSSCIENCECONCEPTSFORYOUNGCHILDRENTODEMONSTRATEAN UNDERSTANDING OF STATE AND NATIONAL BENCHMARKS AS THEY RELATE TO SCIENCETEACHINGANDTODEMONSTRATESKILLSININSTRUCTIONOFCURRICULUMDEVELOPMENTINANDASSESSMENTOF SCIENCESTANDARDS FORYOUNGCHILDREN4OHELPPRESERVICETEACHERS MEET THESE GOALS THE SCIENCE METHODS COURSE INSTRUCTOR TURNED TO ARESEARCHBASEINELEMENTARYSCIENCEEDUCATIONTODESIGNTHECOURSE4HEDESIGNOFTHECOURSEANDITSCOMPONENTSAREPRESENTEDINTHEFOLLOWINGSECTIONS</p><p>$ESIGNOFTHE#OURSE</p><p>4HE COMPONENTS OF THE COURSE 4ABLE WERE DESIGNED TO MEET THE COURSEGOALS WHILE ADDRESSING ISSUES OF TEACHER COMFORT LEVEL FOR TEACHING SCIENCEDEVELOPMENTAL APPROPRIATENESS OF CONCEPTS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN AND PRAGMATICISSUESINLEARNINGTOBEANEARLYCHILDHOODSCIENCETEACHER7ITHINTHEFOLLOWINGSECTIONSBELOWAREDESCRIPTIONSOFTHEFOCIFOREACHCOMPONENT</p></li><li><p>*OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATIONs&amp;ALLs</p><p>4ABLE-AIN#OMPONENTSOFTHE#OURSE</p><p>#OMPONENTS 3TRATEGIES</p><p>#OMPONENT/NE)NCREASINGPRESERVICETEACHERSCOMFORTWITHSCIENCEANDTEACHINGSCIENCE</p><p>)NSTRUCTORCREDIBILITY/PENNESSTOSTUDENTQUESTIONS$EVELOPMENTOFCONTENTKNOWLEDGE%MPHASISONNATUREOFSCIENCEANDINQUIRY,ITERACYCONNECTIONS!LLOWINGREVISIONOFASSIGNMENTS</p><p>#OMPONENT4WO%XPLICIT REFLECTION FOR TEACHING YOUNGCHILDRENSCIENCE</p><p>!SSESSINGPRIMARYSTUDENTIDEAS,ESSONPLANNING2EFLECTIONSONTEACHING7EEKLYREFLECTIONSONISSUESINPRIMARYSCIENCETEACHING</p><p>#OMPONENT4HREE0RAGMATIC ISSUES FOR TEACHING YOUNGCHILDRENSCIENCE</p><p>#LASSROOMMANAGEMENT3ELECTINGACTIVITIES!SSESSMENTISSUES7ORKINGINANOTHERTEACHERSCLASSROOM</p><p>#OMPONENT/NE)NCREASING0RESERVICE4EACHERS#OMFORTWITH3CIENCEAND4EACHING3CIENCE</p><p>)NSTRUCTOR#REDIBILITY4HEFIRSTITEMONTHECOURSEAGENDAISTOINTRODUCEMYSELFTHECOURSEINSTRUCTOR</p><p>ASAFORMERPRIMARYTEACHEROF THEFIRSTSECONDANDTHIRDGRADES )HAVEFOUNDTHATSHARINGTHAT)HAVEACTUALLYBEENAPRIMARYTEACHERRESPONSIBLEFORTEACHINGALLSUBJECTSINCLUDINGSCIENCEADDSCREDIBILITYTOMYMETHODSINSTRUCTIONANDTHEPRESERVICE TEACHERSWILLINGNESS TO ATTEND TO COURSE DISCUSSIONS AND THEORETICALISSUES ) AM ABLE TO SHARE TEACHING VIGNETTES AND EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY STUDENTWORKTOILLUSTRATEIMPORTANTPOINTS0RESERVICETEACHERSHAVECOMMENTEDINCOURSEEVALUATIONSABOUTHOWMUCHTHEYAPPRECIATEDTHETEACHINGSTORIESANDEXAMPLESOFSTUDENTWORK0RIORWORKWITHINSERVICETEACHERSALSOSUPPORTSTHEVALUEPRIMARYTEACHERS PLACE ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT BY SOMEONE WHO HAS EXPERIENCETEACHINGATTHEIRGRADELEVEL$ICKINSON"URNS(AGEN,OCKER</p><p>"EING/PENTO3TUDENT1UESTIONS) ALSO REMAINED OPEN TO PRESERVICE TEACHER QUESTIONS &amp;OR EXAMPLE ON THE</p><p>DAYOFTHEEQUINOXONEPRESERVICETEACHERSTATEDTHATONTHISDAYWESHOULDBEABLE TOBALANCE ANUNCOOKEDEGGONONE END ) STATEDMYDISBELIEF BUT TURNEDTHECOMMENTBACKTOTHEPRESERVICETEACHERSBYASKINGh(OWCANWEFINDOUTv/NEPRESERVICETEACHERWHOLIVEDONCAMPUSNEAROURCLASSROOMWENTHOMETOGET SOME EGGS 7HEN SHE RETURNED SEVERAL PRESERVICE TEACHERS INDEED WEREABLE TO BALANCE THE EGG ON ITS END 4HE PRESERVICE TEACHERS WERE AMAZED ANDBELIEVEDITWASSOMETHINGTODOWITHTHEEQUINOXHOWEVER)TOLDTHEM)WASSTILLUNCONVINCED9ESOUROBSERVATIONISTHATCERTAINPEOPLECANMAKEANEGGSTAND</p></li><li><p> *OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATIONs&amp;ALLs</p><p>ONONEENDYETWHATWOULDOURINFERENCEBE7HATCOULDPOSSIBLYEXPLAINTHATSOMEOFUSCOULDBALANCEANEGGONITSENDONTHISPARTICULARDAY#OULDWEDOITONOTHERDAYSASWELLORISTHERESOMETHINGSPECIALABOUTTHISDAY!NDWHYCANT ALL OF US DO IT 3TUDENTS PROPOSED ELABORATE EXPLANATIONS FOR THE EVENT&amp;INALLYSOMEONECONNECTEDTOTHE)NTERNETANDFOUNDANEXPLANATIONTHATSATISFIEDUSALL9ESWECANBALANCEANEGGONITSENDBUTITHASTODOWITHTHETALENTOFTHEPERSONDOING THEBALANCINGAND IT CANBEDONEONANYDAY4HEPRESERVICETEACHERSTESTEDTHISIDEABYBALANCINGEGGSONTHEIRENDSONSEVERALDAYSFOLLOWINGTHEEQUINOXSUPPORTINGTHECLAIM4HUSBYALLOWINGTHEMTOASKQUESTIONSANDBEINGRESPONSIVETOTHEIRQUESTIONS)ENCOURAGEDTHEMTOEXPLOREIDEASTHEYMAYNOTHAVEOTHERWISEEXPLOREDINAMANNERTHAT)HOPETHEYENCOURAGETHEIROWNSTUDENTSTOUTILIZE4HEYWEREFREETOASKQUESTIONSANDCONFRONTTHEIRIDEASWHICHMAYNOTHAVEBEENTHECASEINEARLIERSCIENCECONTENTCOURSES</p><p>$EVELOPMENTOF#ONTENT+NOWLEDGE!NOTHER PART OF THIS COMPONENT TO HELP PRESERVICE TEACHERS IMPROVE THEIR</p><p>COMFORT LEVELWAS TOHELP THEM FINDSTRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THEIR SCIENCECONTENTKNOWLEDGE 3IXTY MINUTES OF EACH THREEHOUR CLASS SESSION WERE DEVOTED TOEXPLORATIONOFSCIENCECONTENTINTHECONTEXTOFAHANDSONEXPLORATIONTHATSHAREDAMODELFORTEACHINGSCIENCETOYOUNGCHILDREN4HESEWEEKLYINVESTIGATIONSWEREALLINTHEPHYSICALSCIENCESEGCHEMISTRYPHYSICSBECAUSEPRIMARYTEACHERSTENDTOFOCUSONBIOLOGICALSCIENCEIFTHEYTEACHSCIENCEATALLANDWEWANTEDTOIMPROVETHEIRKNOWLEDGEOFPHYSICALSCIENCE4HEPRESERVICETEACHERSWEREASKEDTORESPONDTOANOPENENDEDQUESTIONTOELICITTHEIRIDEASABOUTTHESCIENCECONTENTSUCHASh7HYDOYOUTHINKSOMETHINGSFLOATANDOTHERSSINKv4HEYTHENPARTICIPATEDINAHANDSONINVESTIGATIONTOTESTTHINGSTHATFLOATANDSINKFOLLOWEDBYADISCUSSIONONHOWSUCHANINVESTIGATIONCOULDBEORCHESTRATEDWITHYOUNGCHILDREN&amp;INALLYTHEYWEREASKEDTOREVISITTHEIREARLIERELICITEDIDEASANDRESPONDAGAINTOTHEOPENENDEDQUESTION4HISTECHNIQUEHASPROVENTOBEANEFFECTIVEWAYFOREXPERIENCEDPRIMARYTEACHERSTOELICITSTUDENTIDEASANDTODESIGNINSTRUCTIONTOADDRESSTHOSEIDEAS!KERSON&amp;LANIGAN!KERSON&amp;LICK,EDERMAN0RESERVICE TEACHERS WERE ALSO ASKED TO FIND A CONTENT AREA IN CONSULTATION</p><p>WITH THEIR FIELDPLACEMENTMENTORS AND THENATIONALBENCHMARKS !!!3 ABOUTWHICHTHEYCOULDSTUDYANDEVENTUALLYDESIGNANDTEACHLESSONSTOYOUNGCHILDREN!FTERTHEYIDENTIFIEDANAREATHEYRESEARCHEDANDPREPAREDADOCUMENTDELINEATING IMPORTANT CONCEPTS RELATED TO THAT CONTENT &amp;OR INSTANCE IN APAPERTOPREPAREHERSELF FOR TEACHINGAUNITONSTATICELECTRICITY TOSECONDGRADERS THEPRESERVICETEACHERUSEDRESOURCESTOIMPROVEHERUNDERSTANDING(ERCONCEPTIONSOFhHOWCHARGESWORKEDvANDHOWCHARGEDOBJECTSWOULDhSTICKvTOUNCHARGEDOBJECTS IMPROVED AS A RESULT OF HER STUDY ) HOPED THAT ALL PRESERVICE TEACHERSWOULDREALIZETHATWHILETHEYMAYNOTINITIALLYUNDERSTANDALLTHESCIENCECONTENTTHEY WERE TO TEACH THEY COULD BE RESOURCEFUL ENOUGH TO IMPROVE THEIR OWNCONCEPTIONS</p><p>%MPHASISON.ATUREOF3CIENCEAND)NQUIRY"ECAUSE THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT ELEMENTARY TEACHERS DO NOT HAVE A STRONG</p><p>UNDERSTANDINGOF THENATUREOF SCIENCEAND INQUIRY THERE IS ANATUREOF SCIENCEANDINQUIRYCOMPONENTTHATISATHEMEINTHECOURSETAUGHTINAREFLECTIVEEXPLICITSTYLEPREVIOUSLYSHOWNTOBEEFFECTIVEWITHELEMENTARYANDPRESERVICEELEMENTARYTEACHERS!KERSON!BD%L+HALICK!KERSON!BD%L+HALICK,EDERMAN</p></li><li><p>*OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATIONs&amp;ALLs </p><p>4OEMPHASIZENATUREOFSCIENCEANDINQUIRYPRESERVICETEACHERSWERETREATEDTOWEEKLYINVESTIGATIONSOFCONTENTASDESCRIBEDABOVEDURINGWHICHTHEYWEREOFTENASKED TODESIGN INVESTIGATIONS TOANSWERAPARTICULARQUESTION!SPARTOFTHISEMPHASISONINQUIRYDISCUSSIONSWEREHELDREGARDINGHOWTOTEACHINQUIRYSCIENCETOYOUNGCHILDRENBEGINNINGWITHHELPINGYOUNGCHILDRENFRAMEQUESTIONSTHATCANBEANSWEREDTHROUGHSCIENTIFICINVESTIGATIONS!TTHEBEGINNINGOFEACHCLASSSESSIONAPPROXIMATELYMINUTESWEREDEVOTED</p><p>TODISCUSSIONOREXPLORATIONOFIDEASRELATEDTONATUREOFSCIENCE./34HEASPECTSOF./3THATWEREEMPHASIZEDARETHESEVENTHATARETHOUGHTTOBEATTAINABLEBY+STUDENTS4HESEASPECTSARETHATSCIENCEISTENTATIVESUBJECTIVECREATIVEANDIMAGINATIVEANDBASEDONEMPIRICALDATA4WOOTHERASPECTSTHATWEREEMPHASIZEDWERE THEDISTINCTIONBETWEENOBSERVATIONAND INFERENCEANDTHEORIESAND LAWS4HEACTIVITIESTHATWEREUSEDTOSENSITIZEPRESERVICETEACHERSTOTHEIDEASWERETHOSEFOUNDIN,EDERMANAND!BD%L+HALICKWHICHPREVIOUSLYHADBEENUSEDSUCCESSFULLY WITH PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS !KERSON !BD%L+HALICK ,EDERMAN4HROUGHOUTTHESEMESTERTHEPRESERVICETEACHERSENGAGEDINTHE./3ACTIVITIESANDDESCRIBEDWHICHASPECTSOF./3WEREILLUSTRATEDBYTHEACTIVITYANDHOW)NADDITIONTHEPRESERVICETEACHERSWEREASKEDTODESCRIBEWHICHASPECTSOF./3WEREILLUSTRATEDBYTHECONTENTACTIVITIESEACHWEEK0RESERVICETEACHERSREAD SEVERAL PAPERS DESCRIBING APPROPRIATE ./3 CONCEPTIONS EG -C#OMAS0ENROSEANDRESPONDEDWITH THEIRVIEWS THROUGHREFLECTIVEPAPERS0RESERVICE TEACHERSWERE ALSO ASKED TO ORALLY DESCRIBEWHICH EMPHASIZED./3ELEMENTSWEREILLUSTRATEDINTHESCIENTIFICINQUIRIESINWHICHTHEYENGAGEDINCLASS4HUS./3ANDINQUIRYWEREEMPHASIZEDEACHCLASSSESSIONTHROUGHWRITTENANDORALMEANS</p><p>,ITERACY#ONNECTIONS4HEREISEVIDENCETHATELEMENTARYTEACHERSHAVESTRENGTHSINTERESTANDCOMFORT</p><p>LEVELSINLITERACYINSTRUCTION!KERSONETAL$ICKINSONETALSOONEPART OF THIS COMPONENT HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED TO HELP PRESERVICE TEACHERS SEEINTERDISCIPLINARYCONNECTIONSBETWEENLITERACYANDSCIENCEINSTRUCTIONANDWHENITISAPPROPRIATETOUSETHESEASOPPOSEDTOSTRAIGHTDISCIPLINARYINSTRUCTION3EVERAL TACTICS HELPED PRESERVICE TEACHERS SEE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LITERACY</p><p>ANDSCIENCEINSTRUCTIONANDWHENTHEYSHOULDREMAINSEPARATE&amp;IRSTSAMPLESOFBOTH FICTIONANDNONFICTIONSCIENCERELATEDCHILDRENS LITERATUREWERE READAT THEBEGINNINGOFEACHCLASSSESSIONTOALLOWDISCUSSIONOFAPPROPRIATEUSEINPRIMARYCLASSROOMS&amp;OR INSTANCE )READ7IESNERS *UNEONECLASSPERIODAND A DISCUSSION ENSUED FOLLOWING THE OPENENDED PROMPT h(OWMIGHT THISBOOKBEUSEDINYOURFUTURECLASSROOMSv4HEPRESERVICETEACHERSRESPONDEDWITHSTATEMENTSSUCHAShTOSHOWHOWSCIENCETAKESPLACEINSCHOOLSvANDhTOILLUSTRATETHE ASPECTS OF NATURE OF SCIENCE THATWEHAVE BEEN STUDYINGv 4HUS THEY HAVETAKENASTEPBEYONDSIMPLYREADINGASCIENCEBOOKTOTHEIRCLASSANDHAVEBEGUNTHINKINGABOUTEFFECTIVELYUSINGCHILDRENSLITERATURETOREINFORCEIMPORTANTIDEAS3ECOND )WANTEDSTUDENTS TO RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCEOFWRITING INHELPING</p><p>THEM DEVELOP THEIR SCIENTIFIC IDEAS &amp;ULWILER ,ANGER !PPLEBEE -AYHER,ESTER0RADL4OMODELTHEIMPORTANCEOFWRITINGINIMPROVINGSCIENTIFIC IDEAS ) ASKEDPRESERVICE TEACHERS TOWRITEDOWN THEIR OWN IDEAS ANDEXPLANATIONSFORSCIENTIFICPHENOMENASUCHASHOWTHEYTHOUGHTA#ARTESIAN$IVERWORKED!CLASSDISCUSSIONWASSUBSEQUENTLYHELDDURINGWHICHSEVERALSTUDENTEXPLANATIONSWERE SHARED AND STUDENTSWERE FREE TO REVISE THEIR EXPLANATIONS</p></li><li><p> *OURNALOF%LEMENTARY3CIENCE%DUCATIONs&amp;ALLs</p><p>0ARTICIPATING IN USING WRITING TO EXPLORE THEIR OWN IDEAS ILLUSTRATED TO THEMFIRSTHAND THE IMPORTANCE OF WRITING IN DEVELOPING CONCEPTIONS!DDITIONALLY )SHAREDSAMPLESOFPRIMARYSTUDENTSCIENCEWRITINGFROMFIRSTSECONDANDTOTHIRDGRADECLASSROOMS4HESEWRITINGSTOOKPLACEINTHEFORMOFSTUDENTSCIENCEJOURNALSONEPAGE RESPONSES TO TEACHER PROMPTS AND FORMAL REPORTS AFTER INDEPENDENTRESEARCH 4HE PRESERVICE TEACHERS HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO SEE SCIENCE WRITINGSAMPLESFROMSTUDENTSOFVARIOUSGRADESANDDEVELOPMENTALLEVELSANDTONOTETHEPROGRESSIONOF SCIENTIFIC IDEASANDCONCEPTIONSOVER TIME&amp;OR INSTANCE INAFIRSTGRADESTUDENTSELECTRICITYSCIENCEJOURNALTHESTUDENTSINITIALENTRYWASTHAThELECTRICITYWORKSBYSHOCKINGYOUv3EVERALENTRIESLATERTHEPRESERVICETEACHERSWEREABLETONOTETHATTHESTUDENTSRESPONSEIMPROVEDTOhELECTRICITYWORKSWHENTHEREISACOMPLETECIRCUITv4HUSTHEPRESERVICETEACHERSCOULDNOTEIMPROVEMENTINSCIENTIFICCONCEPTIO...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >