governance and idc
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Governance and IDCSohrab Hosan Roll:BB-232According to the world Bank,(1992)- The manner in which power is exercised in management of countrys economic and social resources for development. According to ESCAP- Governance is the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented.
What is IDC? IDC includes World Bank , UNESCO, Unicef , IMF etc.
Basic pillars of good governance: 4 pillars are given below, Accountability Transparency Predictability Participation
The overall experience of governance along with IDC in the developing country is not satisfactory due to the distance of exercising the 8 important characteristics of good governance.These are: (Accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable, effective, follows the rule of law, participatory, consensus oriented,)
United Nations and its role
Presented by-Muhammad Ubaidul HaqueRoll:BB-109
"...as we all know, infrastructure is not just a matter of roads, schools and power grids. It is equally a question of strengthening democratic governance and the rule of law. Without accountability, not only of the government to its people but of the people to each other, there is no hope for a viable democratic State. ."Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon,Remarks to the Security Council on Timor-Leste19 February 2009
.As the only global institution with comprehensive competency and universal membership, the UN is uniquely positioned to deal with these multiple and complex challenges of governance. On the operational level, the UN has a well-established institutional framework for deliberation, decision-making, and implementation..The United Nations plays four essential roles as an intellectual actor. These are - managing knowledge developing norms promulgating recommendations, and institutionalizing ideasThe UN system promotes good governance through many avenues. The UN Development Programme (UNDP), for example, actively support national processes of democratic transition. In the process, it focuses on providing policy advice and technical support and strengthening the capacity of institutions and individuals. It engages in advocacy and communications, supports public information campaigns, and promotes and brokers dialogue. It also facilitates knowledge networking and the sharing of good practices.TheUnited Nations Democracy Fund(UNDEF), established in 2005, supports projects that strengthen the voice of civil society, promote human rights, and encourage the participation of all groups in democratic processes. The bulk of its funds go to local civil society organizations, both in the transition and consolidation phases of democratization. In these ways, it complements the UN's work with governments to strengthen democratic governance worldwide.TheUnited Nations Public Administration Network(UNPAN) was created to set up an internet-based network to link regional and national public administration institutions. Its facilitates the exchange of information and experience, as well as training in the area of public sector policy and management.Its long-term goal is to build the capacity of these regional and national institutions, with the aim of improving public administration overall.In our rapidly globalized world, the challenges to humankind are myriad and complex. The task for global governance is to focus on the interconnectedness and interdependence of all these challenges and threats. It needs to provide the international community with a roadmap leading to the ultimate goal of sustainable peace and development. And with the rise of emerging powers, the need for a new global architecture has become even more urgent and critical.
Through such measures as these, the promotion of good governance now runs like a thread through all UN system activities.Governance and IDC. (World Banks Part)Presenteted by
Roll No. SM 94
A Brief Introduction About World BankMottoWorking for a World Free of PovertyEstablished : July 1944Type :international organizationLegal status : TreatyPurpose :Crediting
Location :Washington D.C., United States.Membership :188 countries (IBRD)172 countries (IDA)President :Jim Yong KimMain organ:Board of DirectorsParent organization:World Bank GroupWebsite:worldbank.org
ROLE OF wb in Bangladesh (1970)
The World Bank is the largest as well as the most influential lender to the country. It is the coordinator of aid donors in Bangladesh. Since Independence, it has lent $12.5 billion to the country and played a critical role in shaping the countrys institutions and policies. For these reasons, the role of the World Bank is singularly important among the IDC in Bangladesh. In the 1970s, during the initial phase of its operations, the World Bank concentrated largely on project lending for achieving food self-sufficiency, mobilizing domestic resources, improving social indicators, and enhancing project implementation. Even though over time the country attained varying degrees of success in all these areas, the pace of progress was slow in the 1970s. 1980During the next phase of its operations in the late 1980s, the World Bank focused on policy reforms to create an environment conducive to private sector development. These reforms were addressed at removing the distortions in trade, pricing, credit allocation, and interest rates. Once again, the efforts yielded mixed success.
During the current decadesAID OF WB TO BANGLADESHAfter independence The World Bank has lent 98.6 billion US dollar that is 29 per sent of total foreign loan. in 2013-14 fiscal year it grants 9.8 million and 40 core US dollar. in running fiscal year it aimed to aid 970 core dollar. (Bangla telegraph 7 octobar,2014)
now WB is helping 650 core dollar in 31 developing project.(Jugantor,15 September 2014)
The WB has created an immoral system of modern day colonialism The WB serves wealthy countries and Wall StreetThe WB is imposing a fundamentally flawed development modelThe WB is a secretive institution with no accountabilityWB policies promote corporate welfareThe WB hurts workersThe WB 's policies hurt women the mostWB Policies hurt the environmentThe WB bails out rich bankers, creating a moral hazard and greater instability in the global economyWB bailouts deepen, rather then solve, economic crisisCriticism about the World Bank IMF and its roleRumana AfroseRoll: 28What is IMFThe IMF is an international organization of 185 member countries .It was established in 1944,with a goal to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability and orderly exchange arrangements to foster economic growth , and high levels of employment and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of payments adjustments.Objectives of IMFFacilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international tradeTo promote exchange rate stabilityTo promote international monetary cooperationTo make its resources available to its members who are experiencing balance of payment difficulties.To establish a multilateral system of payments and eliminate foreign exchange restrictions.Shorten the duration and lessen the degree of disequilibrium in international balances of payment.
Role of IMFFocusing on its core macroeconomic and financial areas of responsibility.Collection and allocation of reserves .Rendering advice to member countries on their international monetary affairs.Promoting research in various areas of international economics and monetary economics.Providing a forum for discussion and consultation among member countries .Being in the center of competence.Providing technical assistance and training to help countries when they need for economic stability and growth.
Criticism of IMFMany observers comment on the fact that the IMF has a one size fits all mentality ,that whatever the situation the IMF prescribes basically the same set of policies .IMF does not adequately monitor the impact of its decisions on the poor.Some of U.S critics say ,IMF is an incredibly wasteful organization that takes valuable funds and pours it down the drain of developing economics whose leaders become fabulously rich off the money without any intention of ever helping out anyone.The IMF has no effective authority over the domestic economic policies of its members.
Role of IDC and OICSumaiya Mustofa MollikRoll-108Organization of Islamic Conference(OIC) Establishment: 25 September, 1969 Place : Rabat , kingdom of Morocco Inter-governmental organization Combination of effort to safeguard interest and ensure progress of member and other Muslim countries. Financed By Member countries.Objectives of OICTo promote Islamic solidarity among member states.To consolidate cooperation among member countries.To take necessary steps to support international peace and security founded on justice.Get equality between member states.Islamic Development Bank(IDB) International Financial Institution. Establishment:20 october,1975. purpose:Foster The Economic Develpoment And Social Progress Of Member Countries And Muslim Communities. Based On Shariah Law.Objectives Of IDB promotion of Islamic industry and institutions. Poverty alleviation. Promotion of cooperation among member countries.32Role Of IDB And OIC In Bangladesh After the recommendation of OIC,IDB established in Bangladesh.After The Establishment of IDB, Islamic Banking And Financial Institutions Grew Fast Throughout the world including Bangladesh. After the Inception Of Islamic Banking In Bangladesh In 1983 there was a consistent Growth In Banking Sector. 47 Commercial Bank And 7 are full-fledged Islamic bank has been established. The combined Share of Islamic Bank Accounts around 25% of the total banking market of Bangladesh.Role of ADB in governancePresented by- Isr