health promotion: muslim culture

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This educational presentation reviews the Muslim Culture and identifies smoking tobacco as a modifiable risk factor

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  • 1. Muslim-American Culture and Tobacco Use By Darlene Liberti, RN (Assalaamu Alaykum)
  • 2. Introduction
    • Muslims considered Arab or Middle Eastern
    • Emigrate from many Arabic-speaking countries
    • Muslims believe in Islam (Ahmed, 2004)
    • Diverse Arab heritage
    • Largest number reside in northeast US
    • 40% have bachelors degree or higher
    • (De la Cruz & Brittingham, 2003).
  • 3. Cultural Considerations
    • Speak Arabic at home, understand English
    • Men dominate
    • Same sex provider
    • Nurses are helpers not professionals
    • Ramadan: a time for fasting
    • Pray 5 times per day
    • (Amhad, 2004)
  • 4. Heritage
    • Marriage is sacred
    • Strong family bonds
    • Many do not believe in Western medicine
    • Divine intervention (In Sha Allah)
    • Younger generation care for older generation
    • Left hand is unclean
    • (Amhad, 2004)
  • 5. Three Domains of Muslim Culture
    • Spirituality
    High Risk Behaviors Family Roles and Organization (Yosef 2008)
  • 6. Spirituality
    • Muslims believe in one God, Allah
    • Beliefs are written in the Koran
    • Daily practices include prayer
    • Human body is to be cherished
    • Ramadan strengthens relationship with God
    • Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime
    • (Yosef 2008)
  • 7. Muslim Spirituality
    • 5 Pillars of Islam include:
      • The profession of faith
      • Daily prayers
      • Fasting during Ramadan
      • Giving alms to the poor, Zakat
      • A pilgrimage to Mecca once a lifetime
      • (Yosef, 2001)
  • 8. Family Roles and Organization
    • Patriarchal, man is head of household
    • Extension of families with marriage bonds
    • Men are responsible for financial support of family
    • Women are equal; role is to raise children
    • Women are not discouraged from working
    • (Hodge, 2005)
  • 9. High Risk Behaviors
    • High rate of smoking
    • Overeating and lack of exercise
    • Not obtaining healthcare
    • Little data on HIV/AIDS; related to modesty
    • (Hodge, 2005)
  • 10. Three Health Problems Identified in the Muslim Population
    • Tobacco use
    • Diabetes
    • Less frequent female health screening
    • (Jaber, Brown, Hammad, Zhu & Herman, 2003)
  • 11. Tobacco Use
    • Cardiovascular risk factors of Arab Americans
    • Study particularly looked at smoking history
    • Results showed higher smoking rate
    • Results showed lower rate of quitting smoking
    • (Weglicki, Templin, Rice, Jamil & Hammad, 2008)
  • 12. Water-Pipe Use
    • Also called hookah, narghile, sheesha
    • Popular in Middle East and North Africa
    • 100 million daily users
    • Smoking promotes feeling of relaxation
    • Promotes conservation
    • Social interaction
    • (Baker & Rice, 2008)
  • 13. Epidemiological Data on Global Smoking
    • 4 million tobacco related deaths per year and will double by 2020.
    • Every 8 seconds, someone dies from tobacco use
    • Smoking has increased in most developing nations
    • Smoking has decreased in U.S. the last three decades
    • Every minute 10 million cigarettes are sold
    • (CDC, 2008)
  • 14. Epidemiological Data on Global Smoking
    • Highest rate of smoking worldwide: Western Pacific Region
    • 80,000 - 100,000 children start smoking every day
    • Among young teens: 1 in 5 smoke worldwide
    • 50% of adolescents who start smoking go on to smoke as adults
  • 15. Epidemiological Data for Middle- East and Smoking
    • According to WHO in 2000, Yemen is in the top 10 countries worldwide for tobacco use
    • Other Middle Eastern Countries with highest percentage of tobacco consumption among men is as follows: Tunisia (69%), Djibouti (57.5), Iraq and Syria (50%), Jordan (48%) and Lebanon (46%).
    • Highest female tobacco consumption: Lebanon (35%) followed by Jordan (10%)
    • Lowest percentage: Oman (15.5%), United
    • Arab Emirates (18.3%) and Saudi Arabia
    • at (22%) for men
    • (WHO, 2009)
  • 16. Cultural Factors about Smoking in Muslim Society
    • Male dominated society and demonstrates power.
    • Social interaction
    • Stress
    • Traditions such as usage of water-pipes.
    • Water -pipes believed to be less harmful than cigarettes.
    • Saudi Arabia and Oman
    • have banned smoking in
    • public places.
  • 17. Healthy People 2010-2020 Initiatives on Smoking
    • National Health Objectives in order to improve health of society.
    • Tobacco Use is major focus area for health initiative and focus goal for program.
    • Smoking is one of the leading cause of health indicators in United States
    • 23.1% of males and 18.3% of females smoke in United States
  • 18. Consequences of Smoking
    • Cigarette smoking causes many cancers
    • Second hand smoke
    • Risk increases with exposure to cigarette smoke
    • Benefits of smoking cessation
    • Suffering increased with lung cancer
  • 19. Negative Media Ads
    • Advertising geared towards adolescents
    • Marketing aimed at increasing sales
    • $1.06 billion spent on promoting cigarettes
    • Quit Smoking Ads
    • (Sussman, 2001)
  • 20. References
    • Ahmad, N.M. (2004, April). Arab-American culture and healthcare. Retrieved March 28, 2010 from http://www.case.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/Arab-Americans.htm
    • De la Cruz, P., & Brittingham, A. (2003). The Arab population: 2000 census. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. Retrieved March 28, 2010 from https://ask.census.gov/cgi-bin/askcensus.cfg
    • Dobbins, M., DeCorby, K., Manske, S. & Goldblatt, E. Effective practices for school-based tobacco use prevention. Preventive Medicine. 46(4) (2008), p.p.289-297.
    • Glynn, T. J.,& Manley , M.W. (1989). How to kelp your patients stop smoking: A national cancer institute manual for physicians. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda
    • (MD): NIH Publication No. 89-3064,1989.
    • Grossman, M., Coate, D., Lewitt M. & Shakotko A. (1983). Economic and other factors in yout