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  • Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud

    Computing in Saudi Arabias Government Sector

    Majed Alsanea

    BSc, MSc

    Goldsmiths College

    Department of Computing

    University of London

    This dissertation is submitted for the partial fulfilment of the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    2015

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    1

    ABSTRACT

    In an economic recession, cloud computing technology can play a significant role in

    public organisations and private sector companies since it decreases the cost of using

    information technology (IT) services besides offering several other benefits. Cloud

    computing technology is not currently used extensively in the public sector

    organisations, specifically in the case of Saudi Arabia for various reasons and factors.

    The aim of this study is to identify and understand these factors that may affect the

    adoption of cloud computing in the Saudi government sector; to understand the

    theoretical background of this problem by proposing a conceptual model; and to help

    and guide the Saudi government organisations to adopt cloud computing by proposing

    a practical implementation roadmap.

    This study has used a mixed-method research approach which consists of two phases

    in collecting and analysing the data. The first phase, an online survey was conducted

    and theoretically designed based on the literature survey. 169 respondents

    participated from four government organisations, the educational sector, and

    independent consultants. The quantitative analyses of the data were processed from

    descriptive and one-way frequency statistics to inferential and regression analysis.

    Nineteen hypotheses were tested. The quantitative data were analysed to identify the

    factors that may affect the adoption of cloud computing and to measure the significance

    of these factors. Based on that, the hypotheses of this research were tested and verified.

    The second phase, a qualitative study was conducted by using a multiple case study

    approach. The qualitative data were collected by conducting interviews with key

    people in the government organisations in order to analyse deeply and understand the

    nature of the problem then to find the potential solution that will lead to the adoption

    of cloud computing. Four Saudi organisations were chosen to participate in this study.

    The data were analysed by using a thematic analysis approach. The examined factors

    were classified into three main categories: the organisational and technological

    context; the environmental and external pressures; and the perceived benefits.

    This study contributes to the knowledge by: conducting a comprehensive survey of the

    literature that lead to identifying the potential factors that may affect the adoption of

    cloud computing; the study also found a theoretical model lacking that addressed the

    influences and challenges in the adoption of cloud computing and proposes a novel

    conceptual model that helps to better understand these factors; moreover, a practical

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    2

    roadmap is developed to guide the government organisations to adopt cloud computing

    in an effective efficient way in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice.

    The findings of this study are sequentially divided into two stages. In the first stage, the

    quantitative data were analysed to identify the factors that may effect on the adoption

    of cloud computing and to measure the significance of these factors. Based on that, the

    hypotheses of this research were tested and verified. In the second stage, a qualitative

    data were collected by conducting interviews with key people in the government

    organisations in order to dig deeply and understand the nature of the problem, and to

    find the potential solution that will lead to adopt the cloud computing.

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    3

    DECLARATION

    This study is my own work and some of the results and works contained herein have

    been published, presented, and submitted in the following forms:

    Journal Papers

    1. Majed Alsanea, Jennifer Barth, Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Computing

    in the Government Sector: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia, Journal of Computer Science

    and Information Technology. (Published)

    2. Majed Alsanea, Jennifer Barth, David Wainwright, "A Review of Cloud Computing

    Technology: IS Theories and Models A Government Organisation's Perspective",

    Information Processing & Management. (Submitted)

    3. Majed Alsanea and David Wainwright "Identifying The Determinants Of Cloud

    Computing Adoption In A Government Sector A Case Study Of Saudi Organisation,

    "International Journal of Business and Management Studies", Vol 6, No 2, 2014 ISSN:

    1309-8047 (Online), October 2013. (Published)

    4. Hosam F. El-Sofany, Majed Alsanea, and Khalid F. Al-Otaibi, "Data Exchange Model

    of Patient Records in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using Cloud Computing," International

    Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 580-589 , 2012.

    (Published)

    Conference Papers

    5. Majed Alsanea, David Wainwright "Investigating the Main Factors Effecting Cloud

    Computing Adoption" 7th Saudi Students Scientific Conference-UK, Feb 2014.

    6. Majed Alsanea, David Wainwright "Identifying the Determinants of Cloud

    Computing Adoption in the Saudi Government Sector", The Third International

    Conference on Business, Management, Economics and Finance", October 2013.

    7. Majed Alsanea, "Developing a Decision Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption

    in a Government Sector", UK Academy for Information System conference, Oxford

    University, PhD Consortium, Feb 2013.

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    4

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    First of all, I thank Allah for giving me the strength and determination to complete this

    research. I am grateful to my dear mother who prayed and supported me and to my

    brother Mr. Hamzah Alqurashi for his financially and morally support.

    Academically, I thank my supervisor Dr. Jenifer Barth, who has been a wonderful

    supervisor and she has guided me with patience and wisdom. Also, special thanks to

    my ex-supervisor Professor David Wainwright for things that he did to me.

    Additionally, I thank all the people who cooperated with me by letting me interview

    them. My research would not be possible without their cooperation. My familys

    support has also been very helpful. My wife supported me during my research work

    and dedicated herself to taking care of our family. I also thank all the people who have

    helped and supported me during my research work.

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    5

    CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 DECLARATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 4 CONTENTS ................................................................................................................................................................. 5 LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................................... 10 LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................................. 13 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 16

    1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY .............................................................................................................. 17

    1.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................... 18

    1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 20

    1.4 AIMS ........................................................................................................................................................... 20

    1.5 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................... 20

    1.6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................................ 21

    1.7 CONTEXT OF THE RESEARCH ................................................................................................................. 22

    1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS ................................................................................................................... 23

    Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study ............................................................................................................. 23

    Chapter 2: Literature Review ............................................................................................................................ 23

    Chapter 3: Development of Conceptual Framework ................................................................................ 23

    Chapter 4: Research Methodology................................................................................................................... 23

    Chapter 5: Survey Research Findings ............................................................................................................. 23

    Chapter 6: Case Studies Analysis and Findings ......................................................................................... 24

    Chapter 7: Discussion and Research Synthesis ........................................................................................... 24

    Chapter 8: Conclusions and Further Work ................................................................................................... 24

    1.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ 24

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................................................. 26

    2.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 27

    2.1.1 Definition of Cloud Computing ........................................................................................................ 27

    2.2 UNDERSTANDING CLOUD COMPUTING ................................................................................................. 28

    2.2.1 Cloud Computing Deployment Models ......................................................................................... 29

    2.2.2 Cloud Computing Service Model ..................................................................................................... 31

    2.2.3 Key Characteristics of Cloud Computing ..................................................................................... 34

    2.2.4 Evaluation of the Need for the Adoption of Cloud Computing ............................................ 37

    2.2.5 Advantages of Cloud Computing .................................................................................................... 38

    2.2.6 Disadvantages of Cloud Computing .............................................................................................. 40

    2.2.7 Issues about the Adoption of Cloud Computing ........................................................................ 42

    2.2.8 Cloud Computing Deployment Models for Government ........................................................ 45

    2.3 THE STATE OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN GOVERNMENT ....................................................................... 47

    2.3.1 The State of Cloud Computing in the UK Government ........................................................... 47

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    6

    2.3.2 The State of Cloud Computing in Other Countries ................................................................... 49

    2.3.3 The State of Cloud Computing in the Saudi Government ...................................................... 55

    2.4 MAJOR CHALLENGES FACING GOVERNMENT IN IMPLEMENTING CLOUD COMPUTING ................ 57

    2.5 ANALYSIS OF RELEVANT STUDIES ......................................................................................................... 59

    2.5.1 Technological Drivers ......................................................................................................................... 60

    2.5.2 Organisational Drivers ....................................................................................................................... 61

    2.5.3 Environmental Drivers ....................................................................................................................... 62

    2.6 CRITIQUE OF RELEVANT LITERATURE: USERS ACCEPTANCE OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN SAUDI ARABIA (SAAD T. ALHARBI) ................................................................................................................................... 62

    2.7 CRITICAL REVIEW FINDINGS.................................................................................................................. 63

    2.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ 65

    3 DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................................... 66

    3.1 THEORIES AND MODELS OF THE ADOPTION OF IS INNOVATIONS ................................................... 67

    3.1.1 Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) Framework ............................................... 68

    3.1.2 Theory of the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) .............................................................................. 70

    3.1.3 Institutional Theory ............................................................................................................................. 71

    3.1.4 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) .......................................................................................... 72

    3.1.5 Iacovou et al. (1995) Model .............................................................................................................. 73

    3.1.6 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ............................................................................................. 75

    3.1.7 Integrating DOI, Institutional Theory, and TOE ....................................................................... 75

    3.2 REVIEW OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY .............................................. 79

    3.3 THEME 1: TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANISATIONAL READINESS .........................

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