Forming Balanced Groups of Students for Team Projects

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Forming Balanced Groups of Students for Team ProjectsJos BorgeswithAntnio Brito, Joo Falco e Cunha and Teresa Galvo1s Jornadas de EngenhariaEngenharia de Produo IndustrialInstituto Superior de Entre Douro e Vouga - 2010/11

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<p>FormingBalancedGroups ofStudentsfor TeamProjectsJosBorges gDepartamentodeEngenhariaIndustrialeGesto FaculdadedeEngenhariadaUniversidadedoPorto , RuaDr.RobertoFrias,4200465Porto Tel.:225081736 jlborges@fe.up.ptwith</p> <p>FEUP FEUP Porto</p> <p>Antnio Brito,JooFalcoeCunhaandTeresaGalvo</p> <p>Jornadas de Engenharia - ISVOUGA - 29/10/2010</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>2</p> <p>FEUP DEIG Departamento deEngenharia IndustrialeGesto</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>3</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>4</p> <p>Outline Motivation GroupFormationMethods OurApproach W bB dS t WebBasedSystem pp OurApproachvs.SelfSelection ConcludingRemarksandFutureWork</p> <p>Iwilltalkabout</p> <p> a studentsgroupformationmethod astudents groupformation method aimedatprovidinganenriching teamworkexperience thatpromotesthe acquisitionoftheteamworkskills acquisition of the teamwork skills necessaryforintegratingprojectteams</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>5</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>6</p> <p>MotivationTheDifferenceisabouthow wethinkingroupsandhow g p ourcollectivewisdomexceeds thesumofitsparts.Whycan teamsofpeoplefindbetter f l f db solutionsthanbrilliant individualsworkingalone? individuals working alone? Page showshowgroupsthat g g p displayarangeof perspectivesoutperform groupsoflikemindedexperts. f lik i d d2007,PrincetonUniversityPress , y ISBN10:0691128383JE 2010/11/29 7 JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>Motivation</p> <p>8</p> <p>Motivation Accordingtoindustryrepresentativesrecent engineeringgraduates(fromFEUP)are wellpreparedwithtechnicalskillsbut usuallyfacedifficulties whenaskedtointegrate project teams</p> <p>Motivation Encouraging students to work with new people Encouragingstudentstoworkwithnewpeople allowsthemtobecomemorecomfortableat communicationandinconflictresolution. communication and in conflict resolution.PaulBlowers. Paul Blowers Usingstudentskillselfassessmenttogetbalancedgroupsforgroupprojects. CollegeTeaching,50(3),pp.106110,2003. g g, ( ), pp ,</p> <p> Groupprojectshavebecomefrequentin undergraduatecourses Awarenessofteamselfselectionlimitations(a commonpracticeatFEUP) common practice at FEUP) Diversityofstudentsisnottakenintoaccount Does not mirror a real worldscenario Doesnotmirrora realworld scenarioJE 2010/11/29 9</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>10</p> <p>Usualmethodsforteamformation Self selection Selfselection Basedongrades Randommethods B d Basedonsurveys Noadvanceplanning Easytoimplement Easy to implement</p> <p>SelfselectionMotivationalandschedules compatibility Groupsoffriends Topstudentstendtopair themselves(andfreerider) th l ( df id ) Littlediversity gender,age,ethnicityandacademic g , g , y ability</p> <p>Problematic forstudentswhoare leftout left out Erasmus,shy,unpopular</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29 11</p> <p>Sameteamacrossseveralcourses andnegotiatedinvolvement12</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>BasedonGrades(1) ( ) High with Low Motivational problems HighwithLow Motivationalproblems</p> <p>BasedonGrades(2) ( ) High with High Motivational problems HighwithHigh Motivationalproblems</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>Blowers2003</p> <p>13</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>Blowers2003</p> <p>14</p> <p>RandomMethods Alphabetically, sitting proximity, random allocation Alphabetically,sittingproximity,randomallocation Easytoimplement Differencesnottakenintoaccount(imbalanced g p) groups)</p> <p>BasedonSurveys y Requiresadvanceplanning Surveyscanconsider schedules, classificationinprerequisitecourses, l ifi ti i i it gender, race, preferencesindicatedbystudents, preferences indicated by students, profiles ...</p> <p> Require a method to group the students (can be very time Requireamethodtogroupthestudents(canbeverytime consuming) g , Themethodgoalcanbetomaximizestudentssatisfaction, createdbalancedbetweenteamsorpromoteabetter learningenvironment S d Studentsresistance (bl k b ) i (blackbox)JE 2010/11/29 15 JE 2010/11/29 16</p> <p>Communicator C i t</p> <p>Finisher</p> <p>Agroupformationmethodbasedon studentsprofiles t d t fil Profilesassessedbymeansofaquestionnaire y q aimedatidentifyingstudentstypeofbehaviorwhenintegratinga team</p> <p>Technical skills Leader</p> <p>Coordinator</p> <p>Team Success</p> <p> Amethodtoformgroupsthat maximizes diversitywithinteams minimizesdiversityamongteams</p> <p>Creative Implementer</p> <p>Planner</p> <p> Crossevaluation mechanismWithimpactonfinalmarks With impact on final marks</p> <p>Team worker17</p> <p> WebbasedsystemtomanagetheprocessJE 2010/11/29 18</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>Q Questionnaire Lus Graa Eu no sou perfeito,tu no s perfeito,mas anossa equipa pode slo!InDirigir (JournalofIEFP Instituto deEmprego eFormao Profissional),n.61,pp.4655,1999. 7questionsasthefollowing.Distribute20pointsbyatmost3itens</p> <p>Scoresin8profiles p President:assumestheroleofleaderandcoordinatespeopleandtasks Strategist: shapes the team ideas modeling them and give them a form of strategic shapestheteamideas,modelingthemandgivethemaformofstrategicobjectives.</p> <p>A Quandoestouenvolvidonumprojectocomoutraspessoas:A1 Ficodescansadoquandovejoqueotrabalhoquetemdeserfeitoestdevidamente</p> <p> Intellectual: imaginativeandcreative,suggestsnewideasandobjectives Monitor/Evaluator: oreacriticalthanacreator,objectivelyassessesthevariousideasandalternatives</p> <p>planeado,estruturadoeorganizadoA2 Souespecialistaemdetectarerroseomissesdequeosoutros,emgeral,nose A3 A4 A5 A6</p> <p>apercebemounodoconta apercebem ou no do conta Reajovigorosamentequandomeapercebodequeestamosaafastarnosdo objectivoprincipaldeumareuniodetrabalho Souumapessoacomperspicciaparadescobrirasideiaseosprogressosmais recentesnumdeterminadocampodeconhecimentosoudeaplicaes Faoumaanliseobjectivadasideiasdosoutros,pesandoosrespectivosprse contrasouidentificandoosrespectivospontosfortesefracos Tenhoumatendncianaturalparacoordenaraspessoaseastarefasdogrupo T h t d i t l d t f d</p> <p> Operative: moreinterestedinpracticalmattersthaninabstractideas,hiscontributionistoimplementtheteamsideas</p> <p> T TeamWorker: workswellinaheterogeneousgroup,seekstomanagetheconflicts, W kheisthepromoterofunityandharmonywithinthegroup</p> <p> Prospector: gets ideas information people or other external resources he is the getsideas,information,peopleorotherexternalresources,heisthe"publicrelations"</p> <p>A7 Costumosobretudodarideiasoufazersugestesoriginais A8 Estousempreprontoaapoiarasideiasousugestesquesemeafiguramteispara</p> <p> Finisher/retoucher: concernedprimarilywithwhatmightgowrong,obsessedbydeadlines,schedules,errorsandomissions.He'saperfectionist.19 JE 2010/11/29 20</p> <p>soluodeumproblemaSubtotal 20JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>Websystem createacourse y</p> <p>Websystem importstudents y p</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>21</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>22</p> <p>WebSystem fillquestionnaire y q</p> <p>ExamplesScores p</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>23</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>24</p> <p>TheBelbinTest</p> <p>TheBelbin 9TeamRolesThePlantrolewassocalledbecauseonesuchindividualwasplantedineachteam. Theytendedtobehighlycreativeandgoodatsolvingproblemsinunconventionalways. TheMonitorEvaluatorwasneededtoprovidealogicaleye,makeimpartialjudgments whererequiredandtoweighuptheteamsoptionsinadispassionateway. Coordinators wereneededtofocusontheteamsobjectives,drawoutteammembersand delegateworkappropriately. delegate work appropriately Whentheteamwasatriskofbecomingisolatedandinwardlyfocused,Resource Investigatorsprovidedinsideknowledgeontheoppositionandmadesurethattheteams ideawouldcarrytotheworldoutsidetheteam. idea would carry to the world outside the team Implementers wereneededtoplanapractical,workablestrategyandcarryitoutas efficientlyaspossible. CompleterFinishersweremosteffectivelyusedattheendofatask,to polish and Completer Finishers were most effectively used at the end of a task to polishand scrutinizetheworkforerrors,subjectingittothehigheststandardsofqualitycontrol. Teamworkers helpedtheteamtogel,usingtheirversatilitytoidentifytheworkrequired andcompleteitonbehalfoftheteam. and complete it on behalf of the team. Challengingindividuals,knownasShapers,providedthenecessarydrivetoensurethatthe teamkeptmovinganddidnotlosefocusormomentum. The Specialist is an individual with indepth knowledge of a key area came to be The Specialistisanindividualwithindepthknowledgeofakeyareacametobe recognizedasyetanotheressentialteamcontributionorTeamRole.26</p> <p> Recentlywehavecometotheconclusionthatthetestweare y usingisanadaptationofanearlierversionoftheBelbin test.</p> <p> JE 2010/11/29 25 JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>BalancedTeams Balance is the key! Balanceisthekey! Thegoalistomakeuseofthequestionnaireresults toformteamscomposedofstudentswithavaried f d f d ih i d mixofprofiles Achieve</p> <p>FormingBalancedTeams g maximumdiversity withingroupsand homogeneity amonggroups</p> <p> Oppositeofclustering WeuseanAnalysisofVariancelikeapproach Maximizewithingroupvariation(WGV) Mi i i b t Minimizebetweengroupvariation(BGV) i ti (BGV) TV=WGV+BGV</p> <p> W WeareusingaTabu searchalgorithm i T b h l ith</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>27</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>28</p> <p>Example p</p> <p>TV = 11 319 BGV = 1 861</p> <p> XTV</p> <p> X p X pgi X gi Gg X gp X p p g i p g i p g 2 2 2 pgi WGV BGV</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>29</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>30</p> <p>AlternativeFormulation Maximally diverse grouping problem Maximallydiversegroupingproblem (wellknownNPhardproblem)</p> <p>ComparativeExample p pMaximally diverse grouping Our Formulation</p> <p> Maximize the sum of pair wise differences between Maximizethesumofpairwisedifferencesbetween teamelements Comments: Takesintoaccountwithingroupdistancesonly g p y Inducesdifferentsolutions</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>31</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>32</p> <p>Websystem generateteams y g</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>33</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>34</p> <p>CrossEvaluation Whenselfselectionisused,teamsdevelopwaysto , p y compensateforteammemberseffort When lecturers setup teams it is important to Whenlecturerssetupteamsitisimportantto provide awaytodistribute somesortofincentivesor penaltiesinternally penalties internally Werequirethatstudentsevaluatecolleagueson severaldifferentaspectsofgroupwork several different aspects of group work Individualevaluationsareconfidential Studentsareinformedoftheiroverallaveragegrade asgivenbyhisgroupcolleagues g y g p gJE 2010/11/29 35 JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>CrossEvaluation We have in place a method for relative evaluation Wehaveinplaceamethodforrelativeevaluation Inordertorewardacolleagueastudenthasto penalizeanothercolleague li h ll Thisisahottopicofdiscussion p</p> <p>36</p> <p>Websystem crossevaluation y</p> <p>Comparisonwithselfselection p Weconductedananalysisoftheimpactoftheproposed e co ducted a a a ys s o t e pact o t e p oposed methodonthestudentsfinalmarks The goal was to assess if Thegoalwastoassessif whenselfselectionisappliedthebeststudentstendtopair themselves? ourmethodhasanegativeimpactonfinalmarks,asfearedby students?</p> <p> Thestudyused JE 2010/11/29 37 JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>3academicyears,3programmes (706students). y p g ( ) studentsmarksineveryothercourseinthesameacademicyear SSS studentselfselectionand MGP managedgroupingprocess MGP managed grouping process38</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>39</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>40</p> <p>GuidelinesforUsingtheMethod g Informthestudentsabouttheformationmethodthatisgoingtobeused, whilehighlightingbothitsstrengthsandweaknesses. while highlighting both its strengths and weaknesses Askstudentstofillaquestionnaireaimedatassessingtheirprofiles. Assignstudentstogroupsinawaythatachieveswithingroupmaximum A i d i h hi i hi i profilediversitytogetherwithhomogeneityamonggroups. gg p Informthestudentsoftheresultinggroups.Makecleartothestudents thattheoverallteamworkeffortwillbeevaluatedaswellasthequalityof thecompletedwork. Provideagroupcrossevaluationplatform.Individualcrossevaluations Provide a group crossevaluation platform Individual crossevaluations mustremainprivateandmustbeconductedafterthegroupssubmittheir projectsbutbeforethelecturersmaketheirprojectevaluationpublic. Takeintoaccountthatimplementationofsuchaprocesswillincreasethe T k i t t th t i l t ti f h ill i th teachers'effort involvedinplanning,supervisingandevaluatingthe groupsprojectsby1530%.</p> <p>A higher number of medium ranked teams surpass the expectations. The method does not seams to have a negative impact on the final marks, contrarily to students a priory beliefs.JE 2010/11/29 41</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>42</p> <p>WebBasedSystem y Students URL StudentsURL http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~sibd/aval/index.php</p> <p>Ongoingandfuturework g g We are currently implementing a more functional Wearecurrentlyimplementingamorefunctional anduserfriendlyversionofthesite Al i h Algorithm Comparewithmaximallydiversegroupingproblem formulation</p> <p> Teachers URL TeachersURL http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~sibd/sigest/index.php</p> <p> Easytoadapttootherquestionnaire,toincorporate otherstudentscharacteristics(age,sex,grades)</p> <p> Validatemethod Alternativequestionnairesforprofiling Studentsquestionnaire Crossevaluation</p> <p> Whatisanidealgroupcomposition?JE 2010/11/29 43 JE 2010/11/29 44</p> <p>References Anyone interested in using the system is welcome to Anyoneinterestedinusingthesystemiswelcometo doit G Gotolink li k http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~sibd/sigest/teachernew.php PaulBlowers.Usingstudentskillselfassessmenttogetbalancedgroups forgroupprojects.CollegeTeaching,50(3),pp.106110,2003. for group projects College Teaching 50(3) pp 106 110 2003 JosBorges,TeresaGalvo DiasandJoo Falco eCunhaAnewgroup formationmethodforstudentprojects,intheEuropeanJournalof EngineeringEducation,Volume34,Issue6December2009,pages573 585. Joo Falco e Cunha, Jos Lus Borges and Teresa Galvo Dias, Some eCunha,JosLus BorgesandTeresaGalvo Dias, Some ResultsfromManagingtheProcessofGroupFormationandEvaluationin StudentProjects,ProceedingsoftheInternationalConferenceon EngineeringEducation(ICEE2007),2007. Lus Graa Eu no sou perfeito,tu no s perfeito,mas anossa equipa pode slo!(originalinPortuguese;Iamnotperfect,youarenotperfect, ) g ( p g butourteamcanbe!).InDirigir (JournalofIEFP Instituto deEmprego e Formao Profissional),n.61,pp.4655,1999.</p> <p> andcreateanewuser</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>45</p> <p>JE 2010/11/29</p> <p>46</p> <p>FormingBalancedGroups ofStudentsfor TeamProjectsJosBorges gDepartamentodeEngenhariaIndustrialeGesto FaculdadedeEngenhariadaUniversidadedoPorto , RuaDr.RobertoFrias,4200465Porto Tel.:225081736 jlborges@fe.up.ptwith</p> <p>Antnio Brito,JooFalcoeCunhaandTeresaGalvo</p> <p>Jornadas de Engenharia - ISVOUGA - 29/10/2010</p>