helping students learn to learn

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  • 1. Kaatje van der Hoeven Kraft Mesa Community College David McConnell North Carolina State University Helping students learn how to learn 1 This material is based on work supported by NSF DUE Award #: 1022980 & 1022917 Any opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF

2. Session Learning Goals After the session, participants will be able to . . . Identify factors that influence student learning in community college classrooms Describe the steps in self-regulation cycle and related strategies to help students learn Identify appropriate interventions that can be used in and out of classes to support student learning how to learn 2 3. Three instructors taught a University science course during the same semester. Prof. A emphasized concepts, careful, logical; Prof. B used demonstrations and took extra preparation time; Prof. C had a problem solving emphasis. All used the same textbook and covered the same chapters. All professors received similar evaluations. Pre-test scores for each class were almost identical. Predict which professors class showed the greatest gain in post-test score A. A B. B C. C D. No difference Halloun, I.H. and D. Hestenes, American Journal of Physics, 1985. 53(11): p. 1043-1055. What the student does is often more important than what the professor does for learning 3 4. Factors that influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (effort, interest, performance) Student self- regulation of learning (studying and/or learning behaviors) Student motivations (things that drive learning) 1 adapted from Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2007). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in the College Classroom. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 731-810). Dordrecht: Springer. 4 5. Characteristics of Community College Students 1: http://nces.ed.gov/datalab/tableslibrary/viewtable.aspx?tableid=8285 2: http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Documents/factsheet2011.pdf 3: Tsapogas, J. (2004). The Role of Community Colleges in the education of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation: NSF 04-315) Our students are more diverse than 4 year colleges 1 Our students may lack some of the skills and require more attention to be successful1 Our students may lack the knowledge of how to navigate the system 2 Our students are many of the future K-12 teachers in our community3 5 6. Students who were identified as coming from a disadvantaged background had a greater risk for failure in introductory science courses. Haak, D. C., HillerisLambers, J., Pitre, E., & Freeman, S. (2011). Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science, 332(6), 1213-1216. Student Achievement 6 7. Haak, D. C., HillerisLambers, J., Pitre, E., & Freeman, S. (2011). Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science, 332(6), 1213-1216. Students in a more structured course (students received consistent feedback and were actively engaged in learning) overcame much of the achievement gap. How we construct and design our courses matters Student Achievement 7 Traditional Frequent opportunities for feedback typical university student disadvantaged students 8. 8 Just because you build it doesnt mean theyll drink the kool-aid 9. Factors that influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (effort, interest, performance) Student self- regulation of learning (studying and/or learning behaviors, e.g., planning, monitoring, reflection) Student motivations (things that drive learning, e.g., task value, self-efficacy) 2 adapted from Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2007). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in the College Classroom. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 731-810). Dordrecht: Springer. 9 10. 10 3. Metacognitive strategies - use of planning, monitoring, and regulation of learning and the ability to continue studying despite difficulties or distractions and how to apply the appropriate strategies for a given problem or task. 2. Expectancy - a students belief that their efforts will result in positive gains in learning and their appraisal of their ability to master tasks. 1. Value - perception that class activities/content will help achieve a personal goal and that the task is important and useful. Aspects of Motivation 11. Factors that influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (effort, interest, performance) Student self- regulation of learning (studying and/or learning behaviors, e.g., planning, monitoring, reflection) Student motivations (things that drive learning, e.g., task value, self-efficacy) 3 adapted from Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2007). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in the College Classroom. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 731-810). Dordrecht: Springer. 11 12. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning: Learning how to learn Self-regulation cycle: How can we structure courses to provide opportunities for students to engage in these steps? Role of Instructor vs. role of student? 12 Self-regulation cycle 13. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 13 Engage students in thinking about what they know and need to do. Target goal setting (clear goals, moderate difficulty) Initial situational and topical interest Perceptions of task (relevance, utility), prior knowledge Ease of learning judgment Self-regulation cycle 14. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 14 Students monitor their learning process to stay engaged in a task Activation of situational or topical interest Anxiety coping strategies Metacognitive judgments of learning relative to goals Study, effort monitoring Self-regulation cycle 15. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 15 When a student identifies a problem they modify their behavior Application of extrinsic or intrinsic reward strategies Rehearsal, elaboration or organization strategies Encouragement of persistence Regulation of study environment Peer help strategies Self-regulation cycle 16. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 16 When students can reflect on what they learned or can improve upon next time, it helps to restart the cycle Assess goal achievement Success/failure attributions Judgments of efficacy, effort Time/study adjustments Help seeking Self-regulation cycle 17. Importance of Student Reflection Dunning et al., 2003. Current directions in psychological science, v.12 #3, p.83-87 Low scoring students overestimated their own skill level failed to recognize skill in others failed to recognize the degree of their insufficient knowledge recognized their lack of skill, only if they were trained to improve 17 Students completed a task (e.g., logical reasoning test) and estimated how their score would compare with other students. Strongest students underestimated their performance Weakest students overestimated their performance 18. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Actual Score vs. Predicted Score Actual Score Student prediction of their exam performance, Physical Geology Most students within 10 pts of actual score Several low scoring students unable to predict their performance. Their explanations: Poor preparation Poor study habits Poor assessment of understanding Active learning class with multiple opportunities for le