high renaissance slides # 6-10. specific traits / characteristics: location: italy artists are...
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- High Renaissance Slides # 6-10
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- SPECIFIC TRAITS / CHARACTERISTICS: Location: Italy Artists are beginning to be viewed as divinely inspired and MASTERS of their artwork (The Renaissance Man) Still inspired by art and philosophy of Greece and Rome Continued focus on HUMANISM Secular and Religious subject matter are acceptable In Sculpture Slightly more dramatic, emotional content Larger and more ambitious sculptures being completed Proportions sometimes altered to make the illusion realistic at different angles to the viewer CONTRAPPOSTO weight of the body in balance (Greek / Roman influence) Still freestanding and often nude (Greek / Roman influence) In Architecture Larger, more perfected buildings being constructed Continued use of Greek features, Roman features and geometric shapes In Painting ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE landscape in the distance given a bluish, less-intense colour palette to imitate reality SFUMATO smoky, less defined edges of people / objects CHIAROSCURO Figures begin to emerge from darker backgrounds (coming out of the darkness) More widespread use of Oil Paint (rather than just Fresco) Figures painted are appearing more emotionally charged Continued use of LINEAR PERSPECTIVE, but artists not always a slave to it (used in a more flexible approach)
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- High Renaissance Under the rule of several powerful popes, between 1495-1527 AD Rome became the new art capital of Europe. High Renaissance is a short artistic period (20 years) but extremely influencial. These popes lived in great luxury and invited artists from all over Italy to come to Rome to complete large and challenging commissions. Over this period of about twenty years, many great and influential art pieces were created. (ie. The Sistine Chapel) During the High Renaissance, artists gained new respect. They were no longer viewed merely as skilled craftsmen, but rather became viewed as geniuses that created pieces through divine inspiration. Their art works were more expressive than Early Renaissance, they often disregarded the rules of perspective and ratios and let their emotions take over. Many artists are said to have been inspired by divine intervention.
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- SFUMATO Literally means smokiness. This can be seen when the edges of forms look blurred or undefined. ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE This is the blue/violet haze that is used to make the landscape in the distance look far away. It imitates the way we see objects in the distance. CHIAROSCURO Literally means Coming out of the darkness. This is seen in art when a person or object appears to emerge from darker surroundings. It is a contrast of light versus shadow. Art Terms:
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- During the High Renaissance, artists gained new respect. They were no longer viewed merely as skilled craftsmen, but rather became viewed as geniuses that created pieces through divine inspiration. Their art works were more expressive than Early Renaissance, they often disregarded the rules of perspective and ratios and let their emotions take over. Many artists are said to have been inspired by divine intervention. Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti Donato Bramante Raphael Sanzio
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- Slide #6: Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa. (1503-1506 AD) Oil on panel. Probably a portrait of a family friend of Da Vincis, Lisa Gheradini (wife of Francesco del Giocondo) sometimes called La Gioconda Very famous because it was stolen and returned to the Louvre Art Museum in Paris. A bit mysterious because Da Vinci kept the painting all his life. Where do you see sfumato? atmospheric perspective? chiaroscuro?
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- Slide #6: Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa. (1503-1506 AD) Oil on panel. Admired for its revolutionary techniques, contrapposto, sfumato, chiaroscuro and three-quarter pose. Famous for her mysterious smile, the her beauty and the serenity created by the gesture of her hands.
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- Look at Mona Lisas gaze and her archaic smile can you see why people flock to see her?
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- Slide #7 Leonardo da Vinci. The Last Supper. (c.1495-1498 AD) Tempera wall mural. has been deteriorating since its creation (experiment in media) known for its depth, arrangement, and realism used a technique called al secco:
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- al secco is the opposite of fresco al secco is paint applied on dry plaster, the cause of its deterioration.
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- Identify the techniques used? Can you identify what is different?
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- Church had John the Baptist is the greatest prophet of the Old Testament, the angel points to him, Uriels pointing finger emphasizes both the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy and Johns prophetic mission. the painting transforms John: he was the greatest prophet of the Old Testament, but now he is the prophet of the suffering Messiah. However, by substituting the staff with cross for Uriels pointing finger, Johns role is transformed. the second version reinforces our attention on the altar in a way the first does not. Likewise, both paintings show the Madonna stretching a protective hand over her Child. This protecting hand is reminiscent of the baldachin typically found suspended over the altar in older Catholic churches. The canopy or baldachin represents the presence of divine power beneath.
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- Slide #8 Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks (1485) Oil on Panel Technical: oils, sfumato, chiaroscuro, triangular composition Da Vinci painted two versions, one with a pointed gesture, it shows he is the one The Church did not like this pointed hand version because it focused on the prophet John the Baptism instead of Jesus. Madonna stretching a protective hand over her Child, like the baldachin, found in churches represents the presence of divine power beneath.
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- Slide # 9 Michelangelo. David. (1501-1504 AD) Marble. Considered his greatest sculptural achievement. Carved from a single piece of marble. Appears anatomically / proportionally correct only when viewed from many feet below the artist adjusted for this worms eye view perspective. Shows contrapposto. David is a symbol of Florence originally placed outside of their city hall.
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- PERFECT HUMANIST PROPORTIONS: The Tempietto is considered to be perfect according to Renaissance standards because it only uses symmetrical geometric shapes (circles and squares) in its design. What classical features can be seen? Slide #10 Bramante. Tempietto. (1502 AD) Rome.
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- Extra Images
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- Michelangelo. Sistine Chapel Ceiling. (1536-1541 AD) Frescoes. Pope Julius II told Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling (private chapel of the Pope and Cardinals) - the artist insisted that he was a sculptor. The ceiling took 4 years to complete done on his own, using scaffolding. Images are from the Old Testament and non-Christian history that foreshadow the coming of Christ. How does Michelangelo use perspective? trompe loeil?
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- What is another unique feature about Michelangelos painted human figures? What makes his work High Renaissance? In this scene, The Creation of Adam, notice the differences between the image before and the image after the restoration in 1989. Scholars discovered Michelangelo used lots of bright colours in his paintings.
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- Michelangelo Last Judgement
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- Michelangelo. Dome of St. Peters. (1546-1564 AD) Michelangelo was also a well-respected architect. Designed the dome for St. Peters basilica as its reconstruction was being completed. What aspects are classical? What aspects show perfect humanist proportions?
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- Raphael. The School of Athens. (1510-1511 AD) Fresco.
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- This fresco (wall painting) is in the Popes private library. Raphael was inspired by Michelangelos Sistine Chapel ceiling paintings. The image shows various Greek philosophers discussing issues gathered in a place of learning that looks a lot like St. Peters. Many of the figures are famous Renaissance people (eg. Plato is a portrait of Leonardo da Vinci). What other Renaissance features can be seen?
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- Michelangelo. Pieta. (1499-1500 AD) Marble. Carved when he was about 20 years old. Admired for details, volume, and emotion of subject. What is wrong with the proportion in this piece? How does the proportion of the sculpture affect the way the viewer sees the work?
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- The Pieta is protected behind glass inside the right wing of St. Peters Basilica to avoid direct contact with the public.
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