Greek Personality in Archaic Sculpture () || NOTES. ABBREVIATIONS

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<ul><li><p>N O T E S </p><p>ABBREVIATIONS </p><p>A.A.Archaeologischer Anzeiger. </p><p>Abh.Akad.Abhandlungen der Akademie. </p><p>AJ.A.American Journal of Archaeology. </p><p>A.M.A.H. SchrderE. LanglotzW. H. Schuchhardt, Die ar-chaischen Marmorbildwerke der Akropolis, 1939. </p><p>A.M.S.H. Schrder, Archaische Marmorskulpturen im Akropolis-Museum, 1909. </p><p>Amt. AteneAnnuario della R. Scuola Italiana in Atene. </p><p>Ath. Mitt.Athenische Mitteilungen. </p><p>B.C.H.Bulletin de correspondance hellnique. </p><p>B.S.A.Annual of the British School at Atens. </p><p>Brunn-BruckmannH. Brunn, Denkmaeler griechischer und roemis-cher Skulptur, Muenchen, Bruckmann. </p><p>C.A.H.Cambridge Ancient History. </p><p>C.V.Corpus vasorum antiquorum. </p><p>DeltionArchaeologikon Deltion (Greek). </p><p>Ephem.Archaeologiki Ephemeris (Greek). </p><p>F.d.D.Fouilles de Delphes (Ecole Franaise d'Athnes). </p><p>FvrtvuaenlerReichholdF.-R., Griechische Vasenmalerei. </p><p>J.H.S.Journal of Hellenic Studies. </p><p>Jahrb.Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. </p><p>K.i.B.F. Winter, Kunstgeschichte in Bildern. </p><p>Metr. Mus. Stud.Metropolitan Museum Studies. </p><p>Oest. Jahr.Jahreshefte des Oesterreichischen Archaeologischen In-</p><p>stituts. </p><p>P.-Y.H. Payne and G. M. Young, Archaic Marble Sculptures from </p><p>the Acropolis, 1936. </p><p>Payne, Necrocor.H. Payne, Necrocorinthia, 1930. </p><p>R.E.Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Enyclopaedie der klassischen Altertums-</p><p>wissenschaft. </p><p>Roem. Mitt.Roemische Mitteilungen. </p><p>Sitz.-Ber. Atad.Sitzungs-Berichte der Akademie. </p><p>Thteme-BeckerTh.-B., Kuenstlerlexikon. </p><p>Brought to you by | New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst LibraryAuthenticated</p><p>Download Date | 10/18/14 3:21 PM</p></li><li><p>NOTES C H A P T E R I </p><p> . The words sculpture and sculptor are used here in a broad tense, covering all kinds of plastic art, in stone or metal, clay, ivory, bone or wood. </p><p>2. For a comprehensive survey see the fundamental works by Chr. Tsountas, Dimini and Sesklo (in Greek, 1908), pp. 283(1., pis. 31-38, and Wace and Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912), p. 266, s.v. Figurines; also G. Mylonas, The Neolithic Epoch in Greece (1928, in Greek), pp. i8ff. 3sff. 119; and Wace's summary in C.A.H., vol. I, 1924, pp. 173. Cycladic idols: P. Wolters, Ath. Mitt., 11, 1891, pp. 46 ff.; Tsuntas, Ephem., 1898, pis. iof.; F. N. Pryce, Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt. I, , pp. iff., pis. i f . ; H. Bossert, The Art of Ancient Crete (1937), figs. 404.-426; Chr. Zervos, L'Art en Grce (1934), figs. 6-24; Sp. Marinatos, Arch. Anz., 1933, pp. 299, ; Val. Mller, Frhe Plastik in Griechenland </p></li><li><p>IN ARCHAIC SCULPTURE, NOTES 285 7. The large curls from which Evans reconstructs a gigantic cult </p><p>image {I.e., I l l , pp. 521, figs. 365t., IV, p. 612), may be independent votive offerings. </p><p>8. Ivory acrobats: Evans, I.e., I l l , pp. 428?., figs. 294s.; Bossert, I.e., figs. 303 ff. </p><p>9. Tsountas, I.e., pp. 49ff., 798. ; cf. Wace-Thompson, I.e., p. 266, s.v. Architecture; W. Doerpfeld, Troja und Ilion I, pp. 60S., figs 238. The dates of Troy I and II are now firmly established around 3200-2600 and 2600-2300 B.C., by the University of Cincinnati's excava-tions, which will soon be published by C. W. Biegen and his collabo-rators. See Biegen, B.S.A., XXXVII , pp. 8ff. and A.J.A., 44, 1940, pp. 36jf. On the roof of the megaron, ibid., 46, 1942, pp. 99ff. 37off. (E. B. Smith). 49, 194s, pp. 35ff. (Biegen). 48, 1944, pp. 3428. (V. Mueller). </p><p>io. Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt., I, 1, pp. uf f . , figs. i3ff., pi. 3 ; A. Wace, B.S.A., XXV, pp. 338ff. and Antiquity, XIV, 1940, pp. 233. The final excavations, carried out by Wace a few weeks before the out-break of the war, refute Evans's attempts to date the Atreus Tomb to L.M.I. (sixteenth century B.C.), in The Shaft Graves and Chamber Tombs of Mycenae, pp. 67.; cf. J . L. Myres, Who Were the Greeks?, pp. 282ff., 38iff. The beehive tomb discovered by R. W. Hutchinson near Knossos, in 1938, "is not to be dated earlier than 1500 B.C." (Wace, I.e., p. 233). </p><p>h . The tholos at Delphi, by far the oldest of its kind in historical Greece, was built in the sixth century B.C. The date is discussed be-low, pp. 131. 138. Early Minoan circular tombs: St. Xanthoudidis, The Vaulted Tombs of Messara, 1924; L. Banti, Annuario d. Scuola Ital. di Atene 13/14, 1934, pp. 1478; Sp. Marinatos, Deltion, 12, 1929, pp. i36ff. No Middle Minoan tombs of this shape have been found as yet; the Knossian tholos just mentioned may be either a re-vival or, more probably, an imitation of the mainland type. </p><p>12. Karo, I.e., pp. 224ff.; Evans, I.e., Index, s.v. rhytons, pp. 15 i f . ; Bossert, I.e., figs. 76, 95f., 3o8f. </p><p>13. Masks: Karo, I.e., pp. 37ff., 7jf., 121, pis. 47-52, with an an-thropological discussion by E. Fischer on pp. 32S. ; Bossert, I.e., 9zff. Stelae: W. A. Heurtley, B.S.A. XXV, pp. 126ft., pis. 19-21; Karo, I.e., pp. 29ff., pis. 5-10; Bossert, I.e., figs. 66f. ; G. Richter, Archaic Attic Gravestones, p. 8. </p><p>14. Cf. the remarkable sealings with the heads of a king and a youthful prince, Evans, I.e. I, p. 272, fig. 201, datable to M.M.III, and the "foreigner's" head on a contemporary gem, ibid. IV, p. 218, fig. 167 and Suppl. plate 54 k. </p><p>Brought to you by | New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst LibraryAuthenticated</p><p>Download Date | 10/18/14 3:21 PM</p></li><li><p>286 GREEK PERSONALITY 15. B.S.A., XXV, pp. 9E, pi. 1 ; Bossert, I.e. figs. 9f. Minoan </p><p>parallels: Evans, I.e. IV, pp. 6o8ff., figs. 597. </p><p>16. See above, note 10, and for the sculptures Perrot-Chipiez, I.e., pis. 5f. and p. 646; Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt. I, 1, pp. ., z8ff., figs. 2f. The bull reliefs: Evans, I.e. I l l , pp. 1928.; Bossert, I.e. figs. i6ff. Wace and Marinatos had prepared a new and final reconstruc-tion of the faade just before the invasion of Greece. </p><p>17. Ivories: e.g., Evans, I.e., Index pp. 75f.; Bossert, I.e. figs. 30-62, 82, 263-266, 302, 305. Bronze (and lead) statuettes: Bossert, I.e. figs. 88ff, 3 i i f f . Clay figurines: e.g., Wace, Chamber Tombs, p. 23J, s.v. Figurines; Froedin-Persson, Asirte, pp. 3070., figs. 2 i i f f . ; Bossert, l.c figs. 83. 86. 284fiE. ; R. Demangel, F A.D., II, 5, 3, p. 1 1 , fig. 12, pp. 148., figs. i6ff. ; Marinatos, A.A., 1933, p. 305, fig. 16; V. Mueller, I.e., pis. uff-, figs. 219-160. </p><p>18. The old drawing by Doerpfeld, in Schliemann's Tiryns (1885), p. 293, fig. 122, reproduced again and again, is now superseded by H. Sulze, A.A., 1936, pp. 146., figs. iff. </p><p>19. K . Mueller, Ath. Mitt., 48, 1923, pp. 528. ; G. Oikonomos, Efhem. 1931, pp. iff . See the comprehensive discussion by H. Payne and H. Bagenol, Peraehora, I, pp. 34-fl. </p><p>NOTES CHAPTER II </p><p> . See the important studies of the Austrian and Dutch schools of prehistory and art history, e.g., Adama van Scheltema, Altnordische Kunst; O. Menghin, Weltgeschichte d. Steinzeit (1931), and the same author's new edition of M. Hoernes, Urgeschichte d. bild. Kunst in Europa (1925), also Handbuch d. Archologie I, 1938, pp. 403ff.; H. Kuehn, Kunst u. Kultur d. Forzeit Europas (1929) and Die ver-ges ch. Kunst Deutschlands (193s). </p><p>2. Excellent summary by J . Beazley, Greek Sculpture and Paint-ing, pp. iff . ; E. Buschor, Die Plastik d. Griechen (1936), pp. 6ff.; E. Kunze, Ath. Mitt., 55, 1930, pp. i4iff. ; R. Hampe, Friihgriech, Sagenbilder in Botien (1936) ; Val. Mueller, Frhe Plastik in Griechenland u. Vorderaren (1929), pp. 6off., pis. i8ff. (fullest illus-tration), and Metrop. Mus. Stud., V, 1936, pp. 165., where the discontinuity between Mycenaean and post-Mycenaean civilization is convincingly set forth. </p><p>3. The clearest case is that of Samos: E. Buschor, Ath. Mitt., 55, 1930, pp. iff., especially ioli., and below pp. 4off. The existence of </p><p>Brought to you by | New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst LibraryAuthenticated</p><p>Download Date | 10/18/14 3:21 PM</p></li><li><p>IN ARCHAIC SCULPTURE, NOTES 287 </p><p>large statues at such an early period still appears improbable to lead-ing authorities such as Beazley and Rodenwaldt. Y e t it seems to be proven by the evidence collected by Buschor, Kunze (//.ff.) and es-pecially V. Mller (/.f., pp. i57ff., and Pauly-Wissowa, R.E., Suppl. V, pp. 49off., s.v. Kultbild). Quite apart from what seems clearly to be a statue base, in the earliest Heraeum at Samos, the dimensions of this and similar temples demand cult images of considerable size. T h e rude colossus discovered by Biegen and Dorothy Burr (AJ.A., 31, 1927, pp. ^.) is unfortunately too primitive for conclusive dating. It may be a stone parallel to the bronze Apollo at Amyclae, below, pp. i44ff. </p><p>4. Found in 1924 in a tomb at Arkades ( A f r a t i ) , which contained only late Geometric pottery: Doro Levi, Annuario d. Scuola liai, di Atene, 10-12, 1927, pp. 187.5400. ; A.A., 1931, pp. 3oif., fig. 38. T h e date of such pottery is established by H. Payne, B.S.A. X X I X , pp. 230. On similar late archaic capitals at Delphi see below, p. 231. </p><p>5. Evans, I.e. II, p. 523, fig. 325. </p><p>6. A n illustration of the Homeric procession to the temple of Athena (Iliad, VI , 285.), on a Boeotian relief pithos of the seventh century: Hampe, I.e. p. 69, pi. 37 Bronze xoana: Samos: Buschor, Altsam. Standbilder, p. 24, figs. 74-77; A.A., 1930, p. 150, fig. 26. Dreros: Sp. Marinatos, B.C.H., 60, 1936, pp. 219., pi. 63. Palma di Montichiaro near Agrigento, G . Caputo, Mon. Line., 37, 1938, pp. 585., especially 63off., pis. i f . Here an ancient sanctuary near a sulphurous spring yielded three wooden figurines of very early type, but associated with clay statuettes and pottery of the sixth and -fifth centuries. Caputo aptly compares similar small xoana on an altar, on a late red-figured crater from Spina, now in Ferrara. On the Nikandre statue's age, see Kunze, I.e., p. 142. There seems to be no possibility of dating the inscription within narrow limits. T h e earliest Attic in-scriptions, undoubtedly of the eighth century, furnish no conclusive evidence for a Naxian text. T h e statue can hardly be older than the Early Daedalid group discussed in Chapter IV. </p><p>7. See the discussions by E. Kunze, Ath. Mitt., 55, 1930, pp. 1416F. ; 57, 1932, pp. i24f., who places these works in the late ninth and the first half of the eighth century, and R. Hampe, I.e., especially pp. 32ft., where most of them are dated almost a century later, also Kunze's reply, Goettinger Gelehrte Anz., 1937, pp. 28off. </p><p>8. H. Payne (and Others), Perachora I, 1940, espec. pp. 278. A special tribute is due to the competence and unselfish modesty, en-tirely in Payne's own spirit, with which T . J. Dunbabin has edited this posthumous work. Unfortunately, the Geometric deposit of Hera </p><p>Brought to you by | New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst LibraryAuthenticated</p><p>Download Date | 10/18/14 3:21 PM</p></li><li><p>288 GREEK PERSONALITY </p><p>Akraia contained no plastic works, except a mutilated clay statuette of a goddess (pi. 115, 304, with text by R. J. H. Jenkins, p. 66). The only imported oriental objects are three scarabs "from Cyprus, Syria or Egypt," which Pendlebury (p. ., fig. 12, pi. 18, 27-29) attributes to the XXVIth Dynasty (after 640 B.C.). But these dates are by no means certain, as F. W . v. Bissing has informed me. </p><p>9. See P. Kahane's careful and convincing study of Attic Geomet-ric pottery in AJ.A., 44, 1940, pp. 478ft. It embodies the results of Kuebler's work, who has published preliminary reports in A.A., 1930-1936. Cf. Karo, An Attic Cemetery (1943), pp. 98. 43. The first volumes of the final publication, Kerameikos I, IV, 1939, 1943, con-tain only the pottery from Submycenaean to Protogeometric. </p><p>10. Beazley, I.e., pp. zB., figs. iff. </p><p>11. G. Richter, Sculpture, p. 337, fig. 13 and Handbook of the Met-rop. Mus., 2d ed., p. 44, fig. 23 ; Kunze, I.e., pp. I43f., Beilage 38 ; Hampe, I.e., pl. 30 ; Buschor, Plastik d. Griechen, p. 9. </p><p>12. A. Furtwaengler, Olympia, IV, pp. 28ft., pis. isf., and Kl. Schriften I, pp. 36off. ; W. Lamb, Greek and Roman Bronzes, pp. 39F., pis., 14ft. ; . . Neugebauer, Katalog d. statuar. Bronzen in Berlin, I, 1931, pp. 9ff., figs. 4ff., pis. 4ff. Dancing girls, Furtwngler, p. 357, Lamb, I.e., Neugebauer, p. i9f., pi. 5, and Antike Bronzestatuetten, p. 31, pl. 13. He aptly compares a very early group of bull-headed men from Petrovouni in Arcadia, Hiller-Lattermann, Arkadische For-schungen (Abh. Berlin, Akad., 1911), p. 41, pi. 11. </p><p>13. Lyre-player (in Canda) : L. Deubner, Ath. Mitt., 54, 1929, p. 194, fig. ; warrior (in Wrzburg, said to come from Delphi) : H. Bulle, ibid. 55, 1930, pp. i8iff., Beilage 60; helmet-maker (in New York) : G. Richter, AJ.A., 48, 1944, pp. iff., figs. iff. </p><p>14. B.C.H., 19, 1895, p. 282, figs. 13-16; Kunze, I.e., p. 150; F. W . v. Bissing, Anteil d. gypt. Kunst (1912), pp. 59.68; Pendlebury, Aegyptiaca, p. 78.157^ </p><p>15. These figures are now comprehensively discussed by S. Benton, B.S.A., X X X V , 1934/5, PP 74, pis. i8ff. </p><p>16. See notes 12 and 14, and R. M. Dawkins, The Sanctuary of Ar-temis Orthia at Sparta, (1929), pp. 196ft., pis. 76ft:; H. F. DeCou, The Ar give Heraeum, II, (1905), pp. 232ft., pis. 70ft. ; Payne, Per-achora I, pp. 32t. i25f., pi. 37. </p><p>17. Terracottas: Kunze, I.e., p. 155, Beil, 42d.; Hampe, I.e., p. 36f.; Jenkins, B.S.A. XXXII , pp. 67^, and Perachora, I, pp. ioiff., pis. 876?. </p><p>Brought to you by | New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst LibraryAuthenticated</p><p>Download Date | 10/18/14 3:21 PM</p></li><li><p>IN ARCHAIC SCULPTURE, NOTES 289 Excellent remarks in P. Knoblauch's thesis, Studien zur ar chais eh-griech. Tonbildner et (1937), pp. i8ff. 1148. </p><p>18. Vases with reliefs from Crete: L. Pernier, Awn. Atene, I, 1914, pp. 64ff. ; Sp. Marinatos, A.A., 1933, pp. 3i i f . , fig. 23; from Boeoda: Hampe, I.e., pp. 56ft., pi. 36ft.; from Rhodes: e.g. Ann. Atene, 6/7, 1923/4, pp. 3i2ff. ; Kunze, Kret. Bronzereliefs, pl. 54. Cf. in general Knoblauch, I.e. Very few of all such vases go back to sub-Geometric, none to Late Geometric. </p><p>19. D. Hogarth, B.S.A. VI, pp. io6ff. ; Maraghiannis, Antiquits critoises, I, pis. 29f., 42; Karo, Archiv f . Religionsvss., 1905, pp. 62ff. ; Kunze, I.e., p. 42. </p><p>20. A.A., 1930, p. 151, fig. 27; Hampe, I.e., p. 34, pi. 30. </p><p>21. A. Evans, J.H.S. XXXII , 1912, pp. 274. and Palace of Minos, III, p. 133; M. Nilsson, The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion (1927), pp. 44. 322 ; The Mycenaean Origin of Greek Mythology ( 1932) ; Homer and Mycenae (1933), pp. 248IE.; A. Persson, The Royal Tombs of Dendra (1931), pp. 65. i9ifE., and The Religion of Greece in Prehistoric Times (1942), pp. 125 ft.; Hampe, I.e., pp. 67$., has shown that Persson was mistaken when he recognized the myths of Europa and Bellerophon on two glass pastes from Dendra. With all due respect for the authorities just quoted, I still maintain that there is no certain illustration of a Greek myth on any genuine Minoan or Mycenaean work. Naturally I am not prepared to deny that the roots of Hellenic mythology may reach back far beyond the poetic and ar-chaeological evidence available to us. </p><p>22. An up-to-date list of such illustrations by Hampe, I.e., pp. 8off., with an able discussion of the whole problem, p. 748. </p><p>23. On lions in Greece see Herodotus VII, 125 ; Steier in R.E., XIII , p. 970. Gold diadems: Furtwaengler, Arch...</p></li></ul>