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Empowering Farmers The Canadian Supply Management Experience Bruce Saunders 1st Vice-President, Dairy Farmers of Canada Chapeco, Brazil, January, 2005

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  • Empowering FarmersThe Canadian Supply Management Experience

    Bruce Saunders1st Vice-President, Dairy Farmers of Canada

    Chapeco, Brazil, January, 2005

  • Outline of the presentationWho we are?History of supply management in CanadaDetermining production quotaBenefits of supply managementExpectations from the Doha Round of negotiationsConclusion

  • Economic Snapshot of the Canadian Dairy Industry16,000 dairy producers Milk sales: $4.2B Adds a net $8.3 billion to the GDPProcessed products sales: over $10BSupports $26 B of economic activitySustains more than 142,600 jobs:On-farm: 50,800Farm suppliers: 25,200Processing sector: 66,600

  • Brief History When Canada was a major exporter, producers received low returns.

    SoCanada turned its attention to the domestic market.

  • Objectives of the Canadian Dairy System1) Ensure orderly marketing of milk by balancing supply with demand2) Balance the negotiating power between stakeholders to obtain fair prices for the producer3) Ensure that consumers have access to adequate supplies of high quality products

  • Pillars of Supply Management Depends on three pillars: Import controls Producer pricingProduction discipline

    All equally important

  • Producers Need Market PowerLegislation is necessary

    Canada uses legislation for management of supply

  • Fundamentals of the Canadian System Balancing Supply With Demand

  • Balancing Supply with DemandCanadian Milk Supply Management Committee

  • Balancing Supply with Demand Prevents Market Price Volatility

  • Balancing Supply with DemandMarket Stability

    Chart4

    3.98024234825.033526.43795

    3.84147632224.617215.81173

    4.80445498445.557396.44797

    6.04077875126.352356.26254

    7.42848713746.923036.53387

    8.65219231097.163226.33409

    7.9625395036.641546.41805

    7.52520081086.30246.29138

    6.6252958655.737936.12417

    5.76744327185.134536.26486

    4.64046139684.410486.11864

    4.39655967674.480956.43672

    1960

    1976

    2003

    million hl

    Canadian Milk Production 1960, 1976, 2003

    Chart1

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    Month/Year

    In Million Hectolitre

    Evolution of milk production per month since 1946

    Sheet1

    v382152 Table 003-0011: Milk production and utilization; Canada; Milk production, total (Kilolitres) [D230975]

    v382155 Table 003-0011: Milk production and utilization; Canada; Milk sold off farms, total (Kilolitres) [D230978]

    Milk productionMilk sold off farms

    Monthlyv382152v382155In HectolitreIn hectolitre

    Jan-46363,058325,2753.633.25J

    Feb-46347,330310,1373.473.10F

    Mar-46421,165381,2044.213.8110.17M

    Apr-46550,048505,2565.505.05A

    May-46730,485678,9307.306.79M

    Jun-46886,893829,4758.878.2920.14J

    Jul-46842,766787,0028.437.87J

    Aug-46731,796680,1927.326.80A

    Sep-46630,436582,6316.305.8320.50S

    Oct-46557,475512,4055.575.12O

    Nov-46424,223384,1484.243.84N

    Dec-46377,475339,1523.773.3912.36D

    Jan-47366,990329,0603.673.29

    Feb-47344,708307,6133.453.08

    Mar-47418,980379,1014.193.7910.16

    Apr-47548,737503,9945.495.04

    May-47709,077658,3247.096.58

    Jun-47875,533818,5418.768.1919.81

    Jul-47846,262790,3678.467.90

    Aug-47747,087694,9107.476.95

    Sep-47702,961652,4387.036.5221.38

    Oct-47601,165554,4576.015.54

    Nov-47427,281387,0914.273.87

    Dec-47366,553328,6393.673.2912.70

    Jan-48353,009315,6033.533.16

    Feb-48335,097298,3623.352.98

    Mar-48404,999365,6444.053.669.80

    Apr-48502,864459,8415.034.60

    May-48673,252623,8426.736.24

    Jun-48867,669810,9728.688.1118.95

    Jul-48819,174764,2958.197.64

    Aug-48733,106681,4537.336.81

    Sep-48647,038598,6116.475.9920.44

    Oct-48546,990502,3135.475.02

    Nov-48432,961392,5584.333.93

    Dec-48385,339346,7213.853.4712.42

    Jan-49348,640311,3983.493.11

    Feb-49324,611288,2693.252.88

    Mar-49408,932369,4304.093.699.69

    Apr-49530,388486,3335.304.86

    May-49711,699660,8487.126.61

    Jun-49835,339779,8548.357.8019.27

    Jul-49781,165727,7107.817.28

    Aug-49729,611678,0897.306.78

    Sep-49658,398609,5456.586.1020.15

    Oct-49583,252537,2165.835.37

    Nov-49451,747410,6404.524.11

    Dec-49394,514355,5523.953.5613.03

    Jan-50355,631318,1273.563.18

    Feb-50326,796290,3733.272.90

    Mar-50419,854379,9424.203.809.88

    Apr-50515,970472,4565.164.72

    May-50660,582611,6476.616.12

    Jun-50816,116761,3518.167.6118.45

    Jul-50758,446705,8437.587.06

    Aug-50710,388659,5867.106.60

    Sep-50625,631578,0066.265.7819.43

    Oct-50524,271480,4455.244.80

    Nov-50410,679371,1114.113.71

    Dec-50362,184324,4343.623.2411.76

    Jan-51342,961305,9323.433.06

    Feb-51311,067275,2333.112.75

    Mar-51391,893353,0293.923.539.34

    Apr-51490,631448,0664.914.48

    May-51672,815623,4226.736.23

    Jun-51802,135747,8948.027.4818.19

    Jul-51756,699704,1617.577.04

    Aug-51720,873669,6787.216.70

    Sep-51630,873583,0526.315.8319.57

    Oct-51562,718517,4515.635.17

    Nov-51417,233377,4204.173.77

    Dec-51369,174331,1623.693.3112.26

    Jan-52346,893309,7163.473.10

    Feb-52328,543292,0543.292.92

    Mar-52403,689364,3834.043.649.66

    Apr-52523,398479,6055.234.80

    May-52695,533645,2886.966.45

    Jun-52810,436755,8848.107.5618.81

    Jul-52769,368716,3557.697.16

    Aug-52718,689667,5767.196.68

    Sep-52651,844603,2376.526.0319.87

    Oct-52567,087521,6575.675.22

    Nov-52429,466389,1944.293.89

    Dec-52407,184367,7474.073.6812.79

    Jan-53383,155344,6193.833.45

    Feb-53348,640311,3983.493.11

    Mar-53440,825400,1274.414.0010.56

    Apr-53565,339519,9745.655.20

    May-53723,932672,6237.246.73

    Jun-53857,621801,3008.588.0119.94

    Jul-53802,135747,8948.027.48

    Aug-53737,038685,2377.376.85

    Sep-53650,097601,5556.506.0220.35

    Oct-53586,310540,1595.865.40

    Nov-53449,126408,1174.494.08

    Dec-53421,165381,2044.213.8113.29

    Jan-54384,029345,4603.843.45

    Feb-54362,184324,4343.623.24

    Mar-54470,097428,3024.704.2810.98

    Apr-54579,320533,4315.795.33

    May-54729,611678,0897.306.78

    Jun-54872,912816,0188.738.1620.28

    Jul-54837,524781,9578.387.82

    Aug-54769,805716,7767.707.17

    Sep-54688,980638,9816.896.3921.38

    Oct-54584,563538,4785.855.38

    Nov-54467,475425,7784.674.26

    Dec-54423,786383,7274.243.8413.48

    Jan-55391,456352,6093.913.53

    Feb-55364,805326,9573.653.27

    Mar-55462,233420,7334.624.2111.00

    Apr-55584,126538,0575.845.38

    May-55762,815710,0487.637.10

    Jun-55892,572834,9418.938.3520.83

    Jul-55797,766743,6897.987.44

    Aug-55785,533731,9157.867.32

    Sep-55739,223687,3407.396.8721.63

    Oct-55632,184584,3146.325.84

    Nov-55487,135444,7014.874.45

    Dec-55447,378406,4354.474.0614.35

    Jan-56410,242370,6914.103.71

    Feb-56391,456352,6093.913.53

    Mar-56486,699444,2824.874.4411.68

    Apr-56594,174547,7285.945.48

    May-56713,883662,9507.146.63

    Jun-56889,951832,4198.908.3220.43

    Jul-56860,242803,8238.608.04

    Aug-56796,456742,4287.967.42

    Sep-56681,553631,8326.826.3221.78

    Oct-56616,456569,1756.165.69

    Nov-56473,592431,6664.744.32

    Dec-56424,223384,1484.243.8413.85

    Jan-57391,019352,1883.913.52

    Feb-57361,310323,5933.613.24

    Mar-57436,019395,5014.363.9610.71

    Apr-57577,135531,3285.775.31

    May-57760,194707,5257.607.08

    Jun-57876,844819,8038.778.2020.59

    Jul-57870,291813,4968.708.13

    Aug-57812,621757,9878.137.58

    Sep-57703,834653,2787.046.5322.25

    Oct-57643,980595,6676.445.96

    Nov-57506,359463,2055.064.63

    Dec-57449,563408,5384.504.0914.67

    Jan-58431,213390,8764.313.91

    Feb-58387,524348,8243.883.49

    Mar-58489,757447,2254.904.4711.87

    Apr-58623,446575,9036.235.76

    May-58790,339736,5407.907.37

    Jun-58912,233853,8659.128.5421.66

    Jul-58891,262833,6808.918.34

    Aug-58802,135747,8948.027.48

    Sep-58745,339693,2277.456.9322.75

    Oct-58671,067621,7396.716.22

    Nov-58501,990459,0005.024.59

    Dec-58468,786427,0404.694.2715.08

    Jan-59430,776390,4554.313.90

    Feb-59394,514355,5523.953.56

    Mar-59486,699444,2824.874.4411.90

    Apr-59623,883576,3246.245.76

    May-59769,368716,3557.697.16

    Jun-59924,466865,6409.248.6621.58

    Jul-59862,427805,9268.628.06

    Aug-59789,466735,7007.897.36

    Sep-59751,019698,6947.516.9922.40

    Oct-59667,572618,3756.686.18

    Nov-59503,300460,2615.034.60

    Dec-59485,388443,0204.854.4315.22

    Jan-60438,640398,0244.393.98

    Feb-60424,223384,1484.243.84

    Mar-60524,271480,4455.244.8012.63

    Apr-60652,718604,0786.536.04

    May-60796,893742,8497.977.43

    Jun-60924,029865,2199.248.6522.12

    Jul-60852,378796,2548.527.96

    Aug-60806,941752,5208.077.53

    Sep-60713,446662,5307.136.6322.11

    Oct-60624,320576,7446.245.77

    Nov-60507,233464,0465.074.64

    Dec-60481,893439,6564.824.4014.80

    Jan-61442,572401,8094.434.02

    Feb-61413,737374,0554.143.74

    Mar-61532,135488,0155.324.8812.64

    Apr-61651,844603,2376.526.03

    May-61803,009748,7358.037.49

    Jun-61945,873886,2449.468.8622.38

    Jul-61889,514831,9988.908.32

    Aug-61839,271783,6388.397.84

    Sep-61758,446705,8437.587.0623.21

    Oct-61692,038641,9246.926.42

    Nov-61545,242500,6305.455.01

    Dec-61489,320446,8054.894.4715.89

    Jan-62461,359419,8924.614.20

    Feb-62417,669377,8394.183.78

    Mar-62532,135488,0155.324.8812.86

    Apr-62636,990588,9396.375.89

    May-62803,883749,5778.047.50

    Jun-62955,485895,4969.558.9522.34

    Jul-62887,330829,8968.878.30

    Aug-62850,194794,1528.507.94

    Sep-62755,388702,8997.557.0323.27

    Oct-62684,611634,7756.856.35

    Nov-62538,689494,3235.394.94

    Dec-62496,747453,9534.974.5415.83

    Jan-63467,475425,7784.674.26

    Feb-63422,475382,4654.223.82

    Mar-63526,456482,5495.264.8312.91

    Apr-63663,640614,5906.646.15

    May-63793,398739,4857.937.39

    Jun-63935,388876,1529.358.7622.30

    Jul-63899,999842,0909.008.42

    Aug-63854,563798,3578.557.98

    Sep-63753,640701,2177.547.0123.42

    Oct-63681,553631,8326.826.32

    Nov-63539,999495,5845.404.96

    Dec-63502,864459,8415.034.6015.87

    Jan-64471,844429,9844.724.30

    Feb-64446,941406,0144.474.06

    Mar-64538,252493,9025.384.9413.30

    Apr-64657,087608,2836.576.08

    May-64811,747757,1468.127.57

    Jun-64954,611894,6559.558.9522.60

    Jul-64887,766830,3158.888.30

    Aug-64832,281776,9108.327.77

    Sep-64758,446705,8437.587.0623.13

    Oct-64672,815623,4226.736.23

    Nov-64526,893482,9695.274.83

    Dec-64514,223470,7745.144.7115.77

    Jan-65462,233420,7334.624.21

    Feb-65432,524392,1374.333.92

    Mar-65565,776520,3955.665.2013.33

    Apr-65672,815623,4226.736.23

    May-65782,475728,9717.827.29

    Jun-65938,446879,0969.388.7922.31

    Jul-65892,135834,5218.928.35

    Aug-65820,048765,1368.207.65

    Sep-65752,766700,3767.537.0023.00

    Oct-65645,291596,9296.455.97

    Nov-65530,825486,7545.314.87

    Dec-65511,165467,8315.114.6815.52

    Jan-66462,233420,7334.624.21

    Feb-66433,834393,3984.343.93

    Mar-66551,796506,9395.525.0713.21

    Apr-66675,873626,3656.766.26

    May-66789,029735,2797.897.35

    Jun-66943,252883,7229.438.8422.45

    Jul-66854,563798,3578.557.98

    Aug-66820,485765,5568.207.66

    Sep-66759,320706,6847.597.0722.71

    Oct-66661,893612,9096.626.13

    Nov-66538,689494,3235.394.94

    Dec-66522,961479,1855.234.7915.86

    Jan-67474,902432,9274.754.33

    Feb-67432,961392,5584.333.93

    Mar-67541,747497,2665.424.9713.23

    Apr-67661,456612,4886.616.12

    May-67777,669724,3457.787.24

    Jun-67919,660861,0149.208.6121.98

    Jul-67863,300806,7678.638.07

    Aug-67823,980768,9208.247.69

    Sep-67751,456699,1157.516.9922.75

    Oct-67663,203614,1706.636.14

    Nov-67533,883489,6975.344.90

    Dec-67505,485462,3645.054.6215.66

    Jan-68471,844429,9844.724.30

    Feb-68444,320403,4914.444.03

    Mar-68521,650477,9235.224.7813.11

    Apr-68670,631621,3196.716.21

    May-68795,582741,5877.967.42

    Jun-68900,436842,5119.008.4322.05

    Jul-68865,922809,2908.668.09

    Aug-68832,718777,3318.337.77

    Sep-68733,543681,8737.346.8222.68

    Oct-68698,592648,2326.996.48

    Nov-68556,165511,1445.565.11

    Dec-68515,533472,0355.164.7216.31

    Jan-69489,320446,8054.894.47

    Feb-69444,757403,9124.454.04

    Mar-69565,339519,9745.655.2013.71

    Apr-69690,291640,2436.906.40

    May-69799,514745,3718.007.45

    Jun-69917,912859,3329.188.5922.45

    Jul-69886,456829,0558.868.29

    Aug-69821,359766,3988.217.66

    Sep-69767,621714,6747.687.1523.10

    Oct-69680,242630,5706.806.31

    Nov-69544,805500,2105.455.00

    Dec-69551,359506,5185.515.0716.37

    Jan-70510,728467,4105.114.67

    Feb-70470,097428,3024.704.28

    Mar-70574,514528,8055.755.2914.25

    Apr-70682,427632,6736.826.33

    May-70777,233723,9267.777.24

    Jun-70905,242847,1369.058.4722.04

    Jul-70846,262790,3678.467.90

    Aug-70762,815710,0487.637.10

    Sep-70726,553675,1457.276.7521.76

    Oct-70663,640614,5906.646.15

    Nov-70533,009488,8565.334.89

    Dec-70530,388486,3335.304.8615.90

    Jan-71478,834436,7124.794.37

    Feb-71449,563408,5384.504.09

    Mar-71566,213520,8155.665.2113.66

    Apr-71664,077615,0116.646.15

    May-71733,980682,2947.346.82

    Jun-71871,165814,3378.718.1421.12

    Jul-71807,378752,9418.077.53

    Aug-71743,155691,1257.436.91

    Sep-71694,223644,0276.946.4420.88

    Oct-71645,291596,9296.455.97

    Nov-71552,669507,7795.535.08

    Dec-71539,126494,7445.394.9515.99

    Jan-72491,504448,9074.924.49

    Feb-72486,699444,2824.874.44

    Mar-72570,145524,6005.705.2514.18

    Apr-72660,582611,6476.616.12

    May-72760,194707,5257.607.08

    Jun-72855,873799,6188.568.0021.19

    Jul-72782,038728,5517.827.29

    Aug-72743,592691,5467.446.92

    Sep-72698,592648,2326.996.4820.68

    Oct-72619,077571,6986.195.72

    Nov-72516,407472,8765.164.73

    Dec-72516,844473,2975.174.7315.18

    Jan-73488,446445,9634.884.46

    Feb-73453,495412,3224.534.12

    Mar-73552,233507,3595.525.0713.66

    Apr-73620,825573,3806.215.73

    May-73717,815666,7357.186.67

    Jun-73801,262747,0548.017.4719.87

    Jul-73737,475685,6587.376.86

    Aug-73699,466649,0746.996.49

    Sep-73649,660601,1346.506.0119.36

    Oct-73618,640571,2776.195.71

    Nov-73512,475469,0925.124.69

    Dec-73502,427459,4205.024.5915.00

    Jan-74499,805456,8975.004.57

    Feb-74460,048418,6304.604.19

    Mar-74538,689494,3235.394.9413.70

    Apr-74629,999582,2106.305.82

    May-74690,728640,6636.916.41

    Jun-74779,417726,0287.797.2619.49

    Jul-74766,310713,4127.667.13

    Aug-74706,019655,3817.066.55

    Sep-74648,349599,8736.486.0019.69

    Oct-74591,116544,7855.915.45

    Nov-74499,368456,4764.994.56

    Dec-74513,786470,3545.144.7014.72

    Jan-75462,669421,1534.634.21

    Feb-75425,097384,9894.253.85

    Mar-75512,038468,6715.124.6912.75

    Apr-75774,611721,4027.757.21

    May-75730,485678,9307.306.79

    Jun-75814,368759,6698.147.6021.60

    Jul-75774,611721,4027.757.21

    Aug-75734,854683,1357.356.83

    Sep-75669,320620,0586.696.2020.25

    Oct-75623,446575,9036.235.76

    Nov-75538,689494,3235.394.94

    Dec-75557,475512,4055.575.1215.83

    Jan-76540,463503,3525.405.03

    Feb-76498,365461,7214.984.62

    Mar-76604,540555,7396.055.5615.21

    Apr-76691,873635,2356.926.35

    May-76757,773692,3037.586.92

    Jun-76788,557716,3227.897.1620.44

    Jul-76732,601664,1547.336.64

    Aug-76691,399630,2406.916.30

    Sep-76627,208573,7936.275.7418.68

    Oct-76561,723513,4535.625.13

    Nov-76483,937441,0484.844.41

    Dec-76492,775448,0954.934.4814.03

    Jan-77487,914441,3804.884.41

    Feb-77462,270418,3854.624.18

    Mar-77562,476508,0915.625.0813.68

    Apr-77633,107579,0926.335.79

    May-77726,175673,1727.266.73

    Jun-77794,482747,9237.947.4820.00

    Jul-77775,272732,6227.757.33

    Aug-77744,378703,8297.447.04

    Sep-77677,349639,6376.776.4020.76

    Oct-77606,418569,5816.065.70

    Nov-77529,856489,0485.304.89

    Dec-77527,583482,0035.284.8215.41

    Jan-78515,518468,9755.164.69

    Feb-78466,235423,2924.664.23

    Mar-78552,091499,5135.525.0013.92

    Apr-78649,076596,1876.495.96

    May-78730,490677,8487.306.78

    Jun-78774,493728,8517.747.2920.03

    Jul-78730,068689,7747.306.90

    Aug-78699,571656,8837.006.57

    Sep-78634,919597,0226.355.9719.44

    Oct-78576,954541,0425.775.41

    Nov-78531,398493,9365.314.94

    Dec-78538,706494,6535.394.9515.30

    Jan-79534,295489,5355.344.90

    Feb-79486,311443,0444.864.43

    Mar-79572,562526,6115.735.2714.59

    Apr-79624,642577,0706.255.77

    May-79718,256667,7717.186.68

    Jun-79745,590694,2547.466.9419.39

    Jul-79710,220659,9857.106.60

    Aug-79721,175670,5997.216.71

    Sep-79647,238598,9636.475.9919.30

    Oct-79608,677561,6026.095.62

    Nov-79544,049498,9855.444.99

    Dec-79556,400510,9525.565.1115.72

    Jan-80552,372507,0495.525.07

    Feb-80527,962483,3995.284.83

    Mar-80605,752558,7686.065.5915.49

    Apr-80665,161616,3286.656.16

    May-80743,882692,5997.446.93

    Jun-80781,010728,5727.817.2920.37

    Jul-80763,407711,5177.637.12

    Aug-80722,597671,9777.236.72

    Sep-80667,086618,1936.676.1820.02

    Oct-80616,947569,6146.175.70

    Nov-80544,322499,2505.444.99

    Dec-80576,220530,1555.765.3015.99

    Jan-81566,223520,4695.665.20

    Feb-81529,717485,0995.304.85

    Mar-81627,536579,8746.285.8015.85

    Apr-81682,429633,0596.826.33

    May-81751,425699,9077.517.00

    Jun-81791,151738,3977.917.3820.71

    Jul-81769,047716,9817.697.17

    Aug-81730,588679,7197.316.80

    Sep-81668,893619,9446.696.2020.17

    Oct-81626,503578,8736.275.79

    Nov-81569,621523,7615.705.24

    Dec-81598,837552,0685.995.5216.55

    Jan-82594,279547,6525.945.48

    Feb-82557,208511,7355.575.12

    Mar-82656,043607,4946.566.0716.67

    Apr-82698,910649,0276.996.49

    May-82766,914714,9147.677.15

    Jun-82800,572747,5258.017.4821.11

    Jul-82781,788729,3267.827.29

    Aug-82747,783696,3797.486.96

    Sep-82685,097635,6446.856.3620.61

    Oct-82655,959607,4126.566.07

    Nov-82604,683557,7326.055.58

    Dec-82623,062575,5396.235.7617.41

    Jan-83618,612571,2286.195.71

    Feb-83563,607517,9345.645.18

    Mar-83644,839596,6386.455.9716.86

    Apr-83672,287623,2326.726.23

    May-83720,570670,0137.216.70

    Jun-83731,050680,1677.316.8019.73

    Jul-83710,913660,6567.116.61

    Aug-83700,476650,5447.006.51

    Sep-83644,383596,1976.445.9619.07

    Oct-83622,440574,9376.225.75

    Nov-83577,065530,9745.775.31

    Dec-83608,314561,2506.085.6116.67

    Jan-84615,781568,4856.165.68

    Feb-84591,274544,7405.915.45

    Mar-84656,964608,3866.576.0817.22

    Apr-84686,099636,6146.866.37

    May-84749,173697,7267.496.98

    Jun-84764,237712,3217.647.1220.47

    Jul-84745,946694,5997.466.95

    Aug-84716,827666,3867.176.66

    Sep-84664,454615,6436.646.1619.77

    Oct-84643,684595,5196.445.96

    Nov-84595,383548,7225.955.49

    Dec-84625,428577,8326.255.7817.22

    Jan-85632,261584,4526.325.84

    Feb-85578,046531,9245.785.32

    Mar-85651,420603,0156.516.0317.19

    Apr-85678,971629,7086.796.30

    May-85719,432668,9107.196.69

    Jun-85716,661666,2257.176.6619.65

    Jul-85699,663649,7567.006.50

    Aug-85695,592645,8126.966.46

    Sep-85646,040597,8026.465.9818.93

    Oct-85629,664581,9366.305.82

    Nov-85587,134540,7295.875.41

    Dec-85610,372563,2446.105.6316.86

    Jan-86623,539576,0016.245.76

    Feb-86573,602527,6185.745.28

    Mar-86654,897606,3836.556.0617.10

    Apr-86683,671634,2626.846.34

    May-86733,733682,7667.346.83

    Jun-86730,728679,8557.316.8019.97

    Jul-86717,173666,7217.176.67

    Aug-86698,347648,4816.986.48

    Sep-86647,744599,4536.485.9919.15

    Oct-86622,685575,1746.235.75

    Nov-86582,133535,8845.825.36

    Dec-86620,004572,5766.205.7316.84

    Jan-87632,154584,3486.325.84

    Feb-87580,890534,6805.815.35

    Mar-87665,749616,8986.666.1717.36

    Apr-87691,606641,9506.926.42

    May-87737,730686,6397.386.87

    Jun-87729,723678,8817.306.7920.07

    Jul-87706,629656,5067.076.57

    Aug-87697,863648,0126.986.48

    Sep-87645,929597,6956.465.9819.02

    Oct-87636,663588,7176.375.89

    Nov-87600,350553,5346.005.54

    Dec-87637,992590,0056.385.9017.32

    Jan-88648,905600,5786.496.01

    Feb-88623,974576,4236.245.76

    Mar-88688,324638,7706.886.3918.16

    Apr-88702,655652,6557.036.53

    May-88746,588695,2217.476.95

    Jun-88746,548695,1827.476.9520.43

    Jul-88733,986683,0117.346.83

    Aug-88711,432661,1597.116.61

    Sep-88670,936621,9236.716.2219.66

    Oct-88651,101602,7066.516.03

    Nov-88619,648572,2316.205.72

    Dec-88656,505607,9416.576.0817.83

    Jan-89664,790615,9696.656.16

    Feb-89610,724563,5856.115.64

    Mar-89691,483641,8316.916.4218.21

    Apr-89694,293644,5536.946.45

    May-89732,364681,4407.326.81

    Jun-89705,879655,7797.066.5619.82

    Jul-89686,676637,1736.876.37

    Aug-89674,730625,5996.756.26

    Sep-89635,533587,6226.365.8818.50

    Oct-89626,880579,2386.275.79

    Nov-89598,330551,5775.985.52

    Dec-89630,302582,5546.305.8317.13

    Jan-90648,321600,0126.486.00

    Feb-90600,365553,5496.005.54

    Mar-90680,357631,0516.806.3117.85

    Apr-90685,646636,1766.866.36

    May-90726,088675,3597.266.75

    Jun-90717,312666,8567.176.6719.78

    Jul-90698,744648,8666.996.49

    Aug-90682,233632,8696.826.33

    Sep-90638,792590,7806.395.9118.73

    Oct-90626,045578,4296.265.78

    Nov-90597,741551,0065.985.51

    Dec-90628,275580,5906.285.8117.10

    Jan-91640,724592,6526.415.93

    Feb-91590,920544,3975.915.44

    Mar-91664,163615,3616.646.1517.52

    Apr-91671,770622,7316.726.23

    May-91707,715657,5587.086.58

    Jun-91690,301640,6866.906.4119.21

    Jul-91680,144630,8456.806.31

    Aug-91673,411624,3216.736.24

    Sep-91640,655592,5856.415.9318.48

    Oct-91634,261586,3906.345.86

    Nov-91611,256564,1016.115.64

    Dec-91645,331597,1156.455.9717.48

    Jan-92655,273606,7486.556.07

    Feb-92613,016565,8066.135.66

    Mar-92654,133605,6436.546.0617.78

    Apr-92643,089594,9436.435.95

    May-92657,282608,6946.576.09

    Jun-92638,147590,1556.385.9017.94

    Jul-92616,483569,1656.165.69

    Aug-92626,492578,8626.265.79

    Sep-92595,423548,7605.955.4916.97

    Oct-92596,648549,9475.975.50

    Nov-92570,612524,7215.715.25

    Dec-92606,994559,9716.075.6016.35

    Jan-93610,221563,0986.105.63

    Feb-93560,540514,9635.615.15

    Mar-93625,538577,9386.265.7816.56

    Apr-93625,901578,2906.265.78

    May-93657,784609,1816.586.09

    Jun-93643,831595,6626.445.9617.83

    Jul-93631,604583,8156.325.84

    Aug-93622,723575,2116.235.75

    Sep-93595,424548,7615.955.4917.08

    Oct-93589,768543,2815.905.43

    Nov-93576,213530,1485.765.30

    Dec-93615,992568,6896.165.6916.42

    Jan-94625,611578,0096.265.78

    Feb-94576,049529,9895.765.30

    Mar-94649,581601,2336.506.0117.09

    Apr-94649,397601,0556.496.01

    May-94680,528631,2176.816.31

    Jun-94665,182616,3486.656.1618.49

    Jul-94651,070602,6766.516.03

    Aug-94642,590594,4596.435.94

    Sep-94613,732566,5006.145.6717.64

    Oct-94621,154573,6916.215.74

    Nov-94598,866552,0965.995.52

    Dec-94636,996589,0406.375.8917.15

    Jan-95651,107602,7116.516.03

    Feb-95596,235549,5475.965.50

    Mar-95663,209614,4376.636.1417.67

    Apr-95650,128601,7636.506.02

    May-95681,505632,1636.826.32

    Jun-95665,440616,5986.656.1718.51

    Jul-95658,715610,0836.596.10

    Aug-95659,564610,9056.606.11

    Sep-95635,228587,3276.355.8718.08

    Oct-95637,858589,8756.385.90

    Nov-95619,992572,5656.205.73

    Dec-95657,716609,1156.586.0917.72

    Jan-96665,405616,5646.656.17

    Feb-96628,645580,9486.295.81

    Mar-96678,514629,2656.796.2918.27

    Apr-96665,028616,1996.656.16

    May-96682,814633,4326.836.33

    Jun-96661,565612,8446.626.1318.62

    Jul-96645,661597,4356.465.97

    Aug-96637,280589,3156.375.89

    Sep-96614,390567,1376.145.6717.54

    Oct-96619,641572,2256.205.72

    Nov-96604,791557,8376.055.58

    Dec-96647,278599,0026.475.9917.29

    Jan-97664,039615,2416.646.15

    Feb-97612,330565,1416.125.65

    Mar-97683,585634,1796.846.3418.15

    Apr-97676,683627,4916.776.27

    May-97707,206657,0657.076.57

    Jun-97694,384644,6426.946.4519.29

    Jul-97689,436639,8486.896.40

    Aug-97676,607627,4186.776.27

    Sep-97646,101597,8616.465.9818.65

    Oct-97654,953606,4386.556.06

    Nov-97632,198584,3916.325.84

    Dec-97670,665621,6616.716.2218.12

    Jan-98683,250633,8546.836.34

    Feb-98628,235580,5516.285.81

    Mar-98695,181645,4146.956.4518.60

    Apr-98682,103632,7436.826.33

    May-98716,624666,1897.176.66

    Jun-98691,450641,7996.916.4219.41

    Jul-98691,672642,0146.926.42

    Aug-98679,050629,7856.796.30

    Sep-98653,669605,1946.546.0518.77

    Oct-98663,715614,9276.646.15

    Nov-98643,458595,3006.435.95

    Dec-98682,656633,2796.836.3318.44

    Jan-99692,140642,4676.926.42

    Feb-99637,646589,6696.385.90

    Mar-99710,369660,1297.106.6018.92

    Apr-99698,172648,3126.986.48

    May-99726,756676,0067.276.76

    Jun-99693,369643,6586.936.4419.68

    Jul-99690,319640,7036.906.41

    Aug-99683,252633,8566.836.34

    Sep-99652,530604,0906.536.0418.79

    Oct-99663,393614,6156.636.15

    Nov-99647,990599,6916.486.00

    Dec-99685,780636,3056.866.3618.51

    Jan-00695,288645,5176.956.46

    Feb-00655,974607,4276.566.07

    Mar-00704,844654,7767.056.5519.08

    Apr-00683,714634,3046.846.34

    May-00705,187655,1087.056.55

    Jun-00677,309628,0986.776.2819.18

    Jul-00673,941624,8356.746.25

    Aug-00668,301619,3706.686.19

    Sep-00647,510599,2266.485.9918.43

    Oct-00663,266614,4926.636.14

    Nov-00640,465592,4016.405.92

    Dec-00672,108623,0596.726.2318.30

    Jan-01689,184639,6036.896.40

    Feb-01632,192584,3856.325.84

    Mar-01702,553652,5567.036.5318.77

    Apr-01689,202639,6216.896.40

    May-01721,208670,6317.216.71

    Jun-01680,338631,0336.806.3119.41

    Jul-01684,722635,2806.856.35

    Aug-01678,946629,6846.796.30

    Sep-01657,044608,4646.576.0818.73

    Oct-01671,897622,8546.726.23

    Nov-01656,301607,7446.566.08

    Dec-01683,961634,5436.846.3518.65

    Jan-02703,416653,3937.036.53

    Feb-02639,904591,8576.405.92

    Mar-02703,375653,3537.036.5318.99

    Apr-02683,030633,6416.836.34

    May-02687,250637,7306.876.38

    Jun-02657,614609,0166.586.0918.80

    Jul-02654,227605,7346.546.06

    Aug-02646,008597,7716.465.98

    Sep-02624,252576,6926.245.7717.80

    Oct-02646,443598,1936.465.98

    Nov-02637,162589,2006.375.89

    Dec-02678,414629,1696.786.2918.17

    Jan-03693,510643,7956.946.44

    Feb-03628,877581,1736.295.81

    Mar-03694,544644,7976.956.4518.70

    Apr-03675,406626,2546.756.26

    May-03703,410653,3877.036.53

    Jun-03682,791633,4096.836.3319.13

    Jul-03691,456641,8056.916.42

    Aug-03678,382629,1386.786.29

    Sep-03661,124612,4176.616.1218.83

    Oct-03675,645626,4866.766.26

    Nov-03660,554611,8646.616.12

    Dec-03693,383643,6726.936.4418.82

    Jan-04701,918651,9417.026.52

    Feb-04663,312614,5376.636.15

    Mar-04713,718663,3747.146.6319.30

    Apr-04695,300645,5296.956.46

    May-04718,528668,0347.196.68

    Jun-04691,596641,9406.926.4219.56

    Jul-04696,170646,3726.966.46

    Aug-04689,119639,5406.896.40

    Sep-04662,844614,0836.636.1419.00

    13.6613660648.0540624

    21.1221116417.5595693

    20.8820880928.2349504

    15.9915994519.936524

    14.1814177885.2537016

    21.1921187903.6714775

    20.6820683285.065175

    15.1815178710.0707489

    13.6613656451.4814501

    19.8719871691.0223453

    19.3619358660.020485

    15.0014997891.6920891

    13.7013698494.2089059

    19.4919489013.6509647

    19.6919686656.8207401

    14.7214716143.8170688

    12.7512748124.5148724

    21.6021600005.1769774

    20.2520245946.3730017

    15.8315826310.5260343

    15.2115208120

    20.4420438600

    18.6818681870

    14.0314025960

    13.6813678560

    20.0020001870

    20.7620760880

    15.4115406320

    13.9213917800

    20.0320028860

    19.4419436790

    15.3015296310

    14.5914591900

    19.3919390950

    19.3019295470

    15.7215715390

    15.4915492160

    20.3720374990

    20.0220016870

    15.9915990190

    15.8515854420

    20.7120713630

    20.1720166440

    16.5516547020

    16.6716668810

    21.1121114660

    20.6120613490

    17.4117406830

    16.8616858000

    19.7319734120

    19.0719073970

    16.6716671610

    17.2217216110

    20.4720466610

    19.7719766280

    17.2217220730

    17.1917193910

    19.6519648430

    18.9318933700

    16.8616859090

    17.1017100020

    19.9719968830

    19.1519146550

    16.8416836340

    17.3617359260

    20.0720074700

    19.0219022130

    17.3217322560

    18.1618157710

    20.4320430580

    19.6619660930

    17.8317828780

    18.2118213850

    19.8219817720

    18.5018503940

    17.1317133690

    17.8517846120

    19.7819783910

    18.7318725150

    17.1017100250

    17.5217524100

    19.2119209750

    18.4818477510

    17.4817476060

    17.7817781970

    17.9417937920

    16.9716967870

    16.3516346390

    16.5616559990

    17.8317831330

    17.0817077870

    16.4216421180

    17.0917092310

    18.4918486200

    17.6417636350

    17.1517148270

    17.6717666950

    18.5118505240

    18.0818083150

    17.7217715550

    18.2718267770

    18.6218624750

    17.5417538870

    17.2917290640

    18.1518145610

    19.2919291980

    18.6518651270

    18.1218124900

    18.6018598190

    19.4119407310

    18.7718769930

    18.4418435060

    18.9218922650

    19.6819679760

    18.7918786490

    18.5118506110

    19.0819077200

    19.1819175100

    18.4318434310

    18.3018299520

    18.7718765440

    19.4119412850

    18.7318734280

    18.6518651410

    18.9918986030

    18.8018803870

    17.8017801970

    18.1718165620

    18.7018697650

    19.1319130500

    18.8318833600

    18.8218820220

    19.3019298520

    19.5619555030

    19.0018999950

    Sheet1

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    1960

    1976

    2003

    Canadian Milk Production 1960, 1976, 2003

    Sheet2

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    milk production, 1976

    Sheet3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    milk production, 1995

    Chart2

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    milk production, 2003

    Chart3

    Table 002-00021,2 - Farm cash receipts, quarterly (Dollars x 1,000)

    Farm cash receiptsHectolitres produced

    1971I135,78013660648.05406249.94

    II193,39721116417.55956939.16

    III201,59320880928.23495049.65The net farm income accounts are designed to provide an annual measure of income returned to the operators of agricultural businesses from the production of agricultural commodities. An important component of these accounts is the farm cash receipts serie

    IV174,92715994519.93652410.94

    1972I159,73314177885.253701611.27These accounts only relate to the farm business and hence exclude any income that farm operators or their families may receive from other sources (wages and salaries, investment income, etc.). They pertain only to the production and marketing of agricultu

    II221,35021187903.671477510.45

    III221,23620683285.06517510.70

    IV177,84815178710.070748911.72

    1973I162,65713656451.481450111.91

    II232,90919871691.022345311.72

    III239,31819358660.02048512.36

    IV216,33214997891.692089114.42

    1974I204,58813698494.208905914.94

    II295,99219489013.650964715.19

    III322,07419686656.820740116.36

    IV275,54514716143.817068818.72

    1975I250,15212748124.514872419.62

    II380,43121600005.176977417.61

    III384,13620245946.373001718.97

    IV334,95115826310.526034321.16

    1976I312,0601520812020.52

    II375,4332043860018.37

    III350,1231868187018.74

    IV296,4231402596021.13

    1977I284,6471367856020.81

    II392,7612000187019.64

    III405,6182076088019.54

    IV335,4321540632021.77

    1978I306,7751391780022.04

    II427,8922002886021.36

    III416,6531943679021.44

    IV358,3421529631023.43

    1979I356,5271459190024.43

    II457,1671939095023.58

    III473,2431929547024.53

    IV419,7641571539026.71

    1980I432,6081549216027.92

    II541,4142037499026.57

    III552,1952001687027.59

    IV489,2351599019030.60

    1981I498,3651585442031.43

    II627,5312071363030.30

    III630,8712016644031.28

    IV559,5801654702033.82

    1982I575,1121666881034.50

    II687,3132111466032.55

    III675,0862061349032.75

    IV609,4781740683035.01

    1983I576,7361685800034.21

    II643,3971973412032.60

    III630,4161907397033.05

    IV602,2391667161036.12

    1984I626,9921721611036.42

    II716,1602046661034.99

    III697,0851976628035.27

    IV656,1121722073038.10

    1985I651,0181719391037.86

    II702,9231964843035.78

    III689,4581893370036.41

    IV674,9151685909040.03

    1986I674,3081710002039.43

    II735,3061996883036.82

    III719,5731914655037.58

    IV683,0621683634040.57

    1987I693,1131735926039.93

    II748,7902007470037.30

    III730,3581902213038.40

    IV717,5961732256041.43

    1988I743,6761815771040.96

    II790,5242043058038.69

    III774,5311966093039.39

    IV779,2191782878043.71

    1989I773,7661821385042.48

    II805,8211981772040.66

    III763,6321850394041.27

    IV759,2091713369044.31

    1990I769,5441784612043.12

    II820,5521978391041.48

    III781,0501872515041.71

    IV783,6281710025045.83

    1991I776,2671752410044.30

    II811,7171920975042.26

    III779,2861847751042.17

    IV795,4421747606045.52

    1992I799,6311778197044.97

    II770,6221793792042.96

    III749,0531696787044.15

    IV770,3281634639047.13

    1993I771,1271655999046.57

    II792,4241783133044.44

    III771,9901707787045.20

    IV798,6331642118048.63

    1994I823,6631709231048.19

    II858,6821848620046.45

    III820,9001763635046.55

    IV851,2201714827049.64

    1995I856,2541766695048.47

    II870,8751850524047.06

    III853,3421808315047.19

    IV882,6141771555049.82

    1996I894,5671826777048.97

    II857,5031862475046.04

    III848,9801753887048.41

    IV913,6831729064052.84

    1997I920,4231814561050.72

    II945,0761929198048.99

    III901,9521865127048.36

    IV941,8161812490051.96

    1998I939,6541859819050.52

    II960,5191940731049.49

    III952,6571876993050.75

    IV993,2471843506053.88

    1999I985,5321892265052.08

    II988,4561967976050.23

    III950,8561878649050.61

    IV996,0911850611053.82

    2000I1,008,0121907720052.84

    II1,011,3801917510052.74

    III984,7771843431053.42

    IV1,025,6641829952056.05

    2001I1,012,1401876544053.94

    II1,044,9711941285053.83

    III1,028,9141873428054.92

    IV1,056,2881865141056.63

    2002I1,046,3351898603055.11

    II1,022,6391880387054.38

    III998,2291780197056.07

    IV1,068,0841816562058.80

    2003I1,107,4341869765059.23

    II1,139,5761913050059.57

    III1,111,1501883360059.00

    IV1,137,9661882022060.47

    2004I1,132,5361929852058.69

    II1,145,3301955503058.57

    III1,145,2631899995060.28

    Table 003-00081 - Cash receipts from milk and cream sold off farms, monthly (Dollars x 1,000)

    (Dollars x 1000)Million hl producedPrice

    1976January115,5005.0322.95

    February105,9164.6222.94Footnotes:

    March142,3605.5625.621. Receipts and supplementary payments are considered as accruing to milk and cream for month in which is produced. From January 1978 they are credited to month in which payment is made. From January 1986 the following were added for each fluid milk, indu

    April142,0346.3522.36

    May145,8066.9221.062. Includes return of contingency levy in Ontario in July 1979.

    June164,6757.1622.99

    July149,4046.6422.503. Includes return of following contingency levies in October 1979: Prince Edward Island equals 410; Nova Scotia equals 160; New Brunswick equals 178; Manitoba equals 890; Alberta equals 1340.

    August141,7536.3022.49

    September133,0995.7423.204. Beginning in January 1978, supplementary payments are credited to the month in which payment was made.

    October133,7875.1326.06

    November111,0384.4125.185. Includes return of contingency levy in Ontario of 3822 in March; 3518 in September and 6316 in October 1980.

    December110,3804.4824.63

    1977January106,2764.4124.086. Includes return of over quota levy for the dairy year 1980-1981 in Ontario in August 1981.

    February99,2574.1823.72

    March127,8815.0825.177. Includes year-end adjustments for the dairy year 1980-1981 applied in October 1981 in Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

    April140,2325.7924.22

    May161,4296.7323.988. Includes return of over quota levy for the dairy year 1981-1982 in Ontario in September 1982.

    June177,6627.4823.75

    July169,9207.3323.199. Includes return of over quota levy for the previous dairy year in October 1993, October 1994, September and October 1995 in Ontario and Prince Edward Island.

    August165,8307.0423.56

    September159,7806.4024.98

    October143,0245.7025.11This survey collects monthly administrative data from provincial milk marketing agencies and provincial departments of agriculture in Canada related to off-farm sales of milk and cream. The data are used by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canadian D

    November123,9584.8925.35

    December123,3334.8225.59

    1978January120,9844.6925.80

    February110,9784.2326.22

    March121,3215.0024.29

    April139,2655.9623.36

    May160,1786.7823.63

    June180,2517.2924.73

    July174,0616.9025.23

    August172,8626.5726.32

    September158,4485.9726.54

    October149,0695.4127.55

    November137,2404.9427.78

    December138,1224.9527.92

    1979January137,8334.9028.16

    February125,4164.4328.31

    March142,6025.2727.08

    April149,8855.7725.97

    May175,6246.6826.30

    June180,7466.9426.03

    July188,8216.6028.61

    August184,3706.7127.49

    September183,4225.9930.62

    October172,4985.6230.72

    November156,2984.9931.32

    December155,3035.1130.39

    1980January155,5155.0730.67

    February152,9104.8331.63

    March175,1535.5931.35

    April182,7736.1629.66

    May203,8306.9329.43

    June212,5307.2929.17

    July210,4977.1229.58

    August213,0076.7231.70

    September206,7216.1833.44

    October201,3075.7035.34

    November174,0194.9934.86

    December182,3025.3034.39

    1981January182,1145.2034.99

    February173,4904.8535.76

    March197,7845.8034.11

    April212,1686.3333.51

    May232,9237.0033.28

    June243,8937.3833.03

    July245,1587.1734.19

    August243,1816.8035.78

    September224,9336.2036.28

    October231,3635.7939.97

    November201,0375.2438.38

    December209,4355.5237.94

    1982January207,5885.4837.91

    February197,2535.1238.55

    March227,8056.0737.50

    April236,8576.4936.49

    May253,2137.1535.42

    June261,8287.4835.03

    July256,8857.2935.22

    August250,7096.9636.00

    September242,9556.3638.22

    October237,4216.0739.09

    November222,1425.5839.83

    December226,7695.7639.40

    1983January213,6805.7137.41

    February198,8875.1838.40

    March222,5795.9737.31

    April225,8356.2336.24

    May238,1296.7035.54

    June239,5276.8035.22

    July224,8536.6134.03

    August245,3466.5137.71

    September233,1955.9639.11

    October229,1675.7539.86

    November217,1375.3140.89

    December230,0485.6140.99

    1984January227,2565.6839.98

    February218,7165.4540.15

    March239,7006.0839.40

    April246,1836.3738.67

    May266,4716.9838.19

    June268,3077.1237.67

    July259,4806.9537.36

    August265,5726.6639.85

    September251,3136.1640.82

    October249,0995.9641.83

    November242,4375.4944.18

    December242,4645.7841.96

    1985January243,7855.8441.71

    February225,3635.3242.37

    March245,4256.0340.70

    April250,9136.3039.85

    May262,7956.6939.29

    June254,9746.6638.27

    July248,2906.5038.21

    August263,6886.4640.83

    September251,2975.9842.04

    October257,5085.8244.25

    November250,3265.4146.29

    December246,0235.6343.68

    1986January248,5995.7643.16

    February231,3985.2843.86

    March255,9976.0642.22

    April259,7326.3440.95

    May274,1676.8340.16

    June267,8916.8039.40

    July267,2606.6740.09

    August273,1866.4842.13

    September255,2815.9942.59

    October257,6795.7544.80

    November246,1415.3645.93

    December251,5625.7343.94

    1987January254,6615.8443.58

    February235,7535.3544.09

    March264,7866.1742.92

    April267,0526.4241.60

    May279,5556.8740.71

    June270,2016.7939.80

    July270,8166.5741.25

    August272,8016.4842.10

    September262,2395.9843.88

    October264,8565.8944.99

    November264,1775.5447.73

    December262,6735.9044.52

    1988January268,1406.0144.65

    February258,9795.7644.93

    March281,5606.3944.08

    April279,0006.5342.75

    May294,3616.9542.34

    June287,8606.9541.41

    July277,9746.8340.70

    August291,5706.6144.10

    September281,6926.2245.29

    October298,3966.0349.51

    November271,2765.7247.41

    December283,3506.0846.61

    1989January284,4376.1646.18

    February263,3965.6446.74

    March293,9446.4245.80

    April287,6166.4544.62

    May296,2166.8143.47

    June292,9946.5644.68

    July273,5836.3742.94

    August284,3436.2645.45

    September272,5935.8846.39

    October279,6405.7948.28

    November269,2275.5248.81

    December278,8215.8347.86

    1990January279,5006.0046.58

    February261,3185.5447.21

    March293,3006.3146.48

    April289,3026.3645.48

    May305,0266.7545.17

    June295,5996.6744.33

    July283,8226.4943.74

    August287,4986.3345.43

    September273,9455.9146.37

    October295,7805.7851.14

    November273,0415.5149.55

    December281,8725.8148.55

    1991January284,6115.9348.02

    February263,1425.4448.34

    March291,3646.1547.35

    April290,4486.2346.64

    May301,1416.5845.80

    June286,7116.4144.75

    July268,2826.3142.53

    August292,4106.2446.84

    September274,7895.9346.37

    October290,2825.8649.50

    November280,5255.6449.73

    December291,1265.9748.76

    1992January294,2766.0748.50

    February279,9155.6649.47

    March291,0406.0648.05

    April281,2565.9547.27

    May281,5076.0946.25

    June270,5505.9045.84

    July254,9705.6944.80

    August276,4015.7947.75

    September259,9815.4947.38

    October281,6975.5051.22

    November268,1395.2551.10

    December280,8815.6050.16

    1993January280,3975.6349.80

    February261,1915.1550.72

    March289,3395.7850.06

    April281,9115.7848.75

    May290,6536.0947.71

    June279,4255.9646.91

    July268,9055.8446.06

    August281,0045.7548.85

    September278,5185.4950.75

    October284,7025.4352.40

    November277,2005.3052.29

    December290,8595.6951.15

    1994January295,7005.7851.16

    February274,9815.3051.88

    March307,9506.0151.22

    April301,6296.0150.18

    May312,3846.3149.49

    June301,5646.1648.93

    July285,4256.0347.36

    August296,8965.9449.94

    September291,8175.6751.51

    October312,1315.7454.41

    November290,6005.5252.64

    December305,6925.8951.90

    1995January309,8936.0351.42

    February286,2945.5052.10

    March318,2696.1451.80

    April305,7456.0250.81

    May316,4946.3250.07

    June308,4076.1750.02

    July275,7926.1045.21

    August310,5156.1150.83

    September312,0605.8753.13

    October313,6155.9053.17

    November303,7045.7353.04

    December315,8496.0951.85

    1996January323,6586.1752.49

    February300,8625.8151.79

    March322,1476.2951.19

    April313,4426.1650.87

    May308,5026.3348.70

    June285,9386.1346.66

    July261,9665.9743.85

    August311,1715.8952.80

    September307,8265.6754.28

    October318,9315.7255.74

    November305,3605.5854.74

    December325,5875.9954.35

    1997January324,9336.1552.81

    February297,1345.6552.58

    March336,1776.3453.01

    April326,4966.2752.03

    May333,6406.5750.78

    June324,1756.4550.29

    July299,0416.4046.74

    August325,1976.2751.83

    September310,3035.9851.90

    October332,4976.0654.83

    November314,2665.8453.78

    December332,0186.2253.41

    1998January330,3996.3452.13

    February305,6795.8152.65

    March340,6996.4552.79

    April327,9186.3351.82

    May339,0036.6650.89

    June324,2736.4250.53

    July316,3576.4249.28

    August335,9326.3053.34

    September334,2296.0555.23

    October340,0636.1555.30

    November333,7195.9556.06

    December349,9186.3355.25

    1999January346,1116.4253.87

    February316,6605.9053.70

    March354,6986.6053.73

    April336,9906.4851.98

    May349,1606.7651.65

    June326,5086.4450.73

    July324,3476.4150.62

    August331,0066.3452.22

    September319,5486.0452.90

    October338,4886.1555.07

    November331,0476.0055.20

    December350,0276.3655.01

    2000January341,3856.4652.89

    February332,5206.0754.74

    March358,1256.5554.69

    April340,7776.3453.72

    May347,4736.5553.04

    June339,6756.2854.08

    July328,0336.2552.50

    August336,7926.1954.38

    September336,3965.9956.14

    October347,7086.1456.58

    November339,5005.9257.31

    December354,1136.2356.83

    2001January339,1176.4053.02

    February328,5625.8456.22

    March360,9496.5355.31

    April346,4916.4054.17

    May361,5496.7153.91

    June345,3926.3154.73

    July340,7846.3553.64

    August351,7456.3055.86

    September345,2866.0856.75

    October356,9576.2357.31

    November350,3946.0857.65

    December356,9716.3556.26

    2002January362,3796.5355.46

    February333,5945.9256.36

    March357,5486.5354.73

    April335,1226.3452.89

    May349,2096.3854.76

    June339,8806.0955.81

    July332,7026.0654.93

    August336,3325.9856.26

    September329,1955.7757.08

    October347,9195.9858.16

    November347,3375.8958.95

    December372,8286.2959.26

    2003January364,0296.4456.54

    February354,9075.8161.07

    March388,2386.4560.21

    April378,8816.2660.50

    May389,9446.5359.68

    June370,8886.3358.55

    July370,2556.4257.69

    August370,7276.2958.93

    September369,8236.1260.39

    October380,1346.2660.68

    November370,2576.1260.51

    December387,6606.4460.23

    2004January380,4966.5258.36

    February366,2276.1559.59

    March385,8136.6358.16

    April376,1606.4658.27

    May387,3046.6857.98

    June381,8666.4259.49

    July376,9586.4658.32

    August391,5506.4061.22

    September376,7556.1461.35

    9.9394991704

    9.158608436

    9.6544079713

    10.9366833574

    11.2663487637

    10.4469986003

    10.6963666218

    11.7169376825

    11.9106343416

    11.7206431872

    12.3623225857

    14.4241607048

    14.935072197

    15.1876336741

    16.3600149549

    18.7239947791

    19.6226511365

    17.612542075

    18.9734771061

    21.1641872848

    20.519301531

    18.3688217393

    18.7413251457

    21.1338831709

    20.8097197366

    19.636214014

    19.5376111225

    21.7723635495

    22.0419175444

    21.3637720769

    21.4363071268

    23.4266957194

    24.4332129469

    23.5763075043

    24.526119343

    26.7103775344

    27.9243178485

    26.5724792994

    27.5864808034

    30.5959466398

    31.4338209786

    30.2955590111

    31.2832111171

    33.8175695684

    34.5022830064

    32.5514595073

    32.7497187521

    35.0137273702

    34.211412979

    32.6032779774

    33.0511162595

    36.1236257326

    36.4189122862

    34.991627827

    35.2663728329

    38.1001269981

    37.8632899672

    35.7750212103

    36.4143300042

    40.0327063916

    39.4331702536

    36.8226881595

    37.5823842938

    40.5706941057

    39.9275660368

    37.3001838135

    38.3951744626

    41.4255167827

    40.9564862529

    38.6931746431

    39.3944233564

    43.7056826098

    42.4822868312

    40.6616401887

    41.2686163055

    44.3108869134

    43.1210817814

    41.475724465

    41.7112813516

    45.8255288665

    44.2971108359

    42.2554692279

    42.1748384928

    45.5160945888

    44.9686395827

    42.9604993221

    44.145375937

    47.1252674138

    46.565668216

    44.4399828841

    45.2041150331

    48.6343246953

    48.1890979043

    46.4498923521

    46.5459122778

    49.6388265405

    48.4664302554

    47.0609946156

    47.1898977778

    49.8214280674

    48.9696881447

    46.0410475308

    48.4056270444

    52.8426362471

    50.7242798671

    48.9880250757

    48.3587444716

    51.9625487589

    50.5239488359

    49.4926396291

    50.7544247634

    53.8781539089

    52.0821343734

    50.227035289

    50.6138187602

    53.8249799661

    52.8385716982

    52.7444446183

    53.4208766154

    56.0486832442

    53.9363851847

    53.828829873

    54.921459485

    56.6331446255

    55.110784087

    54.3844963829

    56.0740749479

    58.7970022493

    59.2285126741

    59.56854238

    58.9982796704

    60.4650742659

    58.6851219679

    58.5695854212

    60.2771586241

    Milk price per hl

    Quarter

    Price per hl

    Evolution of Milk Prices on a Quaterly Basis since 1971

    22.9461688838

    22.9393941363

    25.616341484

    22.3592843593

    21.0610094135

    22.9889630641

    22.4953851065

    22.4919078446

    23.1963443263

    26.0563284273

    25.1759445684

    24.6331693056

    24.0781186279

    23.723842872

    25.1689165917

    24.2158413516

    23.9803497472

    23.7540495479

    23.1934066954

    23.5611206699

    24.9797932265

    25.1103881625

    25.3467962245

    25.5876000772

    25.7975371822

    26.2178354422

    24.2878563721

    23.3592815677

    23.6303714107

    24.7308434783

    25.2344970962

    26.3154930178

    26.5397255043

    27.5522048196

    27.7849761912

    27.9230086546

    28.1559030509

    28.3077978711

    27.0791912816

    25.9734520942

    26.3000339937

    26.0345637188

    28.6098926491

    27.4933305895

    30.6232605353

    30.7153464553

    31.3231860677

    30.3948316084

    30.6706057994

    31.6322541006

    31.3462832517

    29.6551511533

    29.4297277357

    29.1707614347

    29.5842544872

    31.6985551589

    33.4395569021

    35.3409501873

    34.8560841262

    34.3865473305

    34.9903644597

    35.7638337741

    34.1080993457

    33.5147276952

    33.2791356566

    33.0300637733

    34.1930957724

    35.7766959582

    36.2827932846

    39.96783405

    38.3833466027

    37.9364498576

    37.9050930153

    38.5459270912

    37.4991357939

    36.4941674229

    35.4186657416

    35.025985753

    35.2222462932

    36.0018036156

    38.2218663277

    39.0873081204

    39.8295238573

    39.4011526586

    37.4071299026

    38.4000664177

    37.3055353497

    36.236104693

    35.5409521905

    35.2159102103

    34.0348078274

    37.7139747657

    39.1137493144

    39.8594976493

    40.8940927428

    40.9885077951

    39.9757249532

    40.1505305283

    39.3993287157

    38.6706858473

    38.1913530526

    37.6665857107

    37.3568058693

    39.8525779353

    40.8212226891

    41.8288921092

    44.1821177208

    41.9609851999

    41.7117231184

    42.3675186681

    40.6996509208

    39.8459285891

    39.2870490798

    38.2714548388

    38.212806038

    40.8304583997

    42.0368282475

    44.2502268291

    46.2941695378

    43.679648607

    43.1594736815

    43.8571087416

    42.2170476415

    40.9502697623

    40.1553387251

    39.404137647

    40.0857330128

    42.1270630905

    42.5856572575

    44.8001822057

    45.9317688156

    43.9351282624

    43.5803664939

    44.0923543054

    42.9221686567

    41.6001246203

    40.7135336035

    39.8009371304

    41.2511081391

    42.0981401579

    43.8750533299

    44.988678771

    47.7255236354

    44.5204701655

    44.6469900662

    44.9286374763

    44.0784632966

    42.7484658817

    42.3406370061

    41.4078615384

    40.6983196464

    44.0998307518

    45.293709993

    49.5093793657

    47.4067291007

    46.6081412505

    46.177161513

    46.735807376

    45.7977255695

    44.6225523735

    43.4691242076

    44.6787713544

    42.9370045498

    45.4513194554

    46.3891753542

    48.2772193813

    48.8104108765

    47.861829118

    46.5824016853

    47.2077449331

    46.4780184169

    45.4751515304

    45.1650159397

    44.3272610579

    43.7412347079

    45.4277267491

    46.3700531501

    51.135057198

    49.5531809091

    48.5492343995

    48.023291915

    48.336416255

    47.3484669974

    46.6410055064

    45.7968726713

    44.750626672

    42.5274037204

    46.8364831553

    46.3712378815

    49.5032316376

    49.7295697047

    48.7554323706

    48.5005306981

    49.4719037974

    48.0547120994

    47.2744447787

    46.2477041009

    45.84388847

    44.7972029201

    47.7490317209

    47.3760842627

    51.222572357

    51.1012519034

    50.1599189958

    49.7954174939

    50.7203430149

    50.0640207081

    48.7490705355

    47.7120921368

    46.9099925797

    46.0599676267

    48.8523341869

    50.7539712188

    52.4041886243

    52.2872858145

    51.1455294546

    51.1583729665

    51.8842843908

    51.2197434273

    50.1832610992

    49.4891614136

    48.9275539143

    47.3596094751

    49.94389857

    51.5122683142

    54.4075120579

    52.6357734887

    51.8966453891

    51.4165163735

    52.0963630044

    51.7984756777

    50.8082085472

    50.0652521581

    50.0175154639

    45.2056523457

    50.828688585

    53.1322414941

    53.1663488027

    53.0427113079

    51.853755038

    52.4938205928

    51.7881118448

    51.1941709773

    50.8670088721

    48.7032546509

    46.6575506981

    43.8484521329

    52.8021516506

    54.2771852304

    55.7352440037

    54.7400046967

    54.3549103342

    52.8139379528

    52.5769675178

    53.0097969185

    52.0319813352

    50.7773203564

    50.2876014904

    46.7362561108

    51.8309962417

    51.9021980025

    54.8278636893

    53.7766666496

    53.4082080105

    52.1254105835

    52.6532552696

    52.7876680704

    51.8248325149

    50.8869104714

    50.5256318567

    49.2757167289

    53.3407432695

    55.2267537352

    55.3013609746

    56.058961868

    55.2549508195

    53.8721833184

    53.7013137879

    53.7316191229

    51.9796024137

    51.6504291382

    50.7269388402

    50.6236118763

    52.2210091882

    52.897415948

    55.0731758906

    55.2029295087

    55.0093115723

    52.8855165704

    54.7423805659

    54.6942771268

    53.7245547876

    53.0405673568

    54.0799365704

    52.4991397729

    54.3765439075

    56.1384185599

    56.584626

    57.3091537658

    56.8345854887

    53.0199201692

    56.2235512547

    55.3131072276

    54.1712983157

    53.9117636972

    54.734379977

    53.6431179952

    55.8605586294

    56.7471534881

    57.3098992701

    57.6548678391

    56.2563923958

    55.4611083988

    56.3639527791

    54.7250873571

    52.888307417

    54.7581264799

    55.808057588

    54.9254293139

    56.2643554137

    57.0833304433

    58.1616635434

    58.950610998

    59.2572107017

    56.5442415676

    61.0673586006

    60.210888078

    60.4995736554

    59.6804038036

    58.5542674638

    57.6896409346

    58.9261815373

    60.3874484216

    60.6771739512

    60.5129571277

    60.226326452

    58.363563574

    59.5939707455

    58.1591982803

    58.2715881084

    57.9766898092

    59.4862448204

    58.3190484736

    61.2236920286

    61.3524556127

    Milk price per hl

    Monyth/year

    Price per hl

    Evolution of milk price on a monthly basis since 1971

  • Balancing Supply with Demand Step 1: Estimating Demand Requirements

  • Balancing Supply with Demand Step 2: Setting Supply Target Requirements

  • Balancing Supply with Demand Step 3: Allocate MSQ - Historical Basis

    Province

    %

    %

    1982

    2004

    Newfoundland

    0

    0.14

    PEI

    1.9

    1.74

    Nouvelle-cosse

    1,3

    1,16

    Nouveau-Brunswick

    1,3

    1,35

    Qubec

    48

    45.48

    Ontario

    31,2

    31,68

    Manitoba

    3,9

    3,53

    Saskatchewan

    2,6

    2,52

    Alberta

    6,7

    6,55

    C.-B.

    3.1

    5.86

  • Step 4- Allocation of Quota to Individual Producers

  • Daily quota system: no year end Daily quota established on a kg of butterfat per dayAdjusted regularly to reflect market demand fluctuation: upward or downwardTransferableProduction Quota

  • Balancing the Negotiating Power Marketing Agreements (MA)Terms negotiated between:Provincial boards and Processors Co-operative Private enterprisesA single sales agent (provincial board) negotiates: plant supply, milk quality, classes and prices, and payment terms

  • Balancing the Negotiating Power Domestic Price NegotiationsThe price of industrial milk sold in regular classes is set by the CDC following a consultation process and reflects a cost of production formula including return on investment and equityThe price of fluid milk is set by the provincesOne price adjustment per year (February)All processors pay the same price for a given class

  • Balancing the Negotiating Power Distribution of Producer Returns

  • Balancing the Negotiating Power Increased Market Concentration

    Farm level 17,000 dairy farmsProcessing level3 largest dairy processors have 70% of sales of approximately $11 billionRetail level Largest retail chain has 35% of sales Top 10 have 90% of sales

  • Producer Returns (Deductions)Deductions per hL of monthly shipment:Transportation $2.32Administration $0.45Promotion $1.22Research and DHI: $0.12Total$4.11The operating costs of the system are therefore bourn by the producers.

  • Price of MilkMilk Prices Paid to Producers:

  • Ensuring Consumer BenefitsA Canadian Paradox: Canadas method of implementing supply management in the dairy industry results in benefits accruing to all stakeholders not just to producers

  • Ensuring Consumer Benefits Comparison of Canada-U.S. Retail Prices

  • Ensuring Consumer BenefitsNo Cost to Government

  • A System Under ThreatThree Pillars:

    Import controls

    Price setting

    Production planning

  • A System Under Threat WTO Impending Threat Market ImportAccess Controls Domestic ProducerSupport PricingExport ProductionCompetition Discipline1-2-3-Each Pillar Can Be Affected:

  • Conclusion:Supply Management Benefits at StakeProducers ability to get revenues from the marketNo cost to governmentStable and reasonable prices for consumersStable and steady supply for processorsHigh quality products

  • Conclusion (continued):Supply Management Benefits at StakeMaintenance of family farms Benefits rural development and environmental sustainabilityProduction discipline which prevents surplus production that distort both international and domestic markets

    Good morning. I am Bruce Saunders, First Vice-President of Dairy Farmers of Canada and I am accompanied by Yves Leduc, Director of International Trade for Dairy Farmers of Canada.

    DFC is pleased to have once again the opportunity to share its experience under supply management. It is an efficient system that we dairy producers very proud of. In addition to my presentation, we have brought with us a copy of a study prepared by Daniel Mercier Gouin from Laval University demonstrating that supply management is a system that is still appropriate in 2005.

    I hope, with this presentation, to provide you with a better understanding of how the system functions, the benefits of the system and how the Doha Round of negotiations could affect the future of our system.

    The presentation will be broken into several parts: 1- Who we are?2- History of supply management in Canada3- Determining production quota4- Benefits of supply management5- Expectations from the Doha Round of negotiations6- Conclusion

    Before getting into the fundamentals, I would like to provide you with a snapshot of why supply management is so important to Canada. A recent economic impact analysis study by Dr. Maurice Doyon from Laval University provides powerful economic arguments in support of the maintenance of supply management in Canada.

    The contribution of the Canadian supply management industries is impressive as it adds a net $8.3 billion to the GDP, sustains more than $26 billion of economic activity, and over 142,000 jobs in Canada (approximately 13% of all the jobs in the food industry). Dairy is the third most important agricultural sector in Canada.

    1 Dairy Economic Impact Study, Dr. Maurice Doyon, Laval University; based on 2002 dataCanadian dairy farmers have produced milk under a variety of market circumstances. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, we were major exporters of butter, skim milk powder and cheese. With minor exceptions, our producers were never as badly off financially as when they were heavily dependent on foreign markets. Even when producers, through co-ops, took greater control over the physical exporting of product, they were faced with formidable challenges in negotiating with foreign buyers who were interested in their own prosperity.

    Canadian producers decided quite deliberately decided to focus their efforts to obtaining reasonable incomes on the domestic market. Attention to the domestic market brought a desire for equitable access and fair treatment of producers. Aside from prices, a major concern of farmers is an accurate measurement of the quantity and quality of the product sold honest weights and tests. Here again the pure market system had demonstrated a tendency toward buyer bias. Producers needed help in the form of regulation or third party independent testing. A regulated market was the solution.Over the past 30 years, supply management has proven an effective tool in the growth and development of our dairy industry.

    The Canadian Dairy industry, which operates under a system of supply management, pursues 3 fundamental objectives. The first is to match production with the demand. This is done through consultations and negotiation with other stakeholders. Production controls administered through a quota system discourages production surplus. The second objective is to balance the negotiating power between stakeholders to obtain fair prices for the producer. Collective negotiation allows producers to reduce the distortion in market power caused by the concentration at the retailer and processor levels. The third objective is to ensure that, in return for paying a fair return to farmers for their labor, consumers consistently have access to adequate supplies of high quality food.

    The effectiveness of the Canadian supply managed industries depends on three pillars: Import controls: import control measures allow domestic production to be planned to meet Canadian demand by limiting imports to the level of access agreed to at the World Trade Organisation. The level of access is equivalent to the size of tariff-rate quotas, and over-quota tariffs limit imports beyond this threshold. Producer pricing mechanisms (or collective marketing): this provides the farmers with the opportunity to obtain fair market returns. The right to collective action allows producers to counterbalance the much stronger market power of other agri-food chain players. Production planning: it allows supply and demand to be balanced, thereby promoting price and market stability.

    These three pillars are equally necessary and equally important for the system to function. Also essential is a proper legislative framework that ensures all producers participate in the system. Without a proper legislative framework, the system could not function efficiently.

    I will come back to these three pillars later in my presentation and show how the Doha Round of negotiations could affect them.

    The need for intervention is fundamental to the structure of the industry because of the unequal the market power share. Without some form of collectivity, producers will always be in a weaker negotiating position. When, through market power, firms have control over prices, firms will calculate what they need and pass on what is left, if anything to their suppliers (in this case the suppliers are us producers). While some producers, some commodities, some countries are comfortable with the boom-bust cycle of the free market we dairy producers are not.

    I firmly believe in a regulated dairy market.

    The free market in dairy is problematic for several reasons. The main reason is the demand and supply dynamics of dairy products. Dairy product consumption, as in many agricultural products, does not respond strongly to change in price. In aggregate, dairy product demand is considered to change proportionately less in quantity than in price, when prices change. For example, a 10% decrease in price may at best move 4% more product. On the other side of the supply/demand equation, supply increase will dramatically affect prices. When you combine the low consumer response with the potential of greater supply the risk to producer income from excess production or additional supply availability becomes very clear. A 10% increase in supply would normally cause a 25% decrease in price. It is obvious that in international trade, where only a small proportion of dairy production is traded (5 to 7%), the potential for excess supply is a constant threat to prices. And this is the reality for most commodities around the world, and the example of coffee as been well documented.

    Legislation exists in Canada that allows for producers, to act collectively and ensure supply match demand. By disciplining the level of production to match demand, supply management does not lead to over-production which would have to be exported on the highly distorted world market place. It also prevents surpluses from flooding the domestic market and driving prices to artificial lows and is therefore non-trade distorting. At the national level, the marketing boards cooperate under the National Milk Marketing Plan. This is a contractual agreement among provincial boards and provincial governments, and the Canadian Dairy Commission to establish quotas for industrial milk marketed on the domestic market, and to divide the required industrial milk production among the provincial boards. The Plan establishes the Canadian Milk Supply Management Committee through which the signatories implement the Plan. Canada is a country that is divided into provinces and producers of each province are represented at the national level through their provincial marketing board. Fluid milk remains under the authority of the provincial government although inter-provincial agreements allow for collective sharing of the market.

    Discussions about supply and demand for industrial milk products occur at the Canadian Milk Supply Management Committee (CMSMC).

    The key members of the CMSMC are the provincial marketing boards. (in green)At the same time, the provincial governments of the participating provinces are also represented on the Committee. (in pink)There are also important non-voting members, representing the producers, the processors and the consumers. (in orange)The Canadian Dairy Commission acts as the Chair. (circled in red)

    The role of the CDC is mainly one of building consensus among the participants in the CMSMC. Although there are formal voting rules for the CMSMC, it is the normal practice to discuss policy issues among the voting and non-voting participants until a consensus is achieved.

    The objective of matching supply with demand is to control market price and supply volatility, a problem common to easily perishable agricultural commodities. Before supply management was introduced, milk prices yo-yoed between low prices due to large surpluses of milk in the spring and summer months and high prices due to a low milk supply during the fall and winter months.

    Under supply management, Canadian dairy producers enjoy the benefits of price stability. A comparison with the United States is useful to demonstrate this benefit, as can be seen on this chart.

    Explanation of the graph: evolution of producer prices and retail prices in the US over the period 1990-2004Blue line: US Highest of Class III (cheese) and Class IV (butter and powder) - IndexRed line: Canada- Industrial Milk Target Price Index (DPI)Source: Class III and IV Price: USDACDC

    As can be seen on this chart, the Canadian milk production is planned throughout the year and processors get a stable supply of milk month after month. By managing the production throughout the year, we have been able to overcome the cyclical production cycle observed in most dairy producing countries (New Zealand for example). This is an important aspect of our system and one that benefits the processors who can efficiently use the processing facilities.

    The first step is to estimate the demand for the coming year.

    Working together, the representatives from each province determine the level of milk supplies needed for domestic use in Canada for the current dairy year.

    The key factors considered by the CMSMC are:

    anticipated consumption, which depends mainly on demographics and economic conditions; evaluation of stocks of dairy products - stocks at the beginning an d at the end of the dairy year; expected imports - these are predictable, given that Canada has WTO commitments to tariff quotas on cheese, butter, and a number of other dairy products; traditional exports - these are mainly exports under Canada-specific tariff quotas and expected transactions by the CDC in markets controlled by state importers and; possible changes in market conditions such as economic instability or changes in production conditions, that may affect demand for Canadian dairy products.Once domestic requirements are determined, then the CMSMC develops supply targets to meet the demand. The supply target for industrial milk is called the national Market Sharing Quota (MSQ). MSQ is meant to meet the expected demand. After the supply target for industrial milk has been determined at the national level, step 2 is to allocate shares of MSQ to each province.

    Shares of MSQ are allocated essentially on a historical basis, or more specifically, those that were in effect as of August 1, 1982, the beginning of the National Milk Marketing Plan.

    Historical shares are adjusted on an annual basis to account for transfers of quota between provinces within pooling arrangements.

    What is important to retain from this table is that our system is not static and has evolved continuously over the past 35 years.Once a province establishes its quota for the dairy year, it then allocates it to individual producers.

    For example, Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) is responsible for administering quota to Ontario producers. DFO makes a single allocation to each producer which represents that producers share of the fluid milk sales, plus his share of the domestic market for industrial milk.Individual producer shares of provincial quota are determined by the permanent quota rights held by that producer. However, quota is also transferable among licensed producers.The daily quota system operates as a continuous quota system with no year-end. It is unique in the sense that each unit of quota is based on fulfilling the demand for industrial milk (federal jurisdiction) and fluid milk (provincial jurisdiction). The quota is established in kilograms of butterfat per day to the nearest 100th of a kilogram.It is adjusted on a regular basis to reflect market demand fluctuation: upward or downward. And it is transferable between farmers through a quota exchange.

    Legislation was passed in Canada that allows for producers to act collectively when negotiating with processors and retailers. This is done through the provincial marketing boards at the CCSM. Provincial marketing boards are given, by their members, the right to negotiate marketing agreements with the representatives of 1) cooperative processors, and 2) private processors. The terms negotiated apply to all processors. The management of milk for plants as well as the re-distribution of the funds is the provincial boards responsibilities.

    The Agreements establish: prices guaranteed supply categories supply rules milk classes quality rules plant billing and producer payment terms

    The price of industrial milk sold in regular classes is set by the CDC following a consultation process and reflects a cost of production formula including return on investment and equityThe price of fluid milk is set by the provincesOne price adjustment per year (February)All processors pay the same price for a given class

    All milk is sold collectively by producers to processors and is billed on the basis of its use in the various product classes. Processors pay for each kilogram of components (fat, protein, lactosis and other non-fat solids).

    An average price for each component sold within quota is calculated from the result of these sales. This is called the pool price or pooling. All producers therefore obtain the same average price regardless of the plant that received their milk and its end use. Only over-quota milk is not pooled.

    Total returns from in-quota milk sales are pooled among all producers. Payment is based on the components in milk (fat, protein, lactose and o.s.). Provincial boards calculate the pay of their producers.

    As stated previously, the second objective of our supply management system is to balance the negotiating power between stakeholders to obtain fair prices for the producer. Collective negotiation allows producers to reduce the distortion in market power caused by the concentration at the retailer and processor levels.

    Increased market concentration places the individual producer at risk for exploitation. For example:

    At the farm level:In 2003, total net farm cash receipts from 17,000 dairy farms generated approximately $4.5 billion. At the processing level:During the same period, dairy products shipped from approximately 444 dairy processing plants (278 federally inspected) were valued at more approximately $11 billion. The 3 largest dairy processors currently have more than 70% of sales of dairy products. (Saputo, Parmalat and Agropur). Retail A limited number of grocery chains now control the retail industry. The Top 10 retailers have 90% of total retail sales. Loblaws has 35% (more than $20 B) of total retail sales. There is significant concentration at the processing and retail levels of the marketing chain. Since the processing and retailing side of the market is controlled by a small number of companies, they have significant bargaining power compared to the individual farmer. In the absence of a regulatory framework that supports producers ability to act together and counteract imbalances in market power, the ability to obtain their fair share of the consumer dollar could be lost, requiring the balance to be made up for in support payments from taxpayers dollars. Retail level Largest retail chain has 35% of sales Top 10 have 90% of sales

    This is not a solely Canadian phenomenon. Producer organizations such as The International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) are also concerned by this phenomena and brought this question to the forefront last June, at the time of 36Th World Farmers Congress.

    Deductions to producer payments are applied per hectolitre of monthly shipments. Deductions include: transportation @ $2.32 administration @ $0.45 promotion @ $1.22Research @ $0.06 and Dairy Heard Improvement @ $0.06 for a total of over $4.11 (These are the figures for the province of Ontario, These deductions may vary from one province to another)

    Total deductions for the month are then subtracted from the total milk value resulting in the producers net payment.

    This is an important aspect of the Canadian system. It shows that all the costs necessary to operate the system are in fact bourn by the producers.

    Canadian dairy producers generally receive a wide range of prices for their milk. Sales are classified by how the milk will be used. The highest prices paid are for milk produced for the domestic fluid market, and the lowest prices are generally paid for milk or milk components used in such industrial milk products as butter and skim milk powder.

    As of February 1st, 2005, the target price for industrial milk will be established at $68.42/hl (for milk containing 3.6% butterfat).

    Note: prices in the table reflect 1-5d blend price (not including the subsidy).

    Source:Canadian Dairy CommissionIn the Canadian experience of increased market concentration, supply management has given dairy producers effective mechanisms to counteract the stronger market power in other sectors of the food marketing chain. As the Canadian experience shows, when primary producers have collective power in the marketplace, it allows for a balance between stakeholders to be achieved, ensuring that market power is not exercised at the producers expense.

    It is important to stress however that the benefits accrue to all stakeholders, not just producers

    With supply management: Producers obtain a decent income;Canadian consumers get a great deal for high quality dairy products; and,Processors earn profits (Saputo has posted over the years better results from its Canadian operation; Parmalat has decided to keep its most profitable operation based in Canada following the Parmalat scandal).

    This graph reconfirms that supply management benefits co