from paths to sandboxes

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  • From Paths To Sandboxes. @stephenanderson | #ias14t

  • PSYCHOLOGY & DESIGN

    How we can use

    to

    more fun, engaging (& effective) interactions

  • PSYCHOLOGY & DESIGN

    How we can use

    to

    more fun, engaging (& effective) interactions

  • Three games Ive been playing

  • PATH SANDBOX

  • 12345Paths

    1

  • DIRECTTHE RIDER(conscious thought)

    MOTIVATETHE ELEPHANT(automatic systems)

    SHAPETHE PATH(the environment)

  • Paths are designed to lead people along, for better or worse.

  • http://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdf

    http://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdfhttp://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdf

  • Paths are prevalent in our work

  • Customer Journey Maps, Service Blueprints, Scenarios

  • Lockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. (2010). The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.41 No.3, 382-392.

  • Behavioral Goals(which should align w/ User Goals!)

    Business Goals

    Psychology

  • Behavioral Goals(which should align w/ User Goals!)

    Business Goals

    Psychology

    NEW SKILLS

    assist in developing

    HABITS

    assist in establishing(or putting an end to)

    COMPLETION

    nudge people toward

  • Paths arent necessarily bad, but

  • PATHSSHAPE BEHAVIOR

    END IN AN EXCHANGE

    HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES

    ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED

    DESIGN EVERY DETAIL

    ARE MEASURABLE

    LEAD TO COMPLETION

    LEAD PEOPLE ALONG

    ARE CONSUMPTIVE

    CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS)

    HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE

    BEST FOR INSTRUCTION

  • Is there something more?

  • 12345Sandboxes

    2

  • Sandboxes

    123452

  • Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:

  • Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:

    Pick one of these online experiencesList WHY you think people find them addictive (list as

    many reasons as you can)

    You have 90 secondsGO!

  • Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:

    Pick one of these online experiencesList WHY you think people find them addictive (list as

    many reasons as you can)

    You have 90 secondsGO!

    Set Completion

    Sequencing

    Appropriate Challenges

    Status

    Positive Mimicry

    Self-Expression

    Curiosity

    Collecting

    Autonomy

    Visual Imagery

    Pattern Recognition

    Feedback Loops

    Reputation

    Competition

    Achievements

    Status-Quo Bias

    Surprise

    Variable Rewards

    Scarcity

  • What do all these experiences have in common?Q:Q:

  • 2 OBSERVATIONS:

    1. These are PlatformsYou can make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use these system.

  • The

    WTF

    Problem.

    WhatsThisFor?

  • The

    WTF

    Problem.

    Whats This For?

  • 2 OBSERVATIONS:

    1. These are PlatformsYou can make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use these system.

    2. These are Social SpacesPeople learn from each other how to use the system. Many of the psychological nudges that follow stem from observing others.

  • While MineCraft is a place for exploration and self-expression (perhaps survival!), its watching others that inspires new ideas and creates personal challenges.

    The hashtag in twitter was an emergent element.

    It wasnt until I saw my wife pinning decorating ideas that I saw Pinterest as a visual bookmarking system.

  • A sandbox is a style of game in which minimal character limitations are placed on the gamer, allowing the gamer to roam and change a virtual world at will. In contrast to a progression-style game, a sandbox game emphasizes roaming and allows a gamer to select tasks. Instead of featuring segmented areas or numbered levels, a sandbox game usually occurs in a world to which the gamer has full access from start to finish.

    A sandbox game is also known as an open-world or free-roaming game.

    http://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaming

    http://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaminghttp://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaming

  • Sandboxes create open spaces for self-directed play and creativity.

  • Childrens toys and organization:

  • Childrens toys and organization:

  • Architecture: Adventure Playground

    A castle, made of carton, rocks and old branches, by a group of children for themselves, is worth a thousand perfectly detailed, exactly finished castles, made for them in a factory.

    And the proposed solution:

    Set up a playground for the children in each neighborhood. Not a highly finished playground, with asfalt and swings, but a place with raw materials of all kindsnets, boxes, barrels, trees, ropes, simple tools, frames, grass, and waterwhere children can create and re-create playgrounds of their own.

  • I am convinced that standardised playgrounds are dangerous, just in another way: When the distance between all the rungs in a climbing net or a ladder is exactly the same, the child has no need to concentrate on where he puts his feet. Standardisation is dangerous because play becomes simplified

    - Helle Nebelong

  • PATHSSHAPE BEHAVIOR

    END IN AN EXCHANGE

    HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES

    ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED

    DESIGN EVERY DETAIL

    ARE MEASURABLE

    LEAD TO COMPLETION

    LEAD PEOPLE ALONG

    ARE CONSUMPTIVE

    CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS)

    HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE

    BEST FOR INSTRUCTION

    SANDBOXES CREATE ENGAGEMENT

    END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY

    HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES

    ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY

    UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN

    ARE OBSERVABLE

    LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING

    LET PEOPLE EXPLORE

    ARE GENERATIVE

    ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY

    PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED

    BEST FOR PEFORMANCE

  • 12345Education

    3

  • The jockey offers a piece of sugar to his horse before jumping into the saddle, the coachman beats his horse that he may respond to the signs given by the reins; and, yet, neither of these runs so superbly as the free horse of the plains.

    MA R I A MO N T E S S O R I

  • we have prepared the environment and the materials

    MA R I A MO N T E S S O R I

  • MONTESSORI?

    Mixed age classrooms

    Specialized educational materials

    Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options

    Uninterrupted blocks of work time

    A Constructivist or "discovery" model, where students learn concepts from working with materials, rather than by direct instruction

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory)

  • Playing is learning.

  • Googles founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin Amazons Jeff Bezos

    Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales

    Julia Childrapper Sean P.Diddy Combs

    videogame pioneer Will Wright

    Montessori taught me the joy of discovery Its all about learning on your terms, rather than a teacher explaining stuff to you. SimCity comes right out of Montessori

  • videogame pioneer Will Wright

    Amazons Jeff Bezos

    Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales

    Julia Childrapper Sean P.Diddy Combs

    Googles founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin

    We both went to Montessori school, and I think it was part of that training of not following rules and orders, and being self-motivated, questioning whats going on in the world, doing things a little bit differently.

  • A sandbox education teaches you to play at life.

  • Human beings have an inherent tendency to seek out novelty and

    challenges, to extend and exercise their capacities, to explore, and to learn.

    Edward Deci psychologist

  • EQUATE TO INFORMAL (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING

    VIEW STUDENTS ASVESSELS TO BE FILLED

    VIEW STUDENTS ASFIRES TO BE KINDLED

    SANDBOXES PATHS

    EQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING

    SPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGES

    Getting an A in French Learning to speak French

  • EQUATE TO INFORMAL (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING

    VIEW STUDENTS ASVESSELS TO BE FILLED

    VIEW STUDENTS ASFIRES TO BE KINDLED

    SANDBOXES PATHS

    EQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING

    SPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGES

    Getting an A in French Learning to speak FrenchFA

    LSE

    DIC

    HO

    TO

    MY

  • !

    !

    !

    !!

  • !

    !!

    !

    ! Normally, learning in CodeSpells is encouraged by way of a series of quests that must be completed with the use of Java-based spell crafting

    [In our version], players could walk up to in-game gnome-like characters who would give various spells to the player, along with simple explanations. Our hope was that these spells would serve as starting points for code exploration.

    from On the Nature of Fires and How to Spark Them When Youre Not There

  • LEGO BRICKS

  • LEGO BRICKS

  • 12345

    but how is this useful?

    4

  • Practical Takeaways

    Underspecify fea

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