greek&latin roots

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ARootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples

ab-,a-,abs-awayLatinab"away"abnormal,abrasion, absent, abstain, abstract, aversion

ac-sharp or pointedLatinacereacupuncture

acerb-sharp, bitter, sourLatinacerbusacerbic, exacerbate

acid-sour or acidLatinacidusacidosis

acr-bitter, pungent, sharp, sourLatinacer,acrisacrid, acrimony

acu-sharpLatinacutus, past participle ofacuere"to sharpen", fromacus"needle"acupuncture, acute,acutifoliate

acr(o)-height, summit, tipGreek(kros) "high", "extreme"acrobatics,acromegaly,acronym,acrophobia,

ad-,a-,ac-,af-,ag-,al-,ap-,ar-,as-,at-movement to or toward; in addition toLatinad"to", "toward"accept,adapt,affect,approximate,ascend

adip-fatLatinadeps,adipis"fat"adipose

aer-,aero-air, atmosphereGreek(aer) "air"aeronautics, aerosol

aesthet-feeling, sensationGreekaisthtikos"of sense perception" from(aisthanesthai) "to perceive"aesthetics,anaesthetic

agri-,-egri-fieldLatinager,agris"field, country"agriculture, peregrine

agro-fieldGreek(agros) "field"agronomy

alb-dullwhiteLatinalbusalbedo,albino,albumen

am-,amat-,amor-love, lovedLatinamor"love" fromamre"to love"amateur, amorous

ambi-both, on both sidesLatinambi"on both sides"ambidexterity,ambivalent

amic-,-imic-friendLatinamicusamicable, inimical

amphi-around, about, both, on both sides of, both kindsGreek(amphi) "on both sides"amphibian,amphibolic

ampl-ample, abundant, bountifulLatinamplusamplification

an-,a-not, withoutGreekGreek-/-"not"anhydrous, atypical

ana-,an-again, against, back, upGreek (ana) "again", "against"anabaptist,anaphylaxis,anion,anode

andro-male, masculineGreekandrosandrogen,android

anemo-windGreekanemosanemometer

anima-breathLatinanima"breath"animal,animation

ann-,-enn-year, yearlyLatinannus"year"anniversary,annual,biannual,millennium

ant-,anti-against, opposed to, preventiveGreekanti"against"antagonist,antibiotic,antipodes

ante-,anti-before, in front of, prior toLatinante"before", "against"antebellum,antediluvian, anticipate,antiquarian

anth-flowerGreekanthos"flower"anther,anthology

anthrop-humanGreek(anthropos) "man"anthropology,anthropomorphic

apo-away from, separate, at the farthest pointGreek(apo) "from, away, un-, quite"apocrine,apogee,apostasy

aqu-waterLatinaquaaquamarine,aquarium,aqueduct,aquifer

ar-plow, tillLatinrrearable

ar-be dryLatinrre"be dry or parched"arid

arche-, archi-rulerGreek(arch) "rule" (in compounds: -, -)archangel,archetype

archaeo-,archeo-ancientGreekarkhaios"ancient" fromarkh"beginning"archaeologyor archeology, archaic

arct-Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold; used as the scientific name of some bear species, e.g.Ursus arctos horribilisGreekarktos"bear"Arctic Ocean

argent-silverLatinargentumargent,Argentina

arist-excellenceGreek,aret,aristosaristocracy

arthr-jointGreek(arthron)arthritis,arthropod

astr-star, star-shapedGreek(astron) "star"asterisk,astrology,astronomy,disaster

athl-prizeGreek(athlos) "contest, feat"athlete,pentathlon

aud(i)-hearing, listening, soundLatinaudire"to hear"audible,auditorium, auditory

aug-,auct-grow, increaseLatinaugre,auctus"to increase"augend, augmentation

aur-relating to gold, or gold-coloredLatinaurum"gold"aureate,aureole

auri-relating to the earLatinauris"ear"auricle

aut-,auto-self; directed from withinGreek(autos) "self", "same"autograph,automobile, autonomy

avi-birdLatinavisaviary, aviation

axi-axisLatinaxisaxisymmetry

axio-meritGreek(axios) "worth"axiology

[edit]BRootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples

bac-rod-shapedLatinfrombaculum"rod"bacilla,bacteria

baro-weight,pressureGreek (baros)barograph,barometer, baroreceptor

basi-at the bottomGreekfrom ,I walk, march, "step"basic, basis

bathy-,batho-deep, depthGreek(baths,baths)batholith,bathyscaphe

be-,beat-blessLatinbeare,beatusbeatification

bell(i)-warLatinbellum,belliantebellum, bellicose,belligerent

ben-good, wellLatinbene(adverb)benefit,benignity

bi-twoLatinbis, "twice";bini, "in twos"binary,binoculars,bigamy,biscotti

bib-drinkLatinbibere,bibitusimbibe

bibl-bookGreek (biblon) "book"bible,bibliography

bi(o)-lifeGreek (bos) "life"biography,biology, biologist, biosphere, bioluminescent

blenn(o)-slimeGreek (blennos)blennophobia,blennosperma

blast-germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleusGreek(blastain), "I put forth shoots"blastula,fibroblast,osteoblast, sideroblast

bon(i)-goodLatinbonusbonify, bonitary

bor-northGreek / Latin (boreas)Greek(borras) "the north wind"borealis

botan-plantGreek, (botan,botanon)botany

bov-cow,oxLatinbos,bovisbovine

brachi(o)-armGreek (brakhn)brachial artery,brachiosaurus

brachy-shortGreek(brakhs,brakhs)brachydactyly

brady-slowGreek(brads,brads)bradycardia

branchi-gillGreek (brgkhion,brnkhion)branchiopod,nudibranch

brev(i)-brief, short (time)Latinbrevis,breviareabbreviation, brevity

briz-nod, slumberGreek (briz)

brom-oatsGreek, (brmos,brme) "oats"Bromus ramosus

brom-stenchGreek (brmos) "stench, clangor"bromide

bronch-windpipeGreek (brgkhos, brnkhos)bronchitis, bronchus, bronchiole

bront-thunderGreek (bront)Brontosaurus

bucc-cheek,mouth, cavityLatinbuccabuccal,buccinator muscle

bulb-bulbousLatinbulbusbulbous, bulbule

bull-bubble,flaskLatinbulla, "bubble"ebullient,ebullism

burs-pouch,purseLatinbursabursa,bursar,bursary,disburse

[edit]CRootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples

cac(o)-badGreek(kakos)cacophony

cad-,-cid-,cas-fallLatincadere,casusaccident,cadence,case

caed-,-cid-,caes-,-cis-cutLatincaedere,caesuscaesura,incisor

calc-stoneLatin and Greekfrom Latincalx"lime", and from Greek (khalix) "pebble" "limestone"calcite,calcium,calculus

calli-beautifulGreekfrom Greek kallos"beauty"calligraphy

calor-heatLatincalor"heat"calorie

calyp-coverGreek (kaluptein)apocalypse

camer-vaultLatincamerabicameral,camera

camp-fieldLatincampus"field", "level ground"champion,campaign

can-dogLatincaniscanine,Canis Major

can-,-cin-,cant-singLatincanerecantata,canto, cantor

cand-glowing, iridescentLatincandere"to be white or glisten"candela, candid, candle, candor,incandescent, incendiary, incense

cap-,-cip-,capt-,-cept-hold, takeLatincapere,captus"take or hold" (vowel changes fromatoiin compounds)capture, captive, conception, recipient

capit-,-cipit-headLatincaput,capitis"head"capital,decapitation,precipitation

capr-goatLatincaper,capriCapricorn, caprine

caps-box, caseLatincapsacapsule

carbo-coalLatincarbo,carboniscarbon

carcer-jailLatincarcer,carcerareincarceration

carcin-cancer (disease)Latin from GreekLatin from Greek (karkinos) "crab"carcinogenic,carcinoma

cardi(o)-relating to the heartGreekkardia"heart"cardiograph,cardiology

cardin-hingeLatincardo,cardiniscardinal

carn-fleshLatincaro,carniscarnal, carnival,carnivore

carp-relating to fruitGreek (karpos) "fruit"carpology

carp-relating to the wristGreek (karpos) "wrist"carpal,carpal tunnel syndrome

cast-pureLatinfrom Latincastus"chaste"caste,castigate,castrate

cata-,cat-downGreekfrom Greek (kat) "down"catabolic,catalyst, catastrophe,catatonia,cathode,cation

caten-chainLatincatenacatenary,concatenation

cathar-pureGreek (katharos)catharsis

caud-tailLatincaudacaudal

caus-,-cus-cause or motiveLatincausacausative

cav-hollowLatincavus"hollow"cave, cavity, excavation

ced-,cess-goLatincedere,cessusprocession, recede, secede

celer-quickLatinceler,celerareacceleration, celerity

cen(o)-newGreek (kainos)Cenozoic

cen(o)-emptyGreek (kenos)cenotaph

cens-Latincensere"to estimate"census

cent-hundredLatincentumcent,centennial,centurion

centen-hundred eachLatincentenicentenary

centesim-hundredthLatincentesimuscentesimal, centesimation

centr-centerGreek (kntron) "needle", "spur"eccentric

cephal-headGreek (kephale)cephalic,cephalopod,encephalogram

ceram-clayGreek (keramos)ceramic

cerat-hornGreek, (keras,keratos) "horn"keratin

cern-siftLatincernerediscern, secern

cervic-relating to the neck, relating to thecervixLatincervix,cervicis"neck"cervix, cervical

ceter-otherLatinceteruset cetera

chir-of the hand or handsGreek (kheir) "hand"chiral,chiropractic,chiroptera

chelon-relating to aturtleGreek(khelne) "tortoise"chelonia

chlor-greenGreek(khlros) "green"chlorine,chlorophyll,chloroplast

chore-relating todanceGreekkhoreia"dancing in unison" fromkhoros"chorus"choreography

chord-cordLatin and Greekchorda"rope" from(chord)chordata

chrom-colorGreek(chrma) "color"chromium,chromosome, monochrome

chron-timeGreek(chronos)chronic,chronology,chronometer

chrys-goldGreek(khrusos) "gold"chrysolite

cili-eyelashLatinciliumcilia, supercilious

cine-motionGreek (kine)cinema

ciner-ashLatincinis,cinerisincineration

cing-,cinct-girdLatincingere,cinctussuccinct

circ-circleLatincircuscircus

circum-aroundLatincircumcircumcise,circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate

cirr-orangeGreek(kirros)cirrhosis

cirr-curl,tentacleLatincirruscirrus

civ-citizenLatinciviscivility

clad-branchGreek(klados)clade

clar-clearLatincla