earth/space review. our solar system our complex solar system is made up of the sun, the moon,...
Post on 24-Dec-2015
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- EARTH/SPACE REVIEW
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- Our Solar System Our complex solar system is made up of the sun, the moon, Earth, other planets and their moons, meteors, asteroids, comets, and unknown objects. Each of these bodies has its own unique characteristics and features. None of them are exactly the same.
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- Our Solar System Most scientists believe our solar system is about 4.5 billion years old and that it began as a space cloud, called a nebula. The nebula was made up of bits of space dust, rocks, ice, and gas. After 100,000 years or so, a tiny star, not yet ready to give light, began to form in the center of the nebula. This star was our Sun.
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- Our Solar System Scientists have organized space so we can understand how large space really is! Our Universe is everything that exists, including the Earth, the Solar System, and all the stars and galaxies. One of the most important things in the universe is gravity. It is the force that keeps the planets in motion around the sun. Gravity acts everywhere in the universe!
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- Our Solar System A Galaxy is a huge mass of stars, gas, and dust clouds that exist in one area of space held together by gravity. Scientists think there may be as many as 100 billion galaxies in the universe. Galaxies are larger than constellations and the solar system.
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- Our Solar System Our Solar System consists of the Sun and all the objects in space that orbit it, including the nine planets, and their moons, along with numerous comets, asteroids, and meteoroids.
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- The Earth and the Solar System are located in the Milky Way galaxy. The sun revolves around the Milky Way Galaxy once every 240 million years.
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- The inner planets are closest to the Sun-- Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Marshave solid surface made of a mix of rocks, dirt, an minerals. Each of the inner planets are terrestrial, rocky, smaller, and have no rings.
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- The outer planets are farthest away from the SunJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptunedont have a solid surface, they are made up mostly of gas, with a rocky core. They are all gaseous and have rings, they are also larger and known as the gas giants. They are all gaseous and have rings, they are also larger and known as the gas giants.
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- Of all the planets Saturn and Jupiter are the largest. Mercury is the closest to Earth and is the smallest.
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- As of 2006 Pluto was categorized as a dwarf planet. When it was first discovered in 1930, astronomers assumed Pluto was made of ice and gas because of its great distance from the Sun. As of 2006 Pluto was categorized as a dwarf planet. When it was first discovered in 1930, astronomers assumed Pluto was made of ice and gas because of its great distance from the Sun. However, scientists discovered Pluto was dense and has a rocky core, not gaseous as the other outer planets.
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- Plutos orbit is different from the orbits of the other planets. The larger planets travel around the Sun in an oval-shaped orbit. Plutos orbit is more of a stretched-out oblong. The other planets orbits are level with the Sun. Plutos is tilted. Pluto is not able to clear its orbit as the other planets so it is considered to be a dwarf planet.
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- ASTEROIDS Asteroids are like tiny planets, rocky or metallic objects, most of which orbit the Sun in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter. There are about 2,000 of them! None of the asteroids have atmosphere.
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- Meteors, Meteorites, and Meteoroids So what is the difference between a meteor, meteorite, and a meteoroid? A meteoroid is a chunk of rock or dust in space. They usually come from comets or asteroids. When a meteoroid enters the Earths atmosphere it is then called a meteor. Meteors are also chunks of matter orbiting the sun in orbits that cross the planets. When meteors occasionally hit the Earths atmosphere, they vaporize and give off a steak of light. However, when the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere and hits the Earths surface it is now a meteorite.
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- COMETS A comet is a small, icy celestial body that orbits around the sun. It is made up of a nucleus (solid, frozen ice, gas and dust), a gaseous coma (water vapor, CO 2, and other gases) and a long tail (made of dust and ionized gases). The tail develops when the comet is near the Sun. Its long ion tail always points away from the sun, because of the force of the solar wind. The tail can be up to 250 million km long, and is most of what we see. Comets are only visible when they're near the sun in their highly eccentric orbits.
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- Earth is Unique
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- Earth is a unique rocky planet, covered with large oceans of water and has frozen ice caps in its polar regions. It has a protective atmosphere consisting of nitrogen and oxygen and has a magnetic field. The atmosphere and magnetic field help shield the earths surface from harmful sun radiation. Earth is the only known planet able to support life. Scientific evidence identifies that the earth is about 4.5 billion years old!
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- Rotation or Revolution All of the planets revolve around the sun, and the moon revolves around the planets. Each of the planets rotates upon an axis. The Earth completes one revolution (or orbit) around the sun every year (365 days). The Earth completes one rotation on its axis every 24 hours.
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- WHAT REVOLVES AROUND WHAT?
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- NIGHT & DAY The earth is the 3 rd planet from the sun. It rotates on an imaginary axis and rotates once every 24 hours.
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- NIGHT & DAY As the earth rotates, different sides of it face toward or away from the sun. Depending on what side you are on, it is either day or night. As the earth rotates, different sides of it face toward or away from the sun. Depending on what side you are on, it is either day or night.
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- EARTHS REVOLUTION AND TILT The Earth moves around the sun in a regular curved path called an orbit. It takes 365 days or 1 year to revolve around the sun one time. The Earth is tilted on its axis. When Earth is tilted towards the sun we experience summer. The equator receives the most direct sunlight. Seasons occur because of the Earths tilt and revolution.
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- EARTHS REVOLUTION AND TILT It is important to realize that warmer summer temperatures occur because the Suns rays are striking more directly, not because part of the Earth is closer to the Sun.
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- THE MOON PHASES
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- THE PHASES OF THE MOON
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- NEW MOON The new moon is the phase of the moon when the moon is not visible from Earth. This situation arises because the side of the moon that is facing us is not being lit by the sun.
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- WAXING CRESCENT MOON As the moon continues its orbit, a small part of it begins to reflect the suns light towards Earth. This sliver, or crescent, is called a waxing crescent moon. The waxing moon continues to grow larger each day until it becomes a full moon.
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- FIRST QUARTER MOON When the moon is half lit, it is called a first-quarter moon. This is because it is one quarter of the way through its orbit of the Earth.
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- WAXING GIBBOUS MOON A waxing gibbous moon occurs during days when the moon is more than half illuminated, but not fully in view. Gibbous means hump or humpback.
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- FULL MOON A full moon occurs when the Earth is between the moon and the sun and we can see the entire moon reflecting the suns light.
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- BLUE MOON BLUE MOON When two full moons occur in a single month, the second full moon is called a "Blue Moon." Another definition of the blue moon is the third full moon that occurs in a season of the year which has four full moons (usually each season has only three full moons.) BLUE MOON When two full moons occur in a single month, the second full moon is called a "Blue Moon."
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- WANING GIBBOUS MOON As the moon become less full, it is called a waning gibbous moon. Waning means to get smaller. A waning gibbous moon is illuminated on the opposite side of a waxing gibbous moon.
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- THIRD QUARTER MOON OR LAST-QUARTER MOON After a few more days, the moon is once again half-lit. This time is is called a last quarter moon. It has gone through three-quarters of its orbit around the Earth.
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- WANING CRESCENT Soon, the moon is back to a crescent. This time it is called a waning crescent. Each day the sliver grows smaller and smaller until it cannot be seen at all.
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- NEW MOON We are now back to a new moon which again is the phase of the moon when the moon is not visible from Earth because the side of the moon that is facing us is not being lit by the sun.
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- LUNAR ECLIPSE The Earth is positioned between the moon and the sun, and Earths shado
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