house building project - national museum of ireland .house building project ... was the case for

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    1. Combed rye straw 2. Long wheaten straw3. Alcove for plant, traditionally the buachaill t, or house leek, which has medicinal properties.4. Ships rope made from hemp fibre.

    5. Exposed scollops, or hazel pins, and horizontal hazel rods, or ledgers, on the ridging.6. Thatched chimney 7. Curved wall of double wattle frame filled with insulating materials and covered in daub, lime

    plastered and white washed with lime putty and water.

    8. Reed thatch 9. X Shaped style scollop and rod work on ridging10. 18th century window set in stone wall11. 8 yrs old flax thatch

    Outside 1: Front of House Outside 2: Half Hipped Gable Outside 3: Full Hipped Gable

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    Inside 4: Roof left of door Inside 5: Roof over door Inside 6: Floor right of door

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    House Building ProjectThe Education and Outreach Department of the Museum of Country Lifeaims to draw attention to aspects of the Museums exhibitions, toincrease awareness of traditional materials and skills and to exploretheir relevance today.

    In Summer 2003 we undertook a house building skills project. Skilled craftspeopleworked in the grounds of the museum to demonstrate and explain the variety ofmaterials, tools and techniques that were used at different times in building traditionalhouses in Ireland.

    The resulting structure is biodegradable and was made from the sustainable, managedand renewable natural resources of wood, earth, stone and straw, locally produced, aswas the case for many thousands of years in the vernacular dwellings of our ancestors.

    Tours and workshops to explain the project and demonstrate skills such as wattle weaving,thatching and lime-washing are held at regular intervals or can be arranged for groups.

    For further information contact Reception or the Education and Outreach Department Booking Office

    Telephone 094 90 31751Fax 094 90 31498Email educationtph@museum.ieBooking Office Hours Monday to Friday 10.00am - 2.00pm

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    acknowledgementsList of Building Craftspeople

    Joe Gowran, Niall Miller, Clint Taylor Wattle, Oak Brian Rogers, Brian Simpson, Susanne Bojkovsky ThatchEdward Byrne & Terry McGrogan Irish Traditional Lime Company PlasteringEnda Collins, Tim Roderick, Brian Rogers Stone Walling

    The craftspeople working on this project are affiliated to Muintir na Coille: TheCoppicing Association of Ireland and the Ecological Trades Community (ETC).

    The Ecological Trades Community is concerned with efforts to manage resources in asustainable manner in an atmosphere of fair trade and solidarity. It aims to organize thegathering of ecological traders/service providers for public education and for the crossfertilization of ideas and capacity building within the environmental sector of theeconomy. It aims to strengthen the isolated, marginal and obscure trades and crafts byincreasing confidence through socialization and the strategic skills notion.

    We would like to thank the following for their contribution and assistance to this project.

    The Rogers family, Dromore West StoneWildlife Service, Roscommon Oak & HazelJoyce Brothers, Laghtavary/Ballyvary HazelKen Gill, Clongullogue, Edenderry, Co. Offaly HazelLorna Elms, Kilkelly StoneSligo County Council StoneSligo Loy Association Clay scraws Mayo County Council Grounds and materials

    reading listBooks of Interest in relation to Vernacular Architecture.

    Aalen, F.H.A., Whelan, K. and Stout, M. (1997) Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape,Cork University Press, Cork.

    Evans, Emyr-Estyn, (1957) Irish Folk Ways,Routledge and Keegan Paul Ltd., New York.

    McDonald, Frank, Doyle, Peign and MacConville, Hugh, (1997) Irelands Earthen Houses,A & A Farmar, Dublin.

    N Fhloinn, Bairbre and Denneson, Gabriel. (eds). (1994) Traditional Architecture in Ireland and its Role in Rural Development and Tourism,Environmental Institute, U.C.D. Dublin.

    ODanachair, Caoimhn, Traditional Forms of Dwelling in Ireland, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.Vol 102, part1, 77-96.

    Paria, Sara and Bolton, Jason, (2000) Stone, Brick and Mortar,Wordwell Ltd., Bray, Co. Wicklow.

    Shaffrey, Maura and Pfeiffer, Walter, (1990) Irish Cottages,Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.

    Shaffrey, Patrick and Maura, (1985) Irish Countryside Buildings,OBrien Press, Dublin.

    11. Rafters of oak and ash are half notched and joined at the top for greater stability. These wereusually secured by wooden pins and pegs and driven into the rafters to hold them in place.

    12. Laths of hazel.13. Double crucks of bog oak. Single crucks are more traditional in the west of Ireland. 20. These scraws from the bog which kept out the cold and the damp, acted as a fireproofer

    and also served as a hold for the scollops.21. The use of vertical laths of hazel placed on horizontal bog oak purlins supported by oak, ash

    vertical rafters is typical of Irish thatch roof construction. This type of construction is more archaic.

    22. Sgn, fine rope made from straw, or twisted broken timber fibre have been used to sew theturf scraw onto the bog oak purlins.

    23. Earthen sods from the site kept out the cold and the damp, acted as a fireproofer and alsoserved as a hold for the scollops.

    24. Black leg. Cow or calfs leg left in roof to build cattles immunity to the disease.25. Canvas sheet used as a draftproofer.26. Straw and reed finishing tied and pinned with different materials.27. Earthen floor sometimes finished with powdered sheep dung.

    28. Liscannor flag stone.29. Kilkelly flag stone.30. Cobbled floor.31. Cleft oak flooring.

    thatchBrian Rogers

    The typical thatched roof had a layer of sods(either earthen or turf) on top of rafters and laths,onto which the thatch was fixed. This sod layerserved as a draught-proof, an insulating layer, anda fireproof barrier.

    A variety of materials are used in the process ofthatching such as reed, rye, wheat, oats, barley, sedge,flax, rushes and heather. Large volumes of hazel andwillow, as well as bramble and snowdrops, were usedas scollops (pins) and rods. Sgn (straw) ropes wereused as binders. Approximately three acres of strawand 4000 scollops were needed for a typical roof.

    The principal tools used are still the leggat, beetle orbat, a knife, a sheep shears, and a ladder. Reed pinsserve as temporary tensioning tools. A stitchingneedle and a stoppler and a thruster are also used.

    Very little fossil fuel is used to produce thatch comparedto that expended on other roof types. It can beproduced locally and it is constantly renewable. Assuch, it has many sustainable characteristics.

    Thatch is an intrinsic part of our Vernaculararchitecture but has been in very sharp decline sincethe late 1950s. It faces serious threats. Waterpollution and fertilisers, coupled with a change in theUV rays of sunlight, acid rain, and increased levels ofrain and wind all make thatch less durable. It is alsovery labour intensive and therefore expensive. Theproduction of straw and reed for thatching in Irelandis virtually collapsed and the vast majority of thatchmaterials are now imported.

    These factors combined with the lack of technicalbackup contribute to the current decline of thatch asa significant contributor to the social economy andas a powerful community art form1.

    Thatch has a leading edge contribution to make inmatters such as developing local economies; thediversification of farming practices, the stabilisationof rural communities, ecologically sound orconscientious affordable housing, Identity and thesocial economy. It is a key means of articulating OurHeritage and Culture through an exploration of OurVernacular Architecture.

    Vernacular Architecture is about a sense of place; ofour houses and our built environment coming upout of and reflecting the local environment andcommunity. It is about an architecture that interactswith, and reflects, the local.

    1 This decline is somewhat slowed down by grants paiddirectly to householders

    wattleJoe Gowran

    Wattle is composed of flexible rods interwoven toform a hurdle or frame. It was sometimes covered indaub and used in wall building. These flexible rodsor poles were produced by coppicing, which is therepeated cutting of hardwoods to produce crops ofrods or poles.

    The process of coppicing* hazel to produce rodsfor wall weaving, in a manner that gavereasonable structural strength, was probablydiscovered after periods of slash and burnagriculture on the margins of natural temperateforest across central and western Europe, fromc.10-7,000yrs ago. The techniques involvedremain basically the same today except for thedevelopment of iron cutting tools.

    Hazel was abundant in semi-natural woodlandsthroughout Ireland when the early settlers arrivedfrom Europe. A building culture developed whichrelied heavily on wattle up to Norman times and toa lesser extent up to the late seventeenth century. Amajor expansion in managed grassland reducedhazel resources to rocky outcrop and field margins.Clearance of hazel scrub continues to this dayusually after re-colonisation onto temporarilyabandoned farmland.

    Wattle based constructions were the preferredoption of the native or Wild Irish up to the 1600s.Round houses of approximately 4m in diameter,consisting of a double layer wall with some form ofinsulation (bracken or possibly wool) between thetwo layers, were quick and easy to construct.Therefore dwellings could be built near, or in,hazel, ash and oak woods and clos

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