forming balanced groups of students for team projects

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Forming Balanced Groups of Students for Team ProjectsJosé BorgeswithAntónio Brito, João Falcão e Cunha and Teresa Galvão1ªs Jornadas de EngenhariaEngenharia de Produção IndustrialInstituto Superior de Entre Douro e Vouga - 2010/11

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FormingBalancedGroups ofStudentsfor TeamProjectsJosBorges gDepartamentodeEngenhariaIndustrialeGesto FaculdadedeEngenhariadaUniversidadedoPorto , RuaDr.RobertoFrias,4200465Porto Tel.:225081736 jlborges@fe.up.ptwith

FEUP FEUP Porto

Antnio Brito,JooFalcoeCunhaandTeresaGalvo

Jornadas de Engenharia - ISVOUGA - 29/10/2010

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FEUP DEIG Departamento deEngenharia IndustrialeGesto

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Outline Motivation GroupFormationMethods OurApproach W bB dS t WebBasedSystem pp OurApproachvs.SelfSelection ConcludingRemarksandFutureWork

Iwilltalkabout

a studentsgroupformationmethod astudents groupformation method aimedatprovidinganenriching teamworkexperience thatpromotesthe acquisitionoftheteamworkskills acquisition of the teamwork skills necessaryforintegratingprojectteams

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MotivationTheDifferenceisabouthow wethinkingroupsandhow g p ourcollectivewisdomexceeds thesumofitsparts.Whycan teamsofpeoplefindbetter f l f db solutionsthanbrilliant individualsworkingalone? individuals working alone? Page showshowgroupsthat g g p displayarangeof perspectivesoutperform groupsoflikemindedexperts. f lik i d d2007,PrincetonUniversityPress , y ISBN10:0691128383JE 2010/11/29 7 JE 2010/11/29

Motivation

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Motivation Accordingtoindustryrepresentativesrecent engineeringgraduates(fromFEUP)are wellpreparedwithtechnicalskillsbut usuallyfacedifficulties whenaskedtointegrate project teams

Motivation Encouraging students to work with new people Encouragingstudentstoworkwithnewpeople allowsthemtobecomemorecomfortableat communicationandinconflictresolution. communication and in conflict resolution.PaulBlowers. Paul Blowers Usingstudentskillselfassessmenttogetbalancedgroupsforgroupprojects. CollegeTeaching,50(3),pp.106110,2003. g g, ( ), pp ,

Groupprojectshavebecomefrequentin undergraduatecourses Awarenessofteamselfselectionlimitations(a commonpracticeatFEUP) common practice at FEUP) Diversityofstudentsisnottakenintoaccount Does not mirror a real worldscenario Doesnotmirrora realworld scenarioJE 2010/11/29 9

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Usualmethodsforteamformation Self selection Selfselection Basedongrades Randommethods B d Basedonsurveys Noadvanceplanning Easytoimplement Easy to implement

SelfselectionMotivationalandschedules compatibility Groupsoffriends Topstudentstendtopair themselves(andfreerider) th l ( df id ) Littlediversity gender,age,ethnicityandacademic g , g , y ability

Problematic forstudentswhoare leftout left out Erasmus,shy,unpopular

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Sameteamacrossseveralcourses andnegotiatedinvolvement12

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BasedonGrades(1) ( ) High with Low Motivational problems HighwithLow Motivationalproblems

BasedonGrades(2) ( ) High with High Motivational problems HighwithHigh Motivationalproblems

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Blowers2003

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Blowers2003

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RandomMethods Alphabetically, sitting proximity, random allocation Alphabetically,sittingproximity,randomallocation Easytoimplement Differencesnottakenintoaccount(imbalanced g p) groups)

BasedonSurveys y Requiresadvanceplanning Surveyscanconsider schedules, classificationinprerequisitecourses, l ifi ti i i it gender, race, preferencesindicatedbystudents, preferences indicated by students, profiles ...

Require a method to group the students (can be very time Requireamethodtogroupthestudents(canbeverytime consuming) g , Themethodgoalcanbetomaximizestudentssatisfaction, createdbalancedbetweenteamsorpromoteabetter learningenvironment S d Studentsresistance (bl k b ) i (blackbox)JE 2010/11/29 15 JE 2010/11/29 16

Communicator C i t

Finisher

Agroupformationmethodbasedon studentsprofiles t d t fil Profilesassessedbymeansofaquestionnaire y q aimedatidentifyingstudentstypeofbehaviorwhenintegratinga team

Technical skills Leader

Coordinator

Team Success

Amethodtoformgroupsthat maximizes diversitywithinteams minimizesdiversityamongteams

Creative Implementer

Planner

Crossevaluation mechanismWithimpactonfinalmarks With impact on final marks

Team worker17

WebbasedsystemtomanagetheprocessJE 2010/11/29 18

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Q Questionnaire Lus Graa Eu no sou perfeito,tu no s perfeito,mas anossa equipa pode slo!InDirigir (JournalofIEFP Instituto deEmprego eFormao Profissional),n.61,pp.4655,1999. 7questionsasthefollowing.Distribute20pointsbyatmost3itens

Scoresin8profiles p President:assumestheroleofleaderandcoordinatespeopleandtasks Strategist: shapes the team ideas modeling them and give them a form of strategic shapestheteamideas,modelingthemandgivethemaformofstrategicobjectives.

A Quandoestouenvolvidonumprojectocomoutraspessoas:A1 Ficodescansadoquandovejoqueotrabalhoquetemdeserfeitoestdevidamente

Intellectual: imaginativeandcreative,suggestsnewideasandobjectives Monitor/Evaluator: oreacriticalthanacreator,objectivelyassessesthevariousideasandalternatives

planeado,estruturadoeorganizadoA2 Souespecialistaemdetectarerroseomissesdequeosoutros,emgeral,nose A3 A4 A5 A6

apercebemounodoconta apercebem ou no do conta Reajovigorosamentequandomeapercebodequeestamosaafastarnosdo objectivoprincipaldeumareuniodetrabalho Souumapessoacomperspicciaparadescobrirasideiaseosprogressosmais recentesnumdeterminadocampodeconhecimentosoudeaplicaes Faoumaanliseobjectivadasideiasdosoutros,pesandoosrespectivosprse contrasouidentificandoosrespectivospontosfortesefracos Tenhoumatendncianaturalparacoordenaraspessoaseastarefasdogrupo T h t d i t l d t f d

Operative: moreinterestedinpracticalmattersthaninabstractideas,hiscontributionistoimplementtheteamsideas

T TeamWorker: workswellinaheterogeneousgroup,seekstomanagetheconflicts, W kheisthepromoterofunityandharmonywithinthegroup

Prospector: gets ideas information people or other external resources he is the getsideas,information,peopleorotherexternalresources,heisthe"publicrelations"

A7 Costumosobretudodarideiasoufazersugestesoriginais A8 Estousempreprontoaapoiarasideiasousugestesquesemeafiguramteispara

Finisher/retoucher: concernedprimarilywithwhatmightgowrong,obsessedbydeadlines,schedules,errorsandomissions.He'saperfectionist.19 JE 2010/11/29 20

soluodeumproblemaSubtotal 20JE 2010/11/29

Websystem createacourse y

Websystem importstudents y p

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WebSystem fillquestionnaire y q

ExamplesScores p

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TheBelbinTest

TheBelbin 9TeamRolesThePlantrolewassocalledbecauseonesuchindividualwasplantedineachteam. Theytendedtobehighlycreativeandgoodatsolvingproblemsinunconventionalways. TheMonitorEvaluatorwasneededtoprovidealogicaleye,makeimpartialjudgments whererequiredandtoweighuptheteamsoptionsinadispassionateway. Coordinators wereneededtofocusontheteamsobjectives,drawoutteammembersand delegateworkappropriately. delegate work appropriately Whentheteamwasatriskofbecomingisolatedandinwardlyfocused,Resource Investigatorsprovidedinsideknowledgeontheoppositionandmadesurethattheteams ideawouldcarrytotheworldoutsidetheteam. idea would carry to the world outside the team Implementers wereneededtoplanapractical,workablestrategyandcarryitoutas efficientlyaspossible. CompleterFinishersweremosteffectivelyusedattheendofatask,to polish and Completer Finishers were most effectively used at the end of a task to polishand scrutinizetheworkforerrors,subjectingittothehigheststandardsofqualitycontrol. Teamworkers helpedtheteamtogel,usingtheirversatilitytoidentifytheworkrequired andcompleteitonbehalfoftheteam. and complete it on behalf of the team. Challengingindividuals,knownasShapers,providedthenecessarydrivetoensurethatthe teamkeptmovinganddidnotlosefocusormomentum. The Specialist is an individual with indepth knowledge of a key area came to be The Specialistisanindividualwithindepthknowledgeofakeyareacametobe recognizedasyetanotheressentialteamcontributionorTeamRole.26

Recentlywehavecometotheconclusionthatthetestweare y usingisanadaptationofanearlierversionoftheBelbin test.

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BalancedTeams Balance is the key! Balanceisthekey! Thegoalistomakeuseofthequestionnaireresults toformteamscomposedofstudentswithavaried f d f d ih i d mixofprofiles Achieve

FormingBalancedTeams g maximumdiversity withingroupsand homogeneity amonggroups

Oppositeofclustering WeuseanAnalysisofVariancelikeapproach Maximizewithingroupvariation(WGV) Mi i i b t Minimizebetweengroupvariation(BGV) i ti (BGV) TV=WGV+BGV

W WeareusingaTabu searchalgorithm i T b h l ith

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Example p

TV = 11 319 BGV = 1 861

XTV

X p X pgi X gi Gg X gp X p p g i p g i p g 2 2 2 pgi WGV BGV

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AlternativeFormulation Maximally diverse grouping problem Maximallydiversegroupingproblem (wellknownNPhardproblem)

ComparativeExample p pMaximally diverse grouping Our Formulation

Maximize the sum of pair wise differences between Maximizethesumofpairwisedifferencesbetween teamelements Comments: Takesintoaccountwithingroupdistancesonly g p y Inducesdifferentsolutions

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Websystem generateteams y g

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CrossEvaluation Whenselfselectionisused,teamsdevelopwaysto , p y com

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