greek personality in archaic sculpture () || notes. abbreviations

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    A.A.Archaeologischer Anzeiger.

    Abh.Akad.Abhandlungen der Akademie.

    AJ.A.American Journal of Archaeology.

    A.M.A.H. SchrderE. LanglotzW. H. Schuchhardt, Die ar-chaischen Marmorbildwerke der Akropolis, 1939.

    A.M.S.H. Schrder, Archaische Marmorskulpturen im Akropolis-Museum, 1909.

    Amt. AteneAnnuario della R. Scuola Italiana in Atene.

    Ath. Mitt.Athenische Mitteilungen.

    B.C.H.Bulletin de correspondance hellnique.

    B.S.A.Annual of the British School at Atens.

    Brunn-BruckmannH. Brunn, Denkmaeler griechischer und roemis-cher Skulptur, Muenchen, Bruckmann.

    C.A.H.Cambridge Ancient History.

    C.V.Corpus vasorum antiquorum.

    DeltionArchaeologikon Deltion (Greek).

    Ephem.Archaeologiki Ephemeris (Greek).

    F.d.D.Fouilles de Delphes (Ecole Franaise d'Athnes).

    FvrtvuaenlerReichholdF.-R., Griechische Vasenmalerei.

    J.H.S.Journal of Hellenic Studies.

    Jahrb.Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts.

    K.i.B.F. Winter, Kunstgeschichte in Bildern.

    Metr. Mus. Stud.Metropolitan Museum Studies.

    Oest. Jahr.Jahreshefte des Oesterreichischen Archaeologischen In-


    P.-Y.H. Payne and G. M. Young, Archaic Marble Sculptures from

    the Acropolis, 1936.

    Payne, Necrocor.H. Payne, Necrocorinthia, 1930.

    R.E.Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Enyclopaedie der klassischen Altertums-


    Roem. Mitt.Roemische Mitteilungen.

    Sitz.-Ber. Atad.Sitzungs-Berichte der Akademie.

    Thteme-BeckerTh.-B., Kuenstlerlexikon.

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    . The words sculpture and sculptor are used here in a broad tense, covering all kinds of plastic art, in stone or metal, clay, ivory, bone or wood.

    2. For a comprehensive survey see the fundamental works by Chr. Tsountas, Dimini and Sesklo (in Greek, 1908), pp. 283(1., pis. 31-38, and Wace and Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912), p. 266, s.v. Figurines; also G. Mylonas, The Neolithic Epoch in Greece (1928, in Greek), pp. i8ff. 3sff. 119; and Wace's summary in C.A.H., vol. I, 1924, pp. 173. Cycladic idols: P. Wolters, Ath. Mitt., 11, 1891, pp. 46 ff.; Tsuntas, Ephem., 1898, pis. iof.; F. N. Pryce, Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt. I, , pp. iff., pis. i f . ; H. Bossert, The Art of Ancient Crete (1937), figs. 404.-426; Chr. Zervos, L'Art en Grce (1934), figs. 6-24; Sp. Marinatos, Arch. Anz., 1933, pp. 299, ; Val. Mller, Frhe Plastik in Griechenland

  • IN ARCHAIC SCULPTURE, NOTES 285 7. The large curls from which Evans reconstructs a gigantic cult

    image {I.e., I l l , pp. 521, figs. 365t., IV, p. 612), may be independent votive offerings.

    8. Ivory acrobats: Evans, I.e., I l l , pp. 428?., figs. 294s.; Bossert, I.e., figs. 303 ff.

    9. Tsountas, I.e., pp. 49ff., 798. ; cf. Wace-Thompson, I.e., p. 266, s.v. Architecture; W. Doerpfeld, Troja und Ilion I, pp. 60S., figs 238. The dates of Troy I and II are now firmly established around 3200-2600 and 2600-2300 B.C., by the University of Cincinnati's excava-tions, which will soon be published by C. W. Biegen and his collabo-rators. See Biegen, B.S.A., XXXVII , pp. 8ff. and A.J.A., 44, 1940, pp. 36jf. On the roof of the megaron, ibid., 46, 1942, pp. 99ff. 37off. (E. B. Smith). 49, 194s, pp. 35ff. (Biegen). 48, 1944, pp. 3428. (V. Mueller).

    io. Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt., I, 1, pp. uf f . , figs. i3ff., pi. 3 ; A. Wace, B.S.A., XXV, pp. 338ff. and Antiquity, XIV, 1940, pp. 233. The final excavations, carried out by Wace a few weeks before the out-break of the war, refute Evans's attempts to date the Atreus Tomb to L.M.I. (sixteenth century B.C.), in The Shaft Graves and Chamber Tombs of Mycenae, pp. 67.; cf. J . L. Myres, Who Were the Greeks?, pp. 282ff., 38iff. The beehive tomb discovered by R. W. Hutchinson near Knossos, in 1938, "is not to be dated earlier than 1500 B.C." (Wace, I.e., p. 233).

    h . The tholos at Delphi, by far the oldest of its kind in historical Greece, was built in the sixth century B.C. The date is discussed be-low, pp. 131. 138. Early Minoan circular tombs: St. Xanthoudidis, The Vaulted Tombs of Messara, 1924; L. Banti, Annuario d. Scuola Ital. di Atene 13/14, 1934, pp. 1478; Sp. Marinatos, Deltion, 12, 1929, pp. i36ff. No Middle Minoan tombs of this shape have been found as yet; the Knossian tholos just mentioned may be either a re-vival or, more probably, an imitation of the mainland type.

    12. Karo, I.e., pp. 224ff.; Evans, I.e., Index, s.v. rhytons, pp. 15 i f . ; Bossert, I.e., figs. 76, 95f., 3o8f.

    13. Masks: Karo, I.e., pp. 37ff., 7jf., 121, pis. 47-52, with an an-thropological discussion by E. Fischer on pp. 32S. ; Bossert, I.e., 9zff. Stelae: W. A. Heurtley, B.S.A. XXV, pp. 126ft., pis. 19-21; Karo, I.e., pp. 29ff., pis. 5-10; Bossert, I.e., figs. 66f. ; G. Richter, Archaic Attic Gravestones, p. 8.

    14. Cf. the remarkable sealings with the heads of a king and a youthful prince, Evans, I.e. I, p. 272, fig. 201, datable to M.M.III, and the "foreigner's" head on a contemporary gem, ibid. IV, p. 218, fig. 167 and Suppl. plate 54 k.

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  • 286 GREEK PERSONALITY 15. B.S.A., XXV, pp. 9E, pi. 1 ; Bossert, I.e. figs. 9f. Minoan

    parallels: Evans, I.e. IV, pp. 6o8ff., figs. 597.

    16. See above, note 10, and for the sculptures Perrot-Chipiez, I.e., pis. 5f. and p. 646; Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt. I, 1, pp. ., z8ff., figs. 2f. The bull reliefs: Evans, I.e. I l l , pp. 1928.; Bossert, I.e. figs. i6ff. Wace and Marinatos had prepared a new and final reconstruc-tion of the faade just before the invasion of Greece.

    17. Ivories: e.g., Evans, I.e., Index pp. 75f.; Bossert, I.e. figs. 30-62, 82, 263-266, 302, 305. Bronze (and lead) statuettes: Bossert, I.e. figs. 88ff, 3 i i f f . Clay figurines: e.g., Wace, Chamber Tombs, p. 23J, s.v. Figurines; Froedin-Persson, Asirte, pp. 3070., figs. 2 i i f f . ; Bossert, l.c figs. 83. 86. 284fiE. ; R. Demangel, F A.D., II, 5, 3, p. 1 1 , fig. 12, pp. 148., figs. i6ff. ; Marinatos, A.A., 1933, p. 305, fig. 16; V. Mueller, I.e., pis. uff-, figs. 219-160.

    18. The old drawing by Doerpfeld, in Schliemann's Tiryns (1885), p. 293, fig. 122, reproduced again and again, is now superseded by H. Sulze, A.A., 1936, pp. 146., figs. iff.

    19. K . Mueller, Ath. Mitt., 48, 1923, pp. 528. ; G. Oikonomos, Efhem. 1931, pp. iff . See the comprehensive discussion by H. Payne and H. Bagenol, Peraehora, I, pp. 34-fl.


    . See the important studies of the Austrian and Dutch schools of prehistory and art history, e.g., Adama van Scheltema, Altnordische Kunst; O. Menghin, Weltgeschichte d. Steinzeit (1931), and the same author's new edition of M. Hoernes, Urgeschichte d. bild. Kunst in Europa (1925), also Handbuch d. Archologie I, 1938, pp. 403ff.; H. Kuehn, Kunst u. Kultur d. Forzeit Europas (1929) and Die ver-ges ch. Kunst Deutschlands (193s).

    2. Excellent summary by J . Beazley, Greek Sculpture and Paint-ing, pp. iff . ; E. Buschor, Die Plastik d. Griechen (1936), pp. 6ff.; E. Kunze, Ath. Mitt., 55, 1930, pp. i4iff. ; R. Hampe, Friihgriech, Sagenbilder in Botien (1936) ; Val. Mueller, Frhe Plastik in Griechenland u. Vorderaren (1929), pp. 6off., pis. i8ff. (fullest illus-tration), and Metrop. Mus. Stud., V, 1936, pp. 165., where the discontinuity between Mycenaean and post-Mycenaean civilization is convincingly set forth.

    3. The clearest case is that of Samos: E. Buschor, Ath. Mitt., 55, 1930, pp. iff., especially ioli., and below pp. 4off. The existence of

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    large statues at such an early period still appears improbable to lead-ing authorities such as Beazley and Rodenwaldt. Y e t it seems to be proven by the evidence collected by Buschor, Kunze (//.ff.) and es-pecially V. Mller (/.f., pp. i57ff., and Pauly-Wissowa, R.E., Suppl. V, pp. 49off., s.v. Kultbild). Quite apart from what seems clearly to be a statue base, in the earliest Heraeum at Samos, the dimensions of this and similar temples demand cult images of considerable size. T h e rude colossus discovered by Biegen and Dorothy Burr (AJ.A., 31, 1927, pp. ^.) is unfortunately too primitive for conclusive dating. It may be a stone parallel to the bronze Apollo at Amyclae, below, pp. i44ff.

    4. Found in 1924 in a tomb at Arkades ( A f r a t i ) , which contained only late Geometric pottery: Doro Levi, Annuario d. Scuola liai, di Atene, 10-12, 1927, pp. 187.5400. ; A.A., 1931, pp. 3oif., fig. 38. T h e date of such pottery is established by H. Payne, B.S.A. X X I X , pp. 230. On similar late archaic capitals at Delphi see below, p. 231.

    5. Evans, I.e. II, p. 523, fig. 325.

    6. A n illustration of the Homeric procession to the temple of Athena (Iliad, VI , 285.), on a Boeotian relief pithos of the seventh century: Hampe, I.e. p. 69, pi. 37 Bronze xoana: Samos: Buschor, Altsam. Standbilder, p. 24, figs. 74-77; A.A., 1930, p. 150, fig. 26. Dreros: Sp. Marinatos, B.C.H., 60, 1936, pp. 219., pi. 63. Palma di Montichiaro near Agrigento, G . Caputo, Mon. Line., 37, 1938, pp. 585., especially 63off., pis. i f . Here an ancient sanctuary near a sulphurous spring yielded three wooden figurines of very early type, but associated with clay statuettes and pottery of the sixth and -fifth centuries. Caputo aptly compares similar small xoana on an altar, on a late red-figured crater from Spina, now in Ferrara. On the Nikandre statue's age, see Kunze, I.e., p. 142. There seems