Helping Students Learn to Learn

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<ul><li> 1. Kaatje van der Hoeven Kraft Mesa Community College David McConnell North Carolina State University Helping students learn how to learn 1 This material is based on work supported by NSF DUE Award #: 1022980 &amp; 1022917 Any opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF </li></ul><p> 2. Session Learning Goals After the session, participants will be able to . . . Identify factors that influence student learning in community college classrooms Describe the steps in self-regulation cycle and related strategies to help students learn Identify appropriate interventions that can be used in and out of classes to support student learning how to learn 2 3. Three instructors taught a University science course during the same semester. Prof. A emphasized concepts, careful, logical; Prof. B used demonstrations and took extra preparation time; Prof. C had a problem solving emphasis. All used the same textbook and covered the same chapters. All professors received similar evaluations. Pre-test scores for each class were almost identical. Predict which professors class showed the greatest gain in post-test score A. A B. B C. C D. No difference Halloun, I.H. and D. Hestenes, American Journal of Physics, 1985. 53(11): p. 1043-1055. What the student does is often more important than what the professor does for learning 3 4. Factors that influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (effort, interest, performance) Student self- regulation of learning (studying and/or learning behaviors) Student motivations (things that drive learning) 1 adapted from Pintrich, P. R., &amp; Zusho, A. (2007). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in the College Classroom. In R. P. Perry &amp; J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 731-810). Dordrecht: Springer. 4 5. Characteristics of Community College Students 1: http://nces.ed.gov/datalab/tableslibrary/viewtable.aspx?tableid=8285 2: http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Documents/factsheet2011.pdf 3: Tsapogas, J. (2004). The Role of Community Colleges in the education of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation: NSF 04-315) Our students are more diverse than 4 year colleges 1 Our students may lack some of the skills and require more attention to be successful1 Our students may lack the knowledge of how to navigate the system 2 Our students are many of the future K-12 teachers in our community3 5 6. Students who were identified as coming from a disadvantaged background had a greater risk for failure in introductory science courses. Haak, D. C., HillerisLambers, J., Pitre, E., &amp; Freeman, S. (2011). Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science, 332(6), 1213-1216. Student Achievement 6 7. Haak, D. C., HillerisLambers, J., Pitre, E., &amp; Freeman, S. (2011). Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science, 332(6), 1213-1216. Students in a more structured course (students received consistent feedback and were actively engaged in learning) overcame much of the achievement gap. How we construct and design our courses matters Student Achievement 7 Traditional Frequent opportunities for feedback typical university student disadvantaged students 8. 8 Just because you build it doesnt mean theyll drink the kool-aid 9. Factors that influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (effort, interest, performance) Student self- regulation of learning (studying and/or learning behaviors, e.g., planning, monitoring, reflection) Student motivations (things that drive learning, e.g., task value, self-efficacy) 2 adapted from Pintrich, P. R., &amp; Zusho, A. (2007). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in the College Classroom. In R. P. Perry &amp; J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 731-810). Dordrecht: Springer. 9 10. 10 3. Metacognitive strategies - use of planning, monitoring, and regulation of learning and the ability to continue studying despite difficulties or distractions and how to apply the appropriate strategies for a given problem or task. 2. Expectancy - a students belief that their efforts will result in positive gains in learning and their appraisal of their ability to master tasks. 1. Value - perception that class activities/content will help achieve a personal goal and that the task is important and useful. Aspects of Motivation 11. Factors that influence learning Personal Characteristics of Student (age, gender, academic rank, experience) Course Context (tasks, grading policy, pedagogy, instructional resources) Course Outcomes (effort, interest, performance) Student self- regulation of learning (studying and/or learning behaviors, e.g., planning, monitoring, reflection) Student motivations (things that drive learning, e.g., task value, self-efficacy) 3 adapted from Pintrich, P. R., &amp; Zusho, A. (2007). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in the College Classroom. In R. P. Perry &amp; J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 731-810). Dordrecht: Springer. 11 12. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran &amp; D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning: Learning how to learn Self-regulation cycle: How can we structure courses to provide opportunities for students to engage in these steps? Role of Instructor vs. role of student? 12 Self-regulation cycle 13. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman &amp; D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 13 Engage students in thinking about what they know and need to do. Target goal setting (clear goals, moderate difficulty) Initial situational and topical interest Perceptions of task (relevance, utility), prior knowledge Ease of learning judgment Self-regulation cycle 14. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran &amp; D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 14 Students monitor their learning process to stay engaged in a task Activation of situational or topical interest Anxiety coping strategies Metacognitive judgments of learning relative to goals Study, effort monitoring Self-regulation cycle 15. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran &amp; D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 15 When a student identifies a problem they modify their behavior Application of extrinsic or intrinsic reward strategies Rehearsal, elaboration or organization strategies Encouragement of persistence Regulation of study environment Peer help strategies Self-regulation cycle 16. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran &amp; D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning 16 When students can reflect on what they learned or can improve upon next time, it helps to restart the cycle Assess goal achievement Success/failure attributions Judgments of efficacy, effort Time/study adjustments Help seeking Self-regulation cycle 17. Importance of Student Reflection Dunning et al., 2003. Current directions in psychological science, v.12 #3, p.83-87 Low scoring students overestimated their own skill level failed to recognize skill in others failed to recognize the degree of their insufficient knowledge recognized their lack of skill, only if they were trained to improve 17 Students completed a task (e.g., logical reasoning test) and estimated how their score would compare with other students. Strongest students underestimated their performance Weakest students overestimated their performance 18. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Actual Score vs. Predicted Score Actual Score Student prediction of their exam performance, Physical Geology Most students within 10 pts of actual score Several low scoring students unable to predict their performance. Their explanations: Poor preparation Poor study habits Poor assessment of understanding Active learning class with multiple opportunities for learning assessment through clicker questions, in-class exercises, mastery quizzes and learning journal exercises. 18 Importance of Student Reflection Students that are most likely to struggle in class are the least prepared to recognize their lack of understanding 19. Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of Self-Regulated Learners and academic achievement. An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmeran &amp; D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical Perspectives(2nd ed., pp. 1-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Opportunities to Think about Learning: Learning how to learn Self-regulation cycle: How can we structure courses to provide opportunities for students to engage in these steps? Role of Instructor vs. role of student? 19 Self-regulation cycle 20. Low Effort: Pause + Think/Pair/Share Experimental Group: Three 2-minute pauses per lecture, student discussion of lecture content with peer. Control Group: No pauses for discussion in lecture. Ruhl, Hughes, and Schloss., 1987. Teacher Education and Special Education, v.10 #1, p.14-18 Students completed a free recall exercise after lecture Experimental Group number of facts recalled: 22.97* Control Group number of facts recalled: 16.63 20 Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction 21. Blue Students examined a list of these 22 random items for one minute and tried to remember as many as possible. Gold Students examined a list of these 22 organized items for one minute and tried to remember as many as possible. Does the way we organize information make a difference? Low Effort: Build graphic organizers Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction 22. Using labeled sketches or other graphic organizers (e.g., concept maps) can make it easier to recall related information Concept Map of Earths Structure Chunking of information is similar to expert thought patterns Low Effort: Build graphic organizers 23. Review material for initial study period Put material away and on a blank piece of paper practice retrieval by recalling and writing down as much information as possible. WHAT IS RETRIEVAL PRACTICE? http://animaltheory.blogspot.com/2012/02/labrador-retrievers.html Review material and practice retrieval again Do it the first time during or within a few hours of original lesson Repeat retrieval process at regular intervals prior to exam (e.g., weekly) Low Effort: Retrieval Practice Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction 24. Research on learning shows that retrieval practice is the most effective study method: Students dont know this Read once Read 4 separate times Read, make concept map Read, try retrieval, repeat 24 Low Effort: Retrieval Practice Simple reflection exercises during or following lecture will improve later recall of information. The more practice that students get at retrieval, the more they will recall later in test situations Karpicke, J.D., and Blunt, J.R., 2011, Science Express, January 20, p.1-7. 25. Long-term Memory Remember to repeat NORMAL FORGETTING CURVE 2 tests for Group 1 Day 0 = Initial studying of material The more time that passes before attempting retrieval, the more we forget Thinking or talking about an event immediately after it occurs enhances memory of the event Reviewing material at fixed, spaced intervals enhances memory (after class reflection, online quizzes, recitations, tutorials, study groups, etc.) Roediger &amp; Karpicke, 2006, Perspectives in Psychological Science, v. 1, p.181-210. 26. 26 Moderate Effort: Reading Reflections 27. 27 Moderate Effort: Reading Reflections Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction 28. 1: As part of/after taking an exam, students describe how prepared they feel for the test, how they studied, etc 2: After they receive their exam back, ask them to respond to their initial ideas and what (if anything) theyll change for a future exam. 3: Discuss as a class, and remind them of those key ideas prior to the next exam 28 Moderate Effort: Exam Wrappers Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction 29. Instructor feedback is critical 29 Moderate Effort: Exam Wrappers 30. 30 Moderate Effort: Learning Journals Forethought, Planning, Goal Setting Monitoring, Acting Regulation, Control Reflection, Reaction Students participate in reading reflections AND activities that explicitly tie learning practices to research-based strategies. How do you know when you know something? (How do you know when you have learned something thoroughly?) Think about two classes you have taken in the past. Consider a class that resulted in a lot of new learning, and one where you didnt learn much at all. You may have received the same grade in these classes. Why did you think you lear...</p>