Emulsifiers Used in Food Applications, Focusing on the Meat Processing Industry
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Emulsifiers used in food applications, focusing on the meat processing industryPalsgaard Technical Paper, August 2011we are e x p e r t s in emulsif iers and stabilizers for bakery, confectionery, dairy, ice cream, margarine and fine foods - and we are happy to share our expertise. our company values can be defined in just three words: loyalty, responsibility and commitment. we aim to be the preferred partner and supplier of quality products, application service and know- how to regional and mu l t i - na t i ona l food companies. to Palsgaard l o y a l t y means that we act as a reliable and honourable business partner for our customers. we treat information confidentially and know how to keep a business secret. to Palsgaard r e s p o n s i b i l i t y means caring about the environment and being aware of our corporate social responsibility; we have a goal to be CO2 neutral by 2020 and are members of SEDEX and RSPO. to Palsgaard c o m m i t m e n t means we are dedicated to getting the best results for our customers products - to the benefit of their customers. we care about our employees and have a declared aim that Palsgaard must be a pleasant place to work. Palsgaard we know that our most important resource is the know-how and dedicat ion found in our employees. Heart we are committed to getting the best results with our products in our pilot plants and in your facilities. Working at Palsgaard we dont sell standard solutions - we start with your needs. Palsgaard - Heart Working People heart work is the best way to achieve success - let us help you get it. our products are produced according to the strictest quality criteria. we are experts in emulsifiers and stabilizers and we are happy to share our expertise with you. let our pilot plants help you shorten the step between idea and your new product. heart work is the best way to succeed - let us help you do so. Palsgaard Technical Paper - August 2011Emulsifiers used in food applications, focussing on the meat processing industry 2 This article discusses the characteristics and the use of emulsifiers for different food applications. The use of emulsifiers in different processed meat products is described in details including the results of different trials made with emulsifiers in frankfurter and liver sausages.By Cai Clemen Christensen, Business Unit Manager, Lipid & Fine Food Group Palsgaard A/S.Emulsifiers in food applicationsMultiphase systems consist of two or more distinctive phases; systems typical encountered in foods are wa-ter-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W), solid-in-oil, gas-in-liquid, gas-, solid- or oil-in-water and so on. These systems are often unstable due to the immiscibility and thus repulsion between the phases. Emulsifiers consist of molecules with ambiphilic properties; i.e. part of the structure is of hydrophilic and another of lipophilic nature. In the multiphase systems these emulsi-fiers will orientate themselves in the position which is favourable with respect to energy, and the emul-sifiers will reduce the interfacial tension between the phases in the multiphase system; typically an O/W or W/O system. The lipophilic moiety of the emulsi-fier often consists of hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids and the hy-drophilic part originates from more polar molecules such as glycerol, lactic acid, citric acid and polygly-cerol. The types and sizes of the lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties determine the functional behaviour in mul-tiphase systems. An estimate for this relationship is the hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB value), which can be calculated or deter-mined experimentally. Properties in water HLB valueNon-dispersible 0-2Poor dispersibility 2-6Milky dispersion 6-10Stable milky dispersion 8-12Transparent, clear dispersion 12-15Clear, colloidal solution 15-20Field of application HLB valueAnti-foaming agent 1-3Water-in-oil emulsifier 3-6Wetting agent 7-9Oil-in-water emulsifier 8-18Detergent 13-15Solubilizer 15-18Table 1: Relationship between the HLB value and the aqueous solubility and food application.1 Emulsifier E-number HBL valueGlycerol dioleate E-471 1.8Glycerol monooleate E-471 3.4Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids.E-472c 3-4*Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate E-482 5Glycerol monolaurate E-471 5.2Lecithins E-322 8Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate E-481 8Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. (Neutralised)E-472c 9-10*Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate E-433 15.0*Citric acid ester contains unesterified citric acid chemical groups which can exist as acids or salts (neutralised). This greatly affects the HLB value.Table 2: HLB values for emulsifiers typically used in food applications A high HLB value (the hydrophilic moiety dominates the emulsifier) typically stabilises oil-in-water emul-sions, whereas low HLB values will lead to water-in-oil type emulsion.The HLB value of certain emulsifiers such as citric acid esters can vary considerably (from 3 to 10) depend-ing the type and amount of fatty acids, the amount of citric acid, the neutralisation degree and the pH in the final food application. A low pH in the food systems will render a neutralised citric acid ester to non-neutralised and vice versa.The selection of emulsifiers has to be defined from the process and the type of emulsion in the final applica-tion.Palsgaard Technical Paper - August 2011Emulsifiers used in food applications, focussing on the meat processing industry 3 Emulsifiers used in processed meat applicationsAs it can be observed from the above there are several types of emulsifiers, which can be used in many different applications.In the next part of this article we will focus upon the application of different emulsifiers in meat based products such as sausages and pts. Both those products are characterized as meat batters. The emulsions are thermodynamically unstable systems that need stabili-zation by emulsifiers, stabilizers or combinations of both.The emulsifiers already in the batter are the meat proteins (actine and myosine), which are activated by use of phosphates, sodium chloride and shear force. The stabilizers already in the batter are collagen/gelatine, that together with hydro-colloids stabilize the water phase in the product.As described above emulsifiers are surface active molecules and exam-ples are proteins, phosphor-lipids and mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids and derivatives of these. The focus will be on the use of the last mentioned group, and the emulsi-fiers listed in table 3 are used alone or in combinations for creating a stable emulsion and a higher quality of the final meat product:Also other types of emulsifiers are used, but they will not be dis-cussed in this article.In general the meat products we will describe can be divided in 2 categories, which also partly de-cide the type of emulsifiers used for the application; cold processed meat emulsions and warm pro-cessed emulsified meat products.Sausages made from cold processed meat emulsionsWe will first discuss the use of emulsifiers in frankfurters, wieners, hotdog sausages, bolognas and mortadella types, which are all pro-duced under cold conditions (0 13oC).The sausages are all based on a meat emulsion, which is a suspen-sion of fat particles in a gellified meat and water phase. They are all stuffed in suitable casings.For these types of sausages we will mainly recommend the use of citric acid esters of mono- and diglycer-ides of fatty acids, E-472c.The demands to the emulsifier used are: Good dispersibility in meat batters processed under cold conditions Effective in creating stable emulsions specially in prod-ucts with high fat and water content No off-flavours Should make it possible to improve quality and /or optimize the cost profileIn order to illustrate the functionality of the emulsifiers in cold processed meat emulsions, trials with the citric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, Palsgaard Citrem 3307 (E-472c) in frankfurter sau-sages were performed. Palsgaard Citrem 3307 has a high HLB value. The recipe of the frankfurter sau-sages are described below in table 4:Type of emulsifier E-numberCitric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsE-472cDistilled monoglycer-ides and mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsE-471Combinations of the above mentioned 2 types of emulsifiersE-471, E-472cTable 3: Emulsifiers used in meat applications. Figure 1: 1-Monoglyceride (E-471)Figure 2: Citric acid ester (CITREM) (E-472c)Palsgaard Technical Paper - August 2011Emulsifiers used in food applications, focussing on the meat processing industry 4 012345Cook ing loss%012345Cook ing loss%0.3 % Dextrose0.3 % Caseinate0.3 % Palsgaard Citrem 33070.3 % Dextrose0.3 % Caseinate0.3 % Palsgaard Citrem 330700.5122.53P u rge loss% during vacuum sto rage14 days 28 days7 days011.523P u rge loss% during vacuum sto rage14 days 28 days7 daysFigure 3: The diagram on the left shows the purge loss % during vacuum storage and the diagram on the right shows the cooking loss %.Table 4:Recipes of three different frankfurters with and without Palsgaard Citrem 3307.Ingredient Sausage 1 Sausage 2 Sausage 3Beef III (18-20% fat) 10.20 % 10.20 % 10.20 %Pork II (10 - 12 %) 38.80 % 38.80 % 38.80 %Pork backfat 22.00 % 22.00 % 22.00 % Ice water 23.30 % 23.30 % 23.30% Palsgaard Citrem 3307 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.30 %Na-caseinate 0.00 % 0.30 % 0.00 %Soy isolate 2.00 % 1.70 % 1.70 %Phosphate 0.25 % 0.25 % 0.25 %Nitrite curing salt 1.60 % 1.60 % 1.60% Dextrose 0.30 % 0.30 % 0.30 %Ascorbic acid 0.05 % 0.05 % 0.05 %Starch 1.00 % 1.00 % 1.00 %Seasoning 0.50 % 0.50 % 0.50 %Sum 100% 100% 100%In order to evaluate the functionality of the citric acid ester of mono-di-glyceride; Palsgaard Citrem 3307, E-472c in the produced sausages the purge loss and the cooking loss were measured as shown below in figure 3:It can be observed from the trials, that there is a clear reduction of purge loss in the products during storage in 7, 14 and 28 days when emulsifiers are used in the sausag-es. Also the cooking loss is reduced in the sausages where Palsgaard Citrem 3307 is added. Palsgaard Technical Paper - August 2011Emulsifiers used in food applications, focussing on the meat processing industry 5 Warm processed emulsified meat productsThis group includes the products liver pts and liver sausages and are produced with a warm process (50oC 80oC). The products are packed in casings or in cans.In order to illustrate the effect of emulsifiers in these type of meat products different liver sausages with and without a distilled mono-glyceride (E-471) based on veg-etable fats, Palsgaard DMG 0090 Powder, were produced.The demands to the emulsifiers are: No off flavour or smell to the meat product Should improve the spreadabil-ity and the smoothness of the pats and sausages Should improve the emulsion, so that less fat and water will separateThe recipes used are shown in table 5.In order to evaluate the effect of the addition of the emulsifier the emulsion stability was measured by centrifugation test and also the storage stability was measured as shown below in figure 4.From the result of the trials it can be concluded, that both the emul-sion stability and also the storage stability are significantly improved by addition of the emulsifier and an increased dosage will improve both parameters.SummaryIn this paper we have discussed the use of emulsifiers such as citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E-472c) and distilled monoglyceride of fatty acids (E-471) and combination of these in cold and warm processed meat products such as sausages and pts. As described and shown above it is possible to improve the qualities of the meat based products. It is of course necessary to perform the tests with your own recipes and also consult the local food legislation if the use of the described emulsifiers are permitted.Ingredient Sausage 1 Sausage 2 Sausage 3Pork II ( 10 12% fat ) 25.00 % 25.00 % 25.00 %Pork liver 22.40 % 22.40% 22.40%Pork skin 5.00 % 5.00 % 5.00 %Pork fat 34.50 % 34.20 % 34.00 %Water 10.00 % 10.00 % 10.00 %Nitrite curing salt 1.50% 1.50 % 1.50 %Ascorbic acid 0.10 % 0.10 % 0.10 %Starch 1.00 % 1.00 % 1.00 %Palsgaard DMG 0090 Powder0.00 % 0.30 % 0.50 %Seasoning 0.50 % 0.50 % 0.50 %Sum 100% 100% 100%Table 5:Recipes of three different liver sausages with and without Palsgaard DMG 0090.Std w/o emulsifier 0.3%PalsgaardDMG 00900.5%PalsgaardDMG 0090Fat loss Water loss 00 .511 .522.5ml/20mg emulsionEmulsion stability - centrifugation testStd w/oemulsifier 0.3%PalsgaardDMG 00900.5%PalsgaardDMG 0090FatGel00.511.522.533.5% lossStorage stability (7 days)PalsgaardIn addition to the above mentioned emulsifiers for meat products, Palsgaard also manufactures a wide range of emulsifiers and stabilizer blends for fine foods, lipid, bakery, confectionery, dairy and ice cream.For further information on the abili-ties of Palsgaards emulsifiers for meat products or if you would like to order samples, please contact Busi-ness Unit Manager Cai Christensen at firstname.lastname@example.org or +45 7682 7682 or visit www.palsgaard.com.Sources:1. Emulsifiers in Food Technology, ed. R. J. Whitehurst, 2004.Figure 4: Stability test of liver sausages with and without addition of Palsgaard DMG 0090. In different dosages.
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