Goat Meat Sub Sector Report

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<p>Final Report</p> <p>Final</p> <p>Report of the Study on Goatery Sub Sector</p> <p>For</p> <p>Chhattisgarh State Institute of Rural DevelopmentDepartment of Panchayat &amp; Rural Development, Govt. of Chhattisgarh Nimora, Raipur (C.G.) - 492015</p> <p>Team Sanjeev Kumar Arun Keshav</p> <p>Submitted by</p> <p>The Livelihood School D-1,Machna Colony Shivaji Nagar,Bhopal Ph:0755-4209040</p> <p>www.thelivelihoodschool.in</p> <p>Table of Contents</p> <p>Acronyms ............................................................................................................................3 Acknowledgement ...........................................................................................................4 Executive Summary...........................................................................................................5 1. Background............................................................................................................121.1. 1.2. Goat rearing and meat status in India.............................................................. 12 Goat Rearing and Meat status in Chhattisgarh............................................... 13</p> <p>1.3. Importance of Goat meat sub sector in Livelihood and Employment Generation ................................................................................................. 17</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Objectives &amp; Methodology .................................................................................192.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. Scope and Objectives of Goat meat Sub sector Study................................. 19 Methodology adopted ....................................................................................... 19 Sample area and place selection..................................................................... 20 Study Tools ............................................................................................................. 20 Significant People Interviewed/interacted ...................................................... 20</p> <p>3.</p> <p>Goat Meat Sub sector findings ...........................................................................213.1. 3.1.1. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. Goat meat Sub Sector Map in Chhattisgarh ................................................... 21 Description of subsector channels....................................................22 Financial Overlays ................................................................................................ 23 Cash Flow for Monthly/Seasonal transactions ................................23 Profitability of participants at different levels ..................................23</p> <p>4.</p> <p>Key Constraints and Leverage Points in the Sub-sector .................................244.1. Key constraints at production, processing and marketing ............................ 24</p> <p>The Bastar choices 4.2. Strategic Goat and Key Recommendations ............................................... 284.3. 4.4. Potential Role of PRI in facilitating Goat meat Sub sector Growth ............... 31Financial Implications of suggested model implementation and suggested role</p> <p>of key players....................................................................................................................... 33</p> <p>References .......................................................................................................................35 Annexure I. Log of KIIs and FGDs conducted for the Goat sub sector study ...................37</p> <p>II. Transcriptions- Key Informant Interviews and FGDs with stake holders...............................................................................................................................42 III. Analysis of the producer house holds interviews..............................................762</p> <p>IV. V.</p> <p>Tools used for information/data collection in the study ...................................1 The Pashu Sakhi Model.........................................................................................92</p> <p>VI. Proposed Structure and sustainability analysis of Goat producers Company..........................................................................................................................93</p> <p>AcronymsPRI Panchayati Raj Institutions SHG- Self Help Groups FGD Focused Group Discussion KII Key Informant Interview NGOs Non Governmental Organisations PLA Participatory Learning and Action NREGA National Rural Employment Guarantee Act NREGS National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme SGSY Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana PMRY Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana CG Chhatisgarh SC Schedule caste ST Schedule Tribe MW Mega Watt</p> <p>3</p> <p>AcknowledgementThis report has been based on intensive field discussions with a number of people working on development issues across the states. Each of them has provided insights and provided their valuable experience which has set foundation for this report. We thankfully acknowledge their contributions. Authors acknowledge their gratitude to all those goat rearers of Chhatisgarh , who openly welcomed us and shared their concerns and experiences. Help at district level by numerous people had been a pleasant experience and saved time. We thankfully acknowledge the support received from Akhilesh Singh (UNDP, Project officer) at Sarguja and Mr. Rajendra Shukla at Jagdalpur. Mr. R.K Singh, Director, CGSIRD has supported us through his insights, guidance and helped in keeping focus on practical use of study findings, we greatly acknowledge his support. The support received at various development program offices like Animal Husbandry, Dairy cooperative, Navanjor and special program like Chhatisgarh Livestock development Agency has been praiseworthy. We especially extend our gratitude to them. We are appreciative of field coordination and logistics managed by Mr. R.S. Gautam of The livelihood School and support provided by Mr. Srinubabu. Like any such field based investigation encompassing market related information, support of traders and market players in sharing details of process and trends are important. Looking into criticality of their role and dedication to manage this all business (adventurous) effort, Authors salute their spirit and wish to dedicate this sub sector report to all market players of goat business within and outside the state.</p> <p>Sanjeev Kumar Arun Keshav Date June 15, 2010</p> <p>4</p> <p>Executive SummaryGoat rearers across Chhattisgarh are increasingly turning to goats as a means of survival and a way of boosting their incomes. It has shown remarkably over 18% growths (during 2003 to 2007) in spite of high slaughter rate (over 39% annual). This presents the State and various development actors as well as agencies responsible for livelihood and employment promotion in the state, with new opportunities for reaching the poorest farmers in the State. Goats are deeply embedded in almost every tribal culture and are true friends to the rural poor and yet have received very little attention by development agencies (By governments/Non Government or private agencies) and investment in their development has been low in the state. This Sub sector study report focuses on the unique role and potential of goats in tribal and non tribal belts of Chhattisgarh to lift poor people out of poverty and onto a path of improved welfare and prosperity. For various reasons, goats are coming to the fore in both smallholder and pastoral systems. The study makes some specific suggestions how goats could be developed in different situations. However, while the widespread cultural acceptance of goats and goat products forms a sound basis for development, there are many physical, economic, social and political constraints to developing goats in the state in addition to biases against them, and the people who keep them that need to be rectified before goats are able to show their true potential. Study team used following data collection tools to have a across the stakeholders views and capture the data and reflections of practitioners Key Informant Interviews (KII), House hold interviews, Structured and semi structured questionnaires Focused Group Discussion (FGD) and Participatory Learning and Actions (PLA) with various players in the value chain and Critical observations at the production and marketing site through field visits Goat rearing is the one of the essential part of culture and livelihood source of Chhattisgarh people. They serve following distinct (financial and non financial) and complementary kind of purpose at a rural community household 1. Risk mitigating strategy against crop failure, weather unpredictability and less rainfall as well as personal health expenses 2. Reliable source of supplementary income and income stabilization tool in case of crop failure or crop loss 5</p> <p>3. As a near liquid asset which can be sold for any emergency purpose like family member medical expenses, loan repayment, deposit of fees. 4. As a source of nutrition for meat 5. Women and children earned income 6. As a saving tool for a particular purpose like meeting marriage expenses or social obligations 7. As a social &amp; religious ritual and welcoming close relatives and friends through scarifying goats for a feast or scarifying at religious place to please goats The production system of Goat in Chhattisgarh is characterized by agro pastoral systems. Most often goats are kept in the range of 3 to 5 goats at household level (Based on sample survey). The trend of moving towards low herd size has been an adaptive change over the recent years due to various factors prominently - availability of human resource to graze the goats, fear of diseases outspread, increasing opportunity cost due to NREGA and other labour works and high drudgery involved in the business. Study team observed that establishment of commercial goat farm on economic management principles is not common in the state of Chhattisgarh. It has been also observed that access to market and health services has been important reason to make a choice by farmers to keep mix of goats and other large ruminants. The intensity of cropping has adverse relations with goat rearing in the State. The figure represents family based low herd size semi stall fed model (1 to 3), 4 to 9 grazing dependent model and 10 and more than 10 as pastoral system model. The study looked into four pillars of goat management at goat keepers level as breed and reproduction, Feeding, preventative Health practices and housing and sanitation. Based on focused discussion, on site observation and household interview, it has been realised that the farmers in the state have been engaged in rearing locally adaptive goats and has no knowledge and exposure to elite breeds. Only Government provided Jamnapari male bucks has been observed in few 6</p> <p>cases in the field. However there has been quite a variation in performance and body size of local breed especially if we compare north and south part of Chhattisgarh State. The feeding of goats has been largely dependent on available shrubs and leaves in grazing land. This in turn defines the growth of goats and kids in the area. The practice of supplementary feeding of grains has been very limited. The goats are not fed with mineral mixtures and salts, which can enhance digestibility and nutrient availability from existing resources. The most pathetic observation has came in the area of health care and preventative practices, wherein a huge gap has been observed in knowledge, skill and attitude coupled with availability of services and inputs with the rerears. The problems have been observed in access and affordability to health services however acceptance has not been observed as constraint in general. The present Sample based survey has revealed that mortality in goats has been reported as 30% in last one year. The perception has been further captured through PLA tools, wherein ranking of various risks involved in goat rearing has been ranked by group of goat rearers based on consensus and open debate. It has been noted that in all four group discussions, goat rearers ranked the loss of herd (Spread of infectious diseases) as the most highly perceived risk for them. This shows the prevalence of vaccination and preventative practices has been low in the area. Study team observed that making a proper housing and in some cases providing bedding material is in the practice domain of goat rearers. The only improvement required is enhancing the ventilation in such houses. The credit and insurance services for goat rearing has been almost non existent at producer level however farmers hared that such services could enhance their asset worth provided support services are strengthened. Goat has following products and services, which can be utilized by consumers after certain process adopted in processing and value additions Products Meat (raw, cooked, blood, soup) Milk (Very limited liquid milk to small children feeding) Skins (Leather jackets, purses containers, tents, thongs, etc.) Hair (coarse hair tents, wigs,) Horns Bones Manure (crops,vegetables) Services Cash income Emergency cash flow Savings for marriage, social functions, life cycle needs Security Gifts Loans Religious rituals Pleasure</p> <p>The marketing channels of Goat has been multidimensional and affected by elasticity of demand and supply in a classical way. However, of late it seems goats are crossing boundary of state as product and buffers are getting 7</p> <p>transported to affect local price of goat meat. The major sales channel observed by study team has been 1. Goat Farmers to Kuchia to district Buthchers (district place) to retail household consumer (Estimated 50% share) 2. Goat Farmers to Kutchia to Local Butchers to Hotel/restaurants (Estiamted 15% share) 3. Goat Farmers to Kuchia to traders to Butchers (10% share) 4. Goat Farmers to to Kutchia to outside state traders to Outside butchers t outside consumres (8%) 5. Goat Farmers to Other state traders to other state butchers to other state Consumers (5%) 6. Goat farmers to Local butchers/traders to local consumers (6%)</p> <p>Analytical review of Marketing systems of Goats and Goat products The marketable product in goat rearing has been noticed of three distinct markets 1. Goats sold for meat to butchers (80%) 2. Goats sold for rearing to other rearers (10%) 3. Male kids sold for religious sacrifice (Kurbani) 10% Study team evaluated goat market in terms of marketing efficiency, price analysis, service quality, and market information and intelligence. Based on the above assessment the major role of government and development agencies has been perceived in following area for market development of goats and goat products A. Improve market infrastructure especially facilities at goat haats B. Improve information system through price and product quality information dissemination C. Improve institutional infrastructure in terms of haat regulation, basic rules and regulatory mechanism for goat trade and reducing harassment by poli...</p>