emerging europe and the byzantine empire chapter 9

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Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire Chapter 9 Slide 2 Slide 3 Whatever happened to Rome? The Barbarians Germanic Peoples Goths, Angles, Saxons, Franks 476 ad Rome falls and Empire shifts East to Constantinople Role of family Weregild Ordeal Kingdom of the Franks Clovis (Christianity) Mayors of the Palace Charles Martel (Battle of Tours, 732) Pepin Charlemagne Slide 4 Carolingian Empire 800 ad Charlemagne crowned emperor by the Pope Leo III in Rome Who is pope? What does this say about role of church? Carolingian Renaissance Renewed interest in Latin culture and classics (Greek) Slide 5 The Role of the Church Rome officially adopts Christianity circa 400 ad under Theodosius the Great As state falls apart, structure of church remains Parish priest Bishopric (diocese) Bishop Archdiocese - Archbishop Bishop of Rome becomes primer inter pares (first among equals) and becomes pope Gregory I 590 - 604 Slide 6 Bishop The Pope Diagram of Catholic Church Hierarchy Slide 7 The Role of the Church Monks people who separate themselves from society to dedicate themselves to God Monasticism Hermit Communal Monasteries / abbot Benedictines Repositories of knowledge and centers of learning Nuns / abbesses Missionaries Slide 8 Slide 9 Development of Feudalism Between 800 1000 AD Europe suffered from a series of invasions Muslims (from south) Magyars (from east (Hungary) Vikings (from north) Inability of central government to provide protection led to a decentralized system called feudalism Slide 10 Feudal Life Lord a person of some wealth and power Vassal a person who served a lord in some military fashion Knights armored warriors frequently fought in tournaments as a way of training Fief grant of land to a vassal Feudal Contract the set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between lord and vassal Chivalry ideal of civilized behavior Peace of God Truce of God Obligations were mutual Slide 11 Growth of European Kingdoms England (post Roman withdrawal) Angles and Saxons Normans (French) William the Conqueror 1066 Battle of Hastings Henry II Common law Struggle with church Thomas a Becket King John 1215 Magna Carta Runnymede Edward I Development of English Parliament Slide 12 French Kingdom Carolingian dynasty (Charlemagne) Capetians (987) Philip II attempted to push English out of France Louis IX Ruled as a Christian King Philip IV (Estates General) Slide 13 European Kingdoms Holy Roman Empire Otto I (Germany) 962 crowned emperor of the Romans Frederick I and II struggle with popes Central and Eastern Europe West (Latinized Catholic) South / East (Byzantine Eastern Orthodox) Russia Kievan Rus Oleg assimilation Tatar Yoke Alexander Nevsky (Moscow) Slide 14 The Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire (Latin) transitions to Byzantine Empire (Greek) Emperor appoints patriarch 1054 schism between Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Church Seljuk Turks 1071 defeat Byzantine army Slide 15 The Crusades A series of religious wars in which European Christians attempted to conquer the Holy Lands Council of Claremont (1095) Pope Urban II http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072957549/student_view0/chapter20/interactive_map_quiz.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmvKDJgXS8k Results: Italian cities (Genoa, Pisa and Venice) gained wealth. Anti-Semitism Breakdown of feudal society Cultural diffusion Slide 16 Europe in the Middle Ages Chapter 10 Slide 17 A Change in Europe Population grows Fewer invasions Increase in agricultural productivity 3 field system (fallow) Warmer climate Land clearing Technology Watermill Windmill Slide 18 There were three men came out of the West, Their fortunes for to try, And these three men made a solemn vow: John Barleycorn must die. They've ploughed, they've sewn, they've harrowed him in, Threw clods upon his head, And these three men made a solemn vow: John Barleycorn was dead. They've let him lie for a very long time, Till the rains from heaven did fall, And little Sir John sprung up his head, And so amazed them all. They've let him stand till midsummer's day, Till he looked both pale and wan, And little Sir John's grown a long, long beard, And so become a man. They've hired men with the scythes so sharp, To cut him off at the knee, They've rolled him and tied him by the way, Serving him most barbarously. They've hired men with the sharp pitchforks, Who pricked him to the heart, And the loader he has served him worse than that, For he's bound him to the cart They've wheeled him around and around the field, Till they came unto a barn, And there they made a solemn oath, On poor John Barleycorn. They've hired men with the crab-tree sticks, To cut him skin from bone, And the miller he has served him worse than that, For he's ground him between two stones. And little Sir John and the nut-brown bowl, And he's brandy in the glass; And little Sir John and the nut-brown bowl, Proved the strongest man at last. The huntsman, he can't hunt the fox, Nor so loudly to blow his horn, And the tinker he can't mend kettle nor pot, Without a little Barleycorn Slide 19 Slide 20 The Manorial System Manor agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants Serfs peasants who were legally bound to the land Serf is NOT a slave Seasonal work Labors of the month http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tr%C3%A8s_riches_heures_du_Duc_de_Berry Heavy consumption of ale and wine? Slide 21 Cities and Trade Medieval Europe primarily agricultural Regional differences develop Port cities (Flanders, Venice) Development of money Commercial Capitalism Difference between town and farm Freedom from agricultural servitude for serfs after year & day Freedom to buy and sell property Freedom from military service City life Walled in Dirty, smelly, high risk of fire Relatively small compared to Arab and Asian contemporaries Guilds organizations of related craftspeople that set standards, prices and regulated all aspects of a particular trade Apprentice Journeyman Master Slide 22 Role of Christianity In Europe at this time Christianity = Roman Catholic Pope as both spiritual and secular leader Feudalism had led to a system of lay investiture Pope Gregory VII and Investiture Controversy Concordat of Worms Papal supremacy royal power gets the splendor of its dignity from the papal authority Use of interdiction and excommunication as weapons New Religious orders Cistercian strict, simple and out in the community Franciscans (St. Francis of Assisi) simplicity and poverty lived in the world Dominicans response to heresy The Inquisition (church court charged with discovering and dealing with heretics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFL2vvK63dg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFL2vvK63dg Popular religious practices Veneration of saints and intercession Indulgences relics Slide 23 Culture of the High Middle Ages Rise of the university Bologna Paris Oxford Contact with Muslim world leads scholars to rediscover works of Greek philosophers Scholasticism attempts to reconcile faith and reason St. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica Rise of vernacular Troubadour poetry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_Chantar2.ogg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_Chantar2.ogg Chanson de geste (Song of Roland) Slide 24 Medieval Architecture Cathedrals were built to show the power of the church and to provoke awe Basilica Romanesque Gothic Flying buttress Ribbed vaults and pointed arches Stained glass Slide 25 The Late Middle Ages Europe struck by a series of calamities that profoundly changed the face of Europe The Black Death Anti-Semitism Decline in trade Labor shortages lead to wage increases Demand for food decreases leads to lower food prices Landlords need for cash leads to money payments instead of service ending serfdom. Slide 26 Church Power Declines Popes at Avignon (Babylonian Captivity) The players King Philip IV of France Pope Boniface VIII The issue Phillip asserts the right to tax clergy in France, Pope claims supremacy and that he had to give permission for taxes. The story Phillip sends troops to capture Boniface who escapes but dies soon after Phillip sees to election of a French Pope (Clement V) who takes up residence in Avignon, France (1305 1377) Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome in 1377 where he dies. Citizens of Rome inform cardinals that unless Italian is elected pope they would die Pope Urban VI Great Schism 1378 1417 The results Church loses political authority and claims of supremacy Church loses spiritual authority Slide 27 The Hundred Years War (1337 1453) Starts as feudal dispute, ends as war between nations Edward III of England as Duke of Gascony is vassal to Phillip VI of France. Phillip seizes control of Gascony and Edward declares war on France English longbows prove decisive against French armored cavalry at Crecy and Agincourt Joan of Arc French use of cannon proves decisive in end Slide 28 The New Monarchies France (taille) England (War of the Roses (1485) Spain (Muslim) 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella and fall of Granada Eastern Europe remains fragmented Religious differences External conquests