harvestplus: progress to date andfuture challenges

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HarvestPlus c/o IFPRI 2033 K Street, NW • Washington, DC 20006- 1002 USA Tel: 202-862-5600 • Fax: 202-467-4439 [email protected]www.HarvestPlus.org HarvestPlus: Progress To Date and Future Challenges Howarth Bouis

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Howarth Bouis presented at ACIAR 8 June 2012

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  • 1. HarvestPlus:Progress To Date andFuture Challenges Howarth BouisHarvestPlus c/o IFPRI2033 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20006-1002 USATel: 202-862-5600 Fax: [email protected] www.HarvestPlus.org

2. Hidden Hunger2 billion+ affected Photo: C. Hotz 3. % Changes in Cereal & Pulse Production & in Population Between 1965 & 1999 CerealsPulses Population250200150100 500 DevelopingDeveloping DevelopingBangladeshBangladeshIndiaIndiaWorld PakistanPakistan 4. Share of Energy Source & Food Budget in Rural BangladeshFish and MeatNon-StapleplantsEnergy Source Food Budget Staple foods 5. 50% Increase in All Food PricesShare of Total Expenditures Before After StaplesAnimalStaples Non-Food Non-Food 6. Biofortification-breeding foodcrops that are more nutritious Photo: D. Marchand 7. Photo: ICRISATCost-effective: central one time investment 8. Copenhagen ConsensusTOP FIVE SOLUTIONSCHALLENGE1 Micronutrient supplements for Malnutritionchildren (vitamin A and zinc)2 The Doha development agenda Trade3 Micronutrient fortification Malnutrition(iron and salt iodization)4 Expanded immunizationDiseasescoverage for children5 Biofortification Malnutrition 9. 75% of the poor 25% 10. Supplementation CommercialFortificationDietaryDiversityBiofortification 11. #1 Breeding must increase nutrientto levels that improve nutritionPhoto: Wolfgang Pfeiffer 12. Progress in Breeding I Genetic variation sufficient forconventional breeding No tradeoff between yield andmineral/vitamin content of seed Low-cost, high throughputmethods to quickly screenpromising lines have beenPhoto: CIMMYTdiscovered -- XRFPhoto: R.A. StevensPhoto: CIMMYT 13. Progress in Breeding IIGenes identified/MAS implemented Invested tostrengthen NARScapacity Biofortified lineshave been submittedto Varietal ReleaseCommitteesPhoto :IRRI 14. #2 Will extra nutrients be bioavailable atsufficient levels to improve micronutrientstatus? 15. Retinol Equivalency of provitamin A richfoods: human studies12:1 assumed indefining Target Levels Cassava 16. Photos: Neil Palmer (CIAT)#3 Farmers must adopt crops and consumers must buy & eat these. 17. One Crop Released... 24,000 Households reached2007-092 Up to 68% of project HHs adopted OSP. Up to 47% increase in share of OSP in total sweet potato area.Orange SweetPotato (OSP)Up to a 100% increase in vitamin A intakes for infants, children andVitamin Awomen.MozambiqueUganda 18. Impact on vitamin A intakes 19. Crops for Africa & Release Dates 2011220122012CassavaBeansMaizeVitamin AIron (Zinc)Vitamin ANigeriaRwanda ZambiaDR Congo DR CongoCrops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want. 20. Crops for Asia & Release Dates 2012220132 20132Pearl MilletRiceWheatIron (Zinc) ZincZincIndia BangladeshIndiaIndia PakistanCrops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want. 21. Agriculture Minister presents vitamin Agari and bread to Nigerians 22. Delivery: New roles for HarvestPlus staff 23. Harvest of Orange Maize for Nutrition Efficacy Trial 24. Past History Visits to nine Centers in 1993 Inception meeting, 1994 CGIAR Micronutrients Project (1995-2002) DANIDA funding IRRI conference 1999 ADB project for rice (2000-2002) Fast-tracked Challenge Program 2002 25. Micronutrient Technical Assistance Target: mostly plant breeders and nutritionists (+ theirlabs) Developing protocols for harvesting crops and sample preparation for analysis In-country workshops (training) Identifying sources of contamination in labs and equipment Troubleshooting problems Identifying new ways to analyse for Fe, Zn and carotenoids Rapid screening techniques to get the job done quickly and atminimal cost XRF for Fe and Zn; ATR FT-IR for carotenoids Providing nutrient analysis to a large host of HarvestPlus collaboratorsBiological SciencesFlinders University 26. Capacity Building Building up the capacity for labs to do their own analysis Rolled out 12 XRF units around the world in the past 1.5 years Providing on-going support (through visits, electronic correspondence, proficiency studies) Setting up phytate analysis at ICDDR,B in Bangladesh Molecular marker development in wheat Association Mapping Panel 330 genotypes; >90K SNP markers; grown in Mexico and India (target country) Will use as a training panel for genomic selection Also providing analytical and physiological support 27. Biofortified rice to prevent iron deficiency Rice grain is usually milled to remove the oily outer layers that causegrain to go rancid polished rice. Unfortunately, most iron and other keymicronutrients are also removed. A problem for all of the major cereals. By increasing uptake of iron from soil and the solubility of iron in planttissues, we have generated GM rice lines that have 4-fold more iron inpolished rice and meet our target concentration of 14 ppm iron. CThe increased iron in polished rice (A) ispositively correlated with nicotianaminecontent (B). Recent work at the AustralianSynchrotron shows that the increased iron(C, in green) accumulates in the outerendosperm region of the grain. 28. Food Systems R&DGraham Lyons et al Agronomic biofortification is feasible for Se (soil orfoliar), Zn (foliar) & I (soil, for leafy vegs, pasture) Biofortified Se in wheat is heat-resistant and highlybioavailable Nutrition education, utilisation of local food cropdiversity, village-level crop trials and introductionof improved genotypes improve micronutrientdelivery in deficient populations Current food system programs in Pacific, N Austand Indonesia aimed at improving human health African studies planned: SeZn+NPKS fertiliser inMalawi; nutritional supplement v HIV disease Slide 28 29. Popular Beauregard OSP introduced to Solomon Islands by ACIAR & HarvestPlus Slide 29 30. Solomon Islands women admiring ACIAR/HarvestPluslocal nutritious food posters at a clinic in Malaita Slide 30 31. Challenges for Phase 3 (2014-18)Scale up Delivery in Target Countries 10-12 countries Approx. $2 million per country-crop New releases from breeding pipeline Measure impact 32. Phase I Phase IIPhase III2018 >2004 - 20082009 - 2013 2014 - 2018Discovery/ResearchDiscovery/ResearchCrop Development Development Crop Delivery Establish new Institutionalizepartnerships and& delivery modalitiesIntegrate Mass-scale deliveryScientific proof of concept Advocacy+ fundraising 33. Challenges for Phase 3 (2014-18)Make Biofortification Sustainable Core breeding activity at ag. researchcenters Work with International NGOs Approval from WHO, SUN etc UN Agencies, e.g. World Food Program Funding from Health donors Spinoff institution Fund, technical 34. Why have solutions tomalnutrition been soughtoutside of agriculture?Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT) 35. In Conclusion Such intimately related subjects asagriculture, food, nutrition and health havebecome split up into innumerable rigid andself-contained little units, each in the hands ofsome group of specialists. The experts, soonfind themselveslearning more and more aboutless and lessThe remedy is to look at thewhole field covered by crop production, animalhusbandry, food, nutrition, and health as onerelated subject andto realizethat thebirthright of every crop, every animal, andevery human being is health." 36. Sir Albert Howard, 1873-1947 The Soil and Health, 1945