the expansion of islam and muslim culture lesson 35

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  • Slide 1
  • The Expansion of Islam and Muslim Culture Lesson 35
  • Slide 2
  • The Split Part 1
  • Slide 3
  • From:http://islam.about.com/cs/divisions/f/shia_sunni.htm When the Prophet Muhammad died, Muslims faced the question of who was going to take over the leadership of the Muslim nation.
  • Slide 4
  • Sunni Muslims felt that the new leader should be elected from among those capable of the job. From:http://islam.a bout.com/cs/divisi ons/f/shia_sunni.h tm
  • Slide 5
  • The word "Sunni" in Arabic comes from a word meaning "one who follows the traditions of the Prophet." From:http://islam.about.com/cs/divisions/f/shia_sunni.htm
  • Slide 6
  • This is what was done, and the Prophet Muhammad's close friend and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first leader of the Muslim Empire. of the Islamic nation.
  • Slide 7
  • Abu Bakr was called the Caliph. A Caliph is both a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government.
  • Slide 8
  • Shia Muslims, split with the Sunni because they felt that following the Prophet Muhammad's death the leadership should have stayed within the Prophet's own bloodline beginning with his cousin, Ali. He became the 4 th caliph. Ali
  • Slide 9
  • Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not recognized the authority of elected Muslim leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of Imams which they believe have been appointed by the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself.
  • Slide 10
  • The word "Shia" in Arabic means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical "Shia-t-Ali," or "the Party of Ali."
  • Slide 11
  • The election of Abu Bakr would lead Islam to its first schism. Two groups arguing this matter would emerge. The Sunni and the Shia.
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Explain the difference in beliefs between the Shia and Sunni?
  • Slide 14
  • Islams first Dynasties Part 2
  • Slide 15
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth caliph, fought a series of battles with the governor of Syria, Muawiyah. They decided to split the Islamic Empire. Ali was assassinated however, and Muawiyah took over, beginning the reign of the Umayyads.
  • Slide 16
  • The family known as the Umayyads took control of the Islamic empire after four caliphs. They set up a hereditary system of succession.
  • Slide 17
  • Umayyads also made another important change. The Muslim capital was moved to Damascus, a distant city in the recently conquered province of Syria. This location, away from Mecca, made controlling conquered territories easier.
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • By 750 CE, the rest of North Africa, southern Spain, and central Asia fell under Muslim rule.
  • Slide 20
  • In the year 750 C.E., The Umayyads were overthrown by the Abassids. The Abassids ruthlessly murdered the remaining members of the Umayyad family. Some of the Umayyads who escaped and moved their empire to Spain, while the Abassids moved the capital to Baghdad.
  • Slide 21
  • What happened to the Umayyad Empire?
  • Slide 22
  • Muslim Culture Part 3
  • Slide 23
  • Muslims believe Muhammad a prophet of God (Allah). A prophet is a person who believes that he or she is spoken to by God. A prophet tells others what God has said.
  • Slide 24
  • Muhammad said that the name of God is Allah. He said that people must obey Allah by being kind and fair to each other.
  • Slide 25
  • He also said that all Muslims must perform five duties. These duties are called the Five Pillars of Islam.
  • Slide 26
  • The first duty is to make a statement about ones belief in Islam. This statement should be There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.
  • Slide 27
  • The second duty is to pray five times a day while facing Mecca.
  • Slide 28
  • The third duty is to give money to help the poor.
  • Slide 29
  • The fourth duty is to not eat or drink anything during the daylight hours of one month. This month is the Islamic month called Ramadan.
  • Slide 30
  • The fifth duty is to make at least one pilgrimage, or journey, if you can afford to do so, called the hajj, to Mecca.
  • Slide 31
  • In your notes, draw the five pillars of Islam?
  • Slide 32
  • The teachings of Muhammad were written down by his followers in a book called the Koran (Quran). This was originally written in Arabic.
  • Slide 33
  • Muslims in all parts of the world read and study the Koran. The Koran tells a person how to be a good Muslim.
  • Slide 34
  • The traditional law for the Muslims is the Sharia.
  • Slide 35
  • What is the Sharia?
  • Slide 36
  • The Muslim Empire also became a center of learning. The Abassid dynasty started many schools in cities such as Baghdad.
  • Slide 37
  • Muslims learned much about science, math, and art from the people in the conquered lands. Muslims also spread new ideas across the empire.
  • Slide 38
  • The Muslim scholar, Al-Khwarizmi, used Hindu numbers to create a new type of math called Algebra. The word Algebra derives from the Arabic word AlJabar.
  • Slide 39
  • The word AlJabar means "bringing together separate parts".
  • Slide 40
  • astrolabe They studied the stars, the sun, and the moon.
  • Slide 41
  • The Muslim Empire became a center of culture during the Middle Ages. Many Muslims wrote poems and stories. They made beautiful works of art. The Muslims built great cities and beautiful buildings.
  • Slide 42
  • Some of these great buildings were mosques. A mosque is a place where Muslims worship Allah.
  • Slide 43
  • One of the most famous mosques is the Al-Aqsa Mosque, also known as the Dome of the Rock in the city of Jerusalem.
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • In your notes, do your best to draw a mosque?