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INDIA AND THE NATIONALIST CHALLENGE (NOTES)Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
Copyrighted.INDIAN MUTINY, 1857:The Enfield Trifle cartridge was greased with pork and beef.
The Hindu and Muslim sepoys opposed this because the cow was scared to Hindus and pork was haram to the Muslims. Effectively, the Raj had insulted these two religions and thus the sepoys refused to use the weapons.
In Meerut a British commander publicly humiliated Indians.
This triggered the massacre and the rebellion spread many British people died.
Though order was restored, the massacre proved that the Raj could only maintain law and order rather than the Indians.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1858:Transferred all rights that the East India Company had over India, to the British.
Queen Victoria = Empress of India
India is the jewel in the imperial crown because it established trading links between the two.
INDIAN CIVIL SERVICEThe elite higher civil service of the British Empire, in India.
Responsible for administering India
Renowned for its efficiency
Until the 1930s the Indians in the service were very few and were not given high posts by the British they needed to have a British education and also have money; this prevented them from even being considered.
INDIA COUNCILS ACT, 1861:Introduced because the Raj wanted to involve Indian people with the process of law making. Its main provisions were as under:
The Executive Council of the Governor General was extended between 6-12 members.These members were called the Additional Members of the Executive Council, and had no significant power with regards to legislation.
Governor General was empowered to nominate the Additional Members for a period of 2 years.
Half the members must be non-official.
Commander-in-chief would be appointed as an extraordinary member of the Executive Council.
Any bill and regulation passed by the Provincial Council could not become law unless Governors and the Governor General gave their assent for the bill and regulation.
Limited powers of legislation were given to the Presidencies of Bengal and Madras and the Governor General was empowered to create similar councils for the provinces of Frontier and the Punjab.
The biggest drawback of the Act was regarding the selection and the role of the Additional Members. These members did not take part in the discussions and their role was only advisory.
The non-official members of the Executive Council were not interested in attending the meetings of the Council and they were not bound to attend them either. The Indian members were not eligible to oppose any bill and most often the bills were passed in one sitting without discussion.
VICEROY RIPON APPOINTED, 1880:Member of Liberal Democrats in favor of radical reforms
Secretary of State for India previously
Wanted to educate the people politically and educationally this led to his Self-government plan
RIPONS SELF-GOVERNMENT PLAN, 1882:Lord Ripon led a series of enactments in which larger powers of the local self-government were given to the rural and urban bodies and the elective people received some wider rights.
The provincial Government was directed to establish local Boards in each district. The area of each Board was too kept small so that it would serve the interest of the people, accordingly. Local bodies were responsible for their own electorate.The members of the Board were to be non-officials as far as possible and the number of officials could not exceed one-third of the total strength of the members of the Board. The resolution stressed the principle of election.
Plan encouraged Indians to become the members of the local bodies. Ripon ensured the help of the Government to do help the Indians in the efficient discharge of their duties.
Indian councils and boards were granted power to raise money and reduce the financial responsibility of the Raj to India.
Indians could only operate in a local capacity they had no real legislative powers.
This plan was only created because the Raj feared that if the Indians became too out of touch with them, an event similar to the 1987 Mutiny would occur.
INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (INC) ESTABLISHED, 1885:An organization that claimed to represent all aspects of Indian people, but was mainly made up of Hindus.
Though majority of members were Hindu, it included some British members such as Alan Hume suggests unity with the Raj.
Discussed political situation and wanted:More Indians in government and the Indian Civil ServiceMore opportunities for IndiansLess money to be spent on military
VICEROY CURZON APPOINTED, 1898:His aims:
Introduced social reforms e.g. laying 6K miles of tracks for Indian Railway, appointing a Director-General of Archaeology, Created N-W Frontier.
He didnt have much compassion for the Indians and coldly stated:
For as long as we rule India, we are the greatest power in the world
NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE CREATED, 1901It was created as a buffer zone against Afghanistan.
Curzon withdrew British forces from their advanced positions and instead employed tribal forces for the defense of the N-W Frontier.
He concentrated the British forces behind them (in the British territory) to act as a safeguard and support.
BRITISH EXPEDITION TO TIBET, 1903:The Raj had already conquered the southern flank of Tibet.The Raj wanted to establish diplomatic relations with Tibet but the Dalai Lama refused to have dealings with the Raj and sent a messenger to appeal for Russian protection.
Curzon was already worried that Russia would invade India through Tibet.These events reinforced Curzon's belief that the Dalai Lama intended to place Tibet firmly within a sphere of Russian influence and end its neutrality.
Thus the British (briefly) invaded Tibet and took control.
PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1905:Bengal had a total population of 78 million prone to famine and worker unrest. As a whole, it was too difficult to administer. If it were split, the system would be more efficient and manageable.
East Bengal + Assam = 31 million pop. [Muslim dominated]West Bengal + Bihar + Orissa = 54 million pop. [Hindu dominated]REACTIONS:Hindus were angry because of the Muslim dominated province they lost power of the majority.Muslims were elated as they an area that they entirely dominated and had power over.
ALTERNATE THEORYPartition could have been an imperial strategy Bengal was the powerbase of the INC and if it were divided, this would weaken the INC.
EFFECTS:People were angry about Curzons disregard for their opinion and this led to:
Swadeshi [Vandemataram] Movement started:Rioting, disobedience Boycotting of British goods - Imported sugar was boycotted; People burnt the foreign, imported clothes that they had; Picketed the shops selling foreign goodExtremists take action e.g. Bal TilakPeople also resolved to use things made only in IndiaSwadeshi schools and colleges were established and substituted foreign aid and institutional programs.
VICEROY MINTO APPOINTED, 1905:VR Curzon resigned due to a power struggle with Lord Kitchener.
Minto was a moderate and wanted to bring about some concessions he worked with SOS Morley to introduce reforms.
MUSLIM LEAGUE FOUNDED, 1906It was a political organization founded by Aga Khan and intended for the Muslim community.
Muslims wanted a separate electorate because the current one man, one vote policy would mean that hardly any Muslims will be elected the Hindus dominated and therefore they would automatically be elected.
A Muslim electorate, separate to the INC, would ensure that Muslims could voice their opinions and safeguard their interests.
SIMLA DEPUTATION, 1906:The INC was very against the Partition of Bengal because it would remove Muslims from Hindu domination.The Muslims saw this as evidence that if they were to join the INC, they would be treated unfairly.
Thus, the Muslims drew up a plan for a separate electorate and presented it at the Simla Deputation. 70 delegates representing all shades of Muslim opinion, attended.
VR Minto agreed to safeguard the interests of the Muslims. Purpose of the SD:
Muslims were anxious to take their share in the political activities as a separate identity.
The Muslim delegation wanted to get a silent permission from the Government to make a political platform for the representation of Muslims, and also was to take the Government into confidence.
MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS OR INDIA COUNCILS ACT, 1909:Reforms:The number of the members of the Legislative Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 60.
The number of the members of the Provincial Legislatives was also increased. It was fixed as 50 in the provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, and for the rest of the provinces it was 30.
The member of the Legislative Councils, both at the Center and in the provinces, were to be of four categories i.e. ex-officio members (Governor General and the members of their Executive Councils), nominated official members (those nominated by the Governor General and were government officials), nominated non-official members (nominated by the Governor General but were not government officials) and elected members (elected by different categories of Indian people).
Right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims.
At the Center, official members were to form the majority but in provinces non-official members would be in majority.
The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss the budgets, suggest the amendments and even to vote on them; excluding those items that were included as non-vote items. They were also entitled to ask supplementary questions during the legislative proceedings.
The Secretary of State for India was empowered to increase the number of the Executive Councils of Madras and Bombay from two to four.
Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs (London advisory group).
The Governor General was empowered to nominate one Indian member to his Executive Council.
Reasons for introducing the reforms:
Morley saw it as a step towards self-government wanted more Indians involved in policy making in both India and London.
However, he stated that the reforms would not lead to self-government in the near future but instead it would produce a better, more informed government for the Raj.
Minto saw it as a defensive action that needed to be taken in case a rebellion began again.
Extremists wanted the vote to be granted to everyone rather than just the wealthy Indians.
British administrators they were no longer the majority on provincial councils; this indicated a weakening of the Rajs power over India.INC very discontent because they didnt want separate electorates.
VICEROY HARDINGE APPOINTED, 1910:Improved British relations in India.
Secured Indias support for GBR during WWI. DURBAR CELEBRATING CORONATION, 1911:King George V announced the movement of the capital of India from Calcutta to New Delhi during the Durbar.
The reunification of Bengal was also announced on this day.
WORLD WAR I BEGINS, 1914: The ML, INC and Princely States all agreed to support the Raj during WWI. The support of the Indians dwarfed all other imperial contributions.
1915 Two Indian infantry divisions moved to Middle East1918 64,449/827K Indian combatants were dead.
However, most Muslims didnt want to fight the Turks, whose Sultan they believed to be the Caliph of Islam. This led to mutinies and desertions on part of the Muslims. INTERNAL CONTROL:
India was very vulnerable during WWI because there were few British Battalions remaining in India. This would have been the perfect opportunity for the Indians to start an uprising, as the Raj would have found it difficult to maintain control over India.
EFFECTSThe fact that Indians had supported the Raj during WWI indicated that Indians should be given greater power over their country.It strengthened British-Indian relations.
VICEROY CHELMSFORD APPOINTED, 1926:Conservative, but accepted position under Labour prime minister Ramsay Macdonald
Wanted to introduce reforms for Indians and did this through the M-C Reforms.LUCKNOW PACT, 1926:REASONS FOR THE PACT
When the All-India Muslim League came into existence, it was a moderate organization with its basic aim to establish friendly relations with the Raj.
However, due to the decision of the British government to annul the partition of Bengal, the Muslim leadership decided to change its stance.
In 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders entered the fold of the Muslim League with a much different view than their predecessors.Demand for a separate homeland was included in the objectives of Muslim League of 1913, which brought Muslims and Hindus closer.
So, for the first time in history, Muslim League and Indian National Congress worked together to present a set of demands to the Raj, which came to be known as the Lucknow Pact.
DECISIONS OF LUCKNOW PACTThe same method should be adopted for the Executive Councils of Governors.The India Council must be abolished.The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian funds.Of the two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian.The executive should be separated from the judiciary.The number of Muslims in the provincial legislatures should be laid down province by province.There shall be self-government in India.Muslims should be given 1/3 representation in Central Govt.There should be separate electorates for all communities until they ask for joint electorate.System of weight-age should be adopted.Term of Legislative Council should be 5 years.Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council must be Indians.Hindus under-represented in Hindu-majority areasExtra seats provided in Muslim minority areas
EFFECTS OF THE LUCKNOW PACTThe Lucknow Pact established cordial relations between:
The INC + ML
The two prominent groups of the Indian National Congress the "extremists" led by Bal Tilak, and the moderates led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
HOME RULE LEAGUE, 1926:The All India Home Rule League was a national political organization founded in 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule, and to obtain the Dominion Status.
The move attracted many members of the INC and, who had been allied since the 1916 Lucknow Pact.
The leaders of the League gave fiery speeches, and petitions with hundreds of thousands of Indians as signatories were submitted to British authorities.
Later when government arrested Annie Besant in 1917 the movement actually spread out and made its impact in interior villages of India. The political awareness was spread in new areas like Sindh, Punjab, Gujarat, United Provinces, Bihar, Orissa as well as Madras and all stood up for an active political movement.
Objectives of the Home Rule League movement
To establish self- government
To build up an agitation for home rule by promoting political education and discussion.
To build the confidence of the Indians against the suppression of the British government and to create an alternative movement to break the existing state of stagnation and the inertia.
To revive the political activity on their own while maintaining the principles of congress.
To demand for greater political representation from the British government.
SECRETARY OF STATE, MONTAGU APPOINTED, 1917:Member of Liberal Democrats, under PM David Lloyd George
He had strong views that a further round of reform was inevitable in the government of India.
MONTAGU DECLARATION, 1917:REASONS FOR DECLARATIONThe First World War had produced intense strains in the Raj.
Its response to such situations since the late nineteenth century had been to give Indians a bigger role in local and provincial government while preserving British rule at the center.
Montagu believed this process should be taken a step further and coupled this plan with a declaration that Britain's ultimate goal was Indian self-government BUT within the context of the Raj.
However, this was to be in the far-distant future and Montagu's reforms were meant to swing India behind the war effort and quieten unrest for the next decade or so.
His intentions were embodied in the 1919 Government of India Act, planned after a lengthy visit to India in 1917-18.
KHILAFAT MOVEMENT, 1919:Post-WWI, the Treat of Sevres, 1920, removed the Sultan of Turkey from power and also decreased the size of Turkey.
The Muslims regarded the Sultan of Turkey as their Caliph and opposed the Treaty by joining Gandhis Civil Disobedience Campaign of 1920.
A campaign in defense of the Caliph was launched in India, led by the Ali brothers and supported by Gandhi.
It collapsed in 1924 because of Gandhis commitment to the CDC of 1920-22, and when Mustafa Kemal abolished the Caliph.
MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD REFORMS, 1919:REASONS FOR M-C REPORT
Congress and the Muslim League had started cooperating (very worrying for the Raj). Home-Rule Leagues were springing up all over Bombay and Madras
The British felt they needed to appease the nationalists in order to secure the support of the moderates (it had worked in 1909).
DECISIONS OF M-C REPORT:The secretary of state would control affairs relating to Government of IndiaThe Central Legislature would comprise two chambers- The Council of State and the Indian Legislative Assembl
The Central Legislature was empowered to enact laws on any matter for whole of India.
The Governor General was given powers to summon, prorogue, dissolve the Chambers, and to promulgate Ordinances.The number of Indians in Viceroy's Executive Council would be three out of eight members.
Establishment of unicameral Provincial Legislative councils.
Dyarchy in the Provinces
Reserved seats in councils for religious groups
Provincial councils given greater control e.g. could grant women the vote
Legislative councils enlarged
The Montagu-Chelmsford report stated that there should be a review after 10 years [This was under the Simon Commission]
At the same time, all other areas of government (the 'reserved list') remained under the control of the Viceroy.
The 'reserved list' included Defense (the military), Foreign Affairs and Communications.
REACTION TO M-C REFORMSThe reforms did not satisfy political demands in India: Conservatives thought that the raj would lose their hold over India
Liberal/Labour wanted further reforms
INC rejected the reforms as Muslim reserved seats was anti-democratic
The British repressed opposition, and restrictions on the press and on movement were re-enacted in the Rowlatt Acts.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1919: It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India.
The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the M-C Report.
The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929.
ROWLATT ACTS, 1919:The Raj was concerned about losing their power over India and wanted to stamp out any rebellion in order to consolidate their power.
The Rowlatt Act allowed:Imprisonment without trialTrials by judges without jurysHouse arrest of suspectsCensorship
These measures were rammed through the Imperial Legislative Council with the unanimous opposition of the Indian members.
Several members of the council including Jinnah resigned in protest. These measures were widely seen throughout India of the betrayal of strong support given by the population for the British war effort.POST-EFFECT
Though the policies were repealed, the damage had been done.The Act suggested that the Raj had no intention of releasing their grip on India.Now the Indians thought that the promise of reforms was meaningless.Gandhi declared it a betrayal of wartime support and launched a hartal on 6th April.
AMRITSAR MASSACRE, 13th APRIL 1919:Hartals organized by Gandhi, in response to Rowlatt Acts.This was the first non-cooperation movement.It displayed Hindu-Muslim solidarity.
Rioting in Amritsar Marcia Sherwood brutally killedThe British take refuge in Gobindgarh Fort.
Lieutenant ODwyer thought that the riots were all part of a carefully planned uprising. He ordered General Dyer to sort out the situation.General Dyer and his 1000 troops show up to Amritsar.He led 400 soldiers through the streets, as a show of force, though this backfired and the Indian hurled insults.
Arrangements had been made by Indians to hold a political meeting about the RA.
This day was also a religious day Baisakhi day and many Indians had come to the temple to worship.Altogether, 15-50K people were in attendance
Proclamations read out but in English, and not at many locations around the Golden Temple, where the massacre took place this meant that many did not know about the curfew:
No inhabitants allowed after 8pmMeetings prohibitedNo processions allowed
Troops arrive at Jallianwala Bagh and fire without warning.1.5 K injured, 400 deadPeople left to die
MARTIAL LAW INTRODUCED, 1919:General Beynon gave Dyer approval to establish Martial Law. This was a way of humiliating the Indians.
Policies:Crawling Order Indians to crawl over the place where Marcia Sherwood had been beatenIndians forced to salaam the British or faced beatingsTransport taken from the Indians, for the British troopsIndian lawyers forced to witness floggings2 Indians allowed on the pavement at a timeWater and electrical supply cut off3rd class railway ticket was withdrawn this was the type most people could afford.EFFECTSThe Indians had seen the true side of the Raj even when Martial Law had been removed.
HUNTER COMMITTEE ARRIVES, 1919:Montague was angry at the racial humiliation the Indians were suffering from under Martial Law.
He sent Lord Hunter to enquire about the Massacre and search for the truth at the moment they only had Dyers version of events (hed already confessed to wanting to punish Indians and had aimed to kill more this way he had saved India by wiping out potential rebellion, and the Raj knew this, hence they never trialed him).
The Hunter Committee arrives to hear evidence from the INC and other Indians about the Massacre.
The Hunter Report of 26th May 1920 stated that Dyer had been inhumane and had acted beyond the necessity of the case. GANDHI EMERGES AS LEADER OF THE INC, 1920:HIS PRINCIPLES
Satyagraha Truth force; this was a non-violent show of resistance to the Raj.Ahimsa Non-violenceSwadesh Cotton industry (no western clothing)Swaraj self rule
He claimed that technology made people unhappier and therefore self-sufficient communities and ashrams were the way forwards.His unusual clothing (dhoti), use of the Chakra and unconventional methods led to the peasant masses beginning to identify with Gandhi.
He was in favor of Swaraj and wanted to build relations with Muslims this meant he opposed the idea of separate electorates.
His vision for Indias future required for him to take part in its politics.He bided his time and his humility deceived the INC members into believing he was not a threat.Meanwhile, Gandhi forged relations with regional leaders and those neglected by the INC e.g. Muslims, and also solved local situations.
The INC had no clear leader and so there was no clear direction this meant that the INC couldnt unite to oppose Gandhis takeover of the INC.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE CAMPAIGN, 1920-22:After the Jallianwala Bagh incident, Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation movement Gandhi wanted to make India ungovernable by brining the government to a halt.
It aimed to resist British occupation in India through nonviolent means.Protestors would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts, picket liquor shops, and try to uphold the Indian values of honor and integrity.
Only petitions and major public meetings accompanied the call for Home Rule. They never resulted in disorder or obstruction of government services. Partly due to that, the British did not take them very seriously.
The non-cooperation movement aimed to ensure that the colonial economic and power structure would be seriously challenged, and British authorities would be forced to take notice of the people's demands
REASONS FOR CDC:Colonial oppression, exemplified by the Rowlatt Acts and Amritsar Massacre
Economic hardships due to a large chunk of Indian wealth being exported to Britain
Ruin of Indian artisans due to British factory-made goods replacing handmade goods
Popular resentment with the British over Indian soldiers dying in WWI while fighting as part of the British Army in battles that otherwise had nothing to do with India.
EFFECTS OF CDCThe success of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indians.
BUT million began to use this satyagraha to follow their own agendas
The Hindu-Muslim relationship was deteriorating due to forced conversions and killings (Moplah Rebellion)
Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course, and was disappointed that the revolt had lost its non-violent nature.
He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence, victimizing civilians in between.
THEN, on February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing, the police chowki (station) was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.
Gandhi appealed to the Indian public for all resistance to end, went on a fast lasting 3 weeks, and called off the mass non-cooperation movement.
On March 10, 1922, Gandhi was arrested. On March 18, 1922, he was imprisoned for six years for publishing seditious materials.
EFFECTS ON INC
During this time, the INC reorganized and wooed neglected groups (e.g. peasants) and membership rose from 100K to 2 million.
Although most Congress leaders remained firmly behind Gandhi, the disillusioned broke away and leadership was passed down to the Moderates by 1922, after Gandhis imprisonment.
TABLIGH AND TANZEEM MOVEMENTS ESTABLISHED, 1920:Muslims started the semi-militant Tanzeem and Tabligh Movements in order to organize the Muslims as a virile community.
Corresponding to these Muslim organizations, a Sangathan Movement sprang up amongst the Hindus for promoting physical culture.
The Arya Samaj organized the Shuddhi (purification) movement (1923) with a view to bring back Hindus who had coveted to Islam.
These movements further deteriorated Hindu-Muslim relations.
LOCAL ELECTIONS, 1923:INC members stand for elections of local councils
This was successful and gained popularity for the INC.
GANDHIS RELEASE FROM PRISON, 1924:When Gandhi was released, he:
Set up the All-Indian-Spinners-Association to promote self-sufficiency.
Campaigned for the Untouchables to be acceptedEstablished a program of mass literacy and improved sanitation
The INC was glad that he had abandoned his non-violence campaigning, as they were now being treated as a respected and popular party.
VICEROY IRWIN APPOINTED, 1926:Hoped to calm tensions in India through concessions (which were poorly received)
DELHI PROPOSALS (by the ML), 1927:Considering that separate electorates posed the main hindrance to improving Hindu-Muslim relations, Jinnah proposed that if the Hindus agreed to providing certain safeguards, the Muslims would give up this demand.
Consequently, the proposals were formally approved at a conference held by the Muslims in 1927 at Delhi, and are now called "The Delhi Proposals":
DELHI PROPOSALS Congress favored joint electorates as to them separate electorates would have weakened the foundations of the Indian nationalism. Whereas Muslim League, out of their insecurity of undermined representation, were not ready to let go of their demand for separate electorate.
Jinnah and team realized that they could only convince the Congress to accept a common agenda if they withdrew the Muslim Leagues demand of Separate electorate.
Jinnah and company declared that they would withdraw the demand of Separate Electorates provided the following demands will be accepted by the Congress if they formed a Joint Electorate:
Sind should be separated from Bombay and should be constituted into an independent province.
Reforms should be introduced in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in any other province of India.
Reservation of seats according to the population for different communities in the Punjab and Bengal.
Muslims should be given 1/3rd representation in the Central Legislature.
Unfortunately, the Congress first accepted but later rejected the proposals.
EFFECTS OF THE DELHI PROPOSALSThe relinquishment of the right to separate electorate was an unprecedented concession by the Muslims and it was a major achievement of Jinnah to have convinced his colleagues to concede this.
It was the first time that the Muslim League had agreed to joint electorates and would not do so ever again.
The Muslim League was, however, divided because of these proposals and prominent Muslim League leaders, mainly from the Punjab, under the leadership of Sir Muhammad Shafi, decided to part away from the Jinnah Group.
SIMON COMMISSION, 1928:Under the government of India Act of 1919, new reforms were to be introduced in India by the British Government after every 10 years.
For this purpose Simon Commission was sent to India, to find any issues or recommendations that could be edited into the new GIA.
They stated that this would be the end of the reforms after this there would be no more concessions made.
REACTIONMost of the Indian political parties e.g. INC, ML, decided to boycott the Commission on the plea that it lacked Indian representation.
However, minority groups e.g. Muslims and Sikhs, helped the SC but the SC were only cooperating with them in order to anger the INC into breaking their boycott
NEHRU REPORT, 1928:The Nehru report was the INCs alternative to the forthcoming Simon Report.
The British decided to throw the ball in the court of Indian Politicians, after the boycott of the SC.
Lord Birkendhead, Secretary of State for Indian Affairs, challenged the Indians, If they have any political capability and competence then they should form a unanimous constitution and present it to us and we will implement it.
Indian political parties accepted the challenge and called an All Parties Conference at Delhi in January 1928.
Around a hundred delegates attended the conference from all the important parties including Indian National Congress, Muslim League, National Liberal Federation, Hindu Mahasabha, Central Sikh League etc.
STAGES OF THE NEHRU REPORT1st SessionThe conference failed to reach a conclusion on the issue of the rights of minorities.
2nd SessionThe second round of the All Parties Conference was held in March the same year. Two sub-committees were formed but the end result was not different from the first session.
3rd SessionIt was during the third session of the All Parties Conference held at Bombay in May 1928 that a seven members committee under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to determine the basic features of the future constitution of India.
4th Session Lucknow
Despite many hurdles, the Nehru Committee completed its task and its report, commonly known as Nehru Report was presented in the fourth session of the All Parties Conference held in August 1928.
PROPOSALS OF THE NEHRU REPORTThe Committee declared that it was useless to ask anything less than complete Swaraj and presented the following demands:India should be given Dominion Status with the Parliamentary form of Government.
There should be a bi-cameral legislature consisting of senate and House of Representatives. The senate will comprise of two hundred members elected for seven years, while the House of Representatives should consist of five hundred members elected for five years.
Governor-General will act on the advice of executive council. It was to be collectively responsible to the parliament.
There should be Federal form of Government in India with Residuary powers to be vested in Centre.
There will be no separate electorate for minorities. It claimed since separate electorate awakens communal sentiments therefore it should be scrapped and joint electorate should be introduced
System of weightage should not be adopted for any province.
There will be no reserved seats for communities in Punjab and Bengal. However, reservation of Muslim seats could be possible in the provinces where Muslim population should be at least ten percent.
Judiciary should be independent from the Executive
There should be 1/4th Muslim Representation at Centre
Sind should be separated from Bombay provided it proves to be financially self sufficient.Reforms should be introduced in NWFP
They asked the Government to make a constitution till December 31 according to the recommendations of Nehru Report and threatened that otherwise the party would start a mass movement for the attainment of Swaraj.
It was also decided that January 26th would be celebrated as the Independence Day.
EFFECTS OF THE NEHRU REPORTThe Muslims were very unhappy because they would lose their protection of separate electorates, which had been previously granted to them under the Lucknow Pact of 1916.
Jinnahs 14 Points proposal was then rejected when put to vote in the fourth session of the All Parties Conference. The Congress managed to get the majority vote in favor of the Report.
Jinnah considered it as the parting of the ways and was now convinced that the Hindu mindset in India was bent upon pushing the Muslim minority to the wall.
Hindu-Muslim relations deteriorated further
YOUNG HOOLIGANS ENTER, 1928:Young Hooligans enter the political arena during the Lucknow Conference of the Nehru Report.
J.Nehru and Bose opposed the Nehru Report as it only proposed plans for gaining dominion status, rather than purna swaraj as the young hooligans wanted.J. Nehrus recommendationsNo freedom of religious practice
Universal adult suffrage
Reservations for Muslims on central council and minority provinces only.
Joint mixed electorates for lower house in central and provincial legislatives.
JINNAHS 14 POINTS, 1929:Formed the basis of a new constituent for India, but the INC rejected it under the Nehru Report during the fourth session.
Federal System - The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers rested in the provinces.Provincial Autonomy - A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.Representation of Minorities - All legislative in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.Number of Muslim Representative - In the central legislative, Muslims representative shall be not less than one-third.Separate Electorates Representative of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electoratesAt any time, any community can abandon its separate electorate in favors of joint electorate.Muslim Majority Provinces - Any territorial re-distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way effect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP.Religious Liberty - Full religious liberty of belief, worship and observance, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all.Three-Fourth Representation - No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislative or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill.Separation of Sind - Sind should be separated from Bombay Presidency.Introduction of Reforms in NWFP and Baluchistan - Reforms should be introduced in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.Government Services - Muslims should be given adequate share along with other Indians in the services of State.Protection of Muslim's culture and Language - The constitution should embody adequate safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture, language, religion and civilization.One-Third Muslim Ministers - No cabinet, either central or provincial, can be formed without being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim Ministers.Constitution - No change shall be made in the constitution of state except with the concurrence of State constituting the Indian Federation.
The reasonable and moderate demands contained in the fourteen points were rejected by the Hindus leaders, which considerably widened the gulf between the two communities.
IMPORTANCE OF JINNAH'S FOURTEEN POINTSFourteen Points shows that the political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus had really widened.
Those points made it clear to Hindus and British Government that Muslims wanted their own identity without influence by Hindus.
It not only revived Muslim League but also directed them on a new way and prepared the Muslims for a bold step to struggle for freedom.The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930.
As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.
IRWIN DECLARATION, 1929:This echoed the Montagu statement that the Raj was committed to India becoming a dominion within the British Empire.
Irwin wanted to build relations with the Indians by inviting them to a Round Table Conference in London in order to discuss the details and decisions of the new Indian constitution.
LAHORE CONFERENCE, 1929There was a division in the INC since the Nehru Report was published the young hooligans favored purna swaraj whilst the more moderate members wanted dominion status.
The Lahore conference marked a day of changes for the Leftists.It was the day when the tricolor was unfurled for the first time by nationalists.
A pledge was taken that January 26th will be celebrated as the Independence Day.The people would unceasingly strive for the establishment of a Sovereign Democratic Republic of India.
It was held under the President-ship of Jawaharlal Nehru(which showed the growing strengths of Leftists in the congress).
The signs of the imminent Civil Disobedience Movement were visible in this Congress session
A new interpretation of Swaraj was accepted, which now meant complete independence.
The Congress decided not to participate in the Round Table Conference.
The Nehru Report was declared to be null and void in the Lahore Congress.
SALT SATYAGRAHA, 1930:Gandhi had sided with the Young Hooligans on their decision to start a non-cooperation movement.
As part of this movement, he and 78 supporters would walk 400km to Dandi Beach where they would take salt.
This would be boycotting the salt tax and would also highlight the oppressive nature of the Raj even on a basic necessity on Indian life.
Initially, the Raj didnt feel threatened but when the campaign brought worldwide attention, and highlighted the greed an exploitation of the British, the Raj became worried.
EFFECTS OF THE SALT SATYAGRAHAThere was no central order and so it was difficult for the Raj to restore order.
75K people were involved in the march.Officials resigned from their posts.Protests in NWFP2000 demonstrations attacked by police 2 dead, 320 injured20K arrested, including Gandhi
FAILURES OF THE SALT SATYAGRAHAHowever, once local grievances had been settled, life retuned to normal.
People returned to work due to an economic upturn.
FIRST ROUND-TABLE CONFERENCE, 1930: Convened in the House of Lords
89 representatives in total 16 princes, 57 Indians, including Sikhs, Muslims etc.
However, the INC did not attend and therefore it was difficult to make any significant advanced without the INC present.
The British Government realized that the Indian National Congress needed to be part of deciding the future of constitutional government in India.
DECISIONS MADE IN THE 1st RTCCentral and provincial executive power should be accountable to legislatures
Indian participation in all levels of government
British India and Princely states would be merged into one nation
GANDHI-IRWIN PACT, 1931:After the Salt Satyagraha, the INC and Raj had reached a stalemate.To break this stalemate, a truce had to be formed this truce took the form of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.The agreed decisions that:The Salt Satyagraha would be suspendedINC would participate in the Second Round Table Conference(19K) Political prisoners would be releasedConfiscated property would be returned to its ownerEmergency restrictions would be releasedCould buy Indian goods as long as it didnt threaten British goods
EFFECTSThis pact made Gandhi equal in stature to the Viceroy.
SECOND ROUND-TABLE CONFERENCE, 1931:Gandhi attended as the sole representative of the INC as a show of Indian unity but instead this only expressed his arrogance in assuming that he could represent such a wide and diverse organization.
This angered the other Indian representatives as his sole representation questioned the right of fellow Indians to be at the conference at all he had effectively dismissed them as non-representatives because they werent part of the INC.
All the different minority communities demanded separate electorates the INC opposed this and therefore the conference failed.
On Gandhis return to India after the failing of the third conference, he restarted the civil disobedience campaign and was soon arrested. The INC was also outlawed due to increased terrorist activity.
VICEROY WILLINGDON APPOINTED, 1931:Member of Conservative party
Wanted to conciliate only the elements of Indian opinion that were willing to work with the Raj.
THIRD ROUND-TABLE CONFERENCE, 1932:Neither INC or Gandhi attended this meeting other Indian leaders were also absent.
Little was achieved and the recommendations were incorporated into the Government of India Act of 1935.
COMMUNAL AWARD, 1932:Ramsay Macdonald agreed to separate electorates being incorporated in the Indian constitution.
Gandhi was not in favor of separate electorates, as this would divide India.
He was especially worried for the Untouchables if they were had a separate electorate, this would segregate them and ensure that the social classes remain divided.
FAST-UNTO-DEATH CAMPAIGN, 1932:This campaign was launched as a response to the Communal Award.
The Raj was worried because if Gandhi died, this would create a Marty and would inflate the importance of the cause.
Gandhi was imprisoned, and this was when he formed the Yeravda Pact.
YERAVDA (POONA) PACT, 1932:Formed between Gandhi and Untouchable leader, Ambedkar.
It was agreed that:
The number of seats in the provincial council for Untouchables, would increase from 71 to 147.
18% of Central Assembly seats given to Untouchables
Untouchables would have the same rights as the other castes
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1935:After the failure of the Third Round Table Conference, the British government gave the Joint Select Committee the task of formulating the new Act for India.
The Committee comprised of 16 members each from the House of Commons and House of Lords, 20 representatives from British India and seven from the princely states.
Lord Linlithgow was appointed as the president of the Committee.
FEATURES OF THE GIA, 1935A Federation of India was promised for, comprising both provinces and states.The Governor General remained the head of the central administration and enjoyed wide powers concerning administration, legislation and finance.No finance bill could be placed in the Central Legislature without the consent of the Governor General.The Federal Legislature was to consist of two houses, the Council of State (Upper House) and the Federal Assembly (Lower House).The Council of State was to consist of 260 members, out of whom 156 were to be elected from the British India and 104 to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.The Federal Assembly was to consist of 375 members; out of which 250 were to be elected by the Legislative Assemblies of the British Indian provinces while 125 were to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.The Central Legislature had the right to pass any bill, but the bill required the approval of the Governor General before it became Law. On the other hand Governor General had the power to frame ordinances.The Indian Council was abolished. In its place, few advisers were nominated to help the Secretary of State for India.The Secretary of State was not expected to interfere in matters that the Governor dealt with, with the help of Indian Ministers.The provinces were given autonomy with respect to subjects delegated to them.Diarchy, which had been established in the provinces by the Act of 1919, was to be established at the Center. However it came to an end in the provinces.Two new provinces Sindh and Orissa were created.Reforms were introduced in N. W. F. P. as were in the other provinces.Separate electorates were continued as before.One-third Muslim representation in the Central Legislature was guaranteed.Autonomous provincial governments in 11 provinces, under ministries responsible to legislatures, would be setup.Burma and Aden were separated from India.The Federal Court was established in the Center.The Reserve Bank of India was established.
REACTIONS TO GIA, 1935Both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League opposed the Act, but participated in the provincial elections of winter 1936-37, conducted under stipulations of the Act.
The Muslims opposed it because not enough power was granted to them as the provinces were mainly Hindu-dominated and therefore the rights of the Muslims were not guaranteed.
The Hindus opposed the reserved seats policy for minority groups, as it was anti-democratic.
At the time of independence, the two dominions of India and Pakistan accepted the Act of 1935, with few amendments, as their provisional constitution.
INDIAN PROVINCIAL ELECTIONS, 1937:The elections were held under the Government of India Act of 1935.Neither the INC nor the ML boycotted the elections because if they did they would be out of government and therefore could wield no power.
RESULTSINC Won 176 seats + 59 seats from separate electoratesThe INC were victorious and were if effect, the governing party of India.It won absolute majority in 5 provinces - Madras, United Provinces, Central provinces, Bihar & Orissa, Bombay, Later Assam and NWFP also came under Congress rule.
ML Won 109/432 reserved seatsJinnah had previously gone into exile, and due to rash return, he could not find enough candidates to contest for the reserved seats this meant that many of the reserved seats were unfulfilled.
POST-ELECTIONAfter the Provincial elections, the Congress had refused to make coalition Governments with the Muslim league. This gave the Muslim League leaders an opportunity to accuse the ministries of oppressing the Muslims.Apart from that, Muslim League had the view that it alone had the right to contact with the Muslims and take care of them. When Congress started mass contacts in villages, the Muslim league did not approve it.This led to Muslims wanting a separate nation where Muslims would dominate Pakistan.
INDIA AT WWII WITH GERMANY, 1939:Viceroy Linlithgow committed over 300 million Indian soldiers to war without even consulting them first.
The INC announced that it would not help the Raj unless self-determination (swaraj) was granted.
INC ASKS PROVINCIAL MINISTRIES TO RESIGN, 1939:13 right-wing INC ministers of the Congress Working committee resigned in resentment of Linlithgows arrogance in admitting Indian soldier to the war effort
This was a wrong move to make as not only did it remove the INC from power but also it made the Raj more hostile towards the INC and gave the perfect opportunity for the ML to gain more influence and sympathy with the Raj.
The ML cooperated with the Raj and supported them through the war effort.
DELIVERANCE DAY, 1939:The resignation of the INC members from provincial and central offices was a day of celebration for the Muslims, who no longer had rivals in government.
This was known as Deliverance Day for the Muslims.
LAHORE RESOLUTION, 1940:The provincial Muslim League at Karachi had already passed a resolution adopting the Two-Nation Theory in October 1938. The Two Nation theory stated that the Hindus and the Muslims were two distinct nations.
It was finally at its annual meeting held at Lahore on March 23, 1940, that the Muslim League for the first time categorically adopted the idea of partition of India as its final destination.
Jinnah stated that Muslims and Hindus couldnt live together in one state because of their differences:"Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature.
Nehru also stated that there was no point in cooperation, as the Hindus had no common ground with the Muslims.
Thus Jinnah proposed the idea of two separate, independent states where one is Hindu-dominated [India] and the other is Muslim dominated [Pakistan].
REACTIONS TO THE LAHORE RESOLUTIONMuslim ReactionThis Resolution rejected the idea of a United India and the creation of an independent Muslim state was set as their ultimate goal.
From then onwards, the Muslims of India, instead of seeking alliance with the Hindu community, set on the way leading to the destination of complete independence of the Muslims of India.
It gave new energy and courage to the Muslims to struggle for their freedom.
The Hindu reaction was negative. They called the Pakistan demand anti-national and they denounced it as imperialist inspired to obstruct Indias march to freedom. They failed to take cognizance of the fact that a hundred million Muslims were now supremely conscious of their distinct nationhood and were prepared to stake everything to actualize their self-perceived destiny the creation of an independent Muslim state in the sub-continent.British Reaction
The British were equally hostile to the Muslim demand for at least two important reasons:
First, they had long considered themselves as the architects of the unity of India and of an Indian nation.
Second, they had long regarded the super-imposed unity under tax Britannica as their greatest achievement and lasting contribution in history the Pakistan demand threatened to undo these presumed achievements on which the British had long prided.
AUGUST OFFER, 1940:When the Congress ministries in the Provinces resigned, the British arose and wanted to get support of the Congress for war.
In March 1940, Congress met at Ramgarh in Bihar in its annual session. The INC passed a resolution offering the British Government support in war, if a provisional National Government is setup at Centre.
This was responded by Lord Linlithgow in the sort of a proposal, which is called August Offer - it turned down the demand of the Congress to set up a national Government at the center but proposed the following:
After the war, a representative "Constitution Making Body" shall be appointed immediately after the war. The number of the Indians in the Viceroy's Executive council will be increased.
A war advisory Council would be set up.
Rights of minority groups would be safeguarded
INC rejects the August Offer because the Raj had rejected their proposalsThey then decided to launch their next civil disobedience campaign
ML rejects the August Offer because they would not settle for anything less than the creation of the separate Muslim state of Pakistan.
CRIPPS MISSION ARRIVE, 1942:The British were alarmed at the successive victories of Japan during 1940s. When Burma was turned into a battlefield and the war reached the Indian boarders, the British started feeling more concerned about the future of India.
Situation in the country was further complicated as the Congress wanted to take advantage of the situation by accelerating their efforts in their struggle for independence.
Moreover the differences between the Congress and the Muslim League were widening fast and visibly there was no chance to bring both the parties on a common agenda.
In these circumstances, the British Government sent a mission to India in 1942 under Sir Stafford Cripps, the Lord Privy Seal, in order to achieve Hindu-Muslim consensus on some constitutional arrangement and to convince the Indians to postpone their struggle till the end of the Second World War.
CRIPPS MISSION PROPOSALSThe Cripps Mission's proposals included interim and long-term settlement. These were as follows:
During the course of the war, the British would retain their hold on India. Once the war finished, India would be granted dominion status with complete external and internal autonomy. It would however, be associated with the United Kingdom and other Dominions by a common allegiance to the Crown.
At the end of the war, a Constituent Assembly would be set up with the power to frame the future constitution of India. The members of the assembly were to be elected on the basis of proportional representation by the provincial assemblies. Princely States would also be given representation in the Constituent Assembly.
The provinces not agreeing to the new constitution would have the right to keep itself out of the proposed Union - any Province or State would have the right to reject the Constitution. Such provinces would also be entitled to create their own separate Union. The British government would also invite them to join the commonwealth.
During the war an interim government comprising of different parties of India would be constituted. However, defense and external affairs would be the sole responsibility of the Viceroy.
REACTIONS TO THE CRIPPS MISSIONMUSLIM LEAGUES REACTION
Jinnah considered these proposals as unsatisfactory and was of the view that the acceptance of the Cripps proposals would take the Muslims to the gallows.
Jinnah wanted the British Government and Cripps to thoroughly amend the proposals to make them acceptable for the Muslim League.
Also, Jinnah and other Muslim League leaders were convinced that Cripps was a traditional supporter of Congress and thus could not present an objective solution to the problem.
Cripps did in fact visited Gandhi and was so much impressed by him that he wore white khadi suit. Also, he openly ridiculed the Muslim Leagues demand for Pakistan.In fact the proposals Cripps presented were mainly consisted of the ideas, which were discussed in a meeting between Nehru and Cripps in 1938.
However, Jinnah was happy to know that in the Cripps proposals, at least the British Government had agreed in principle to the Muslim Leagues demand of the partition of India.
INCs REACTIONThe INC rejected the proposals because:Gandhi was opposed to war in the first placeThe INC did not believe that the Raj would give independence to India so quickly
They then announced that they would start the last civil disobedience campaign Quit India Campaign
Churchill had known that the Mission would failHe had only send the Mission because he promised Roosevelt and this would show the US that he had attempted cordial relations with India, only to be refused.
QUIT INDIA CAMPAIGN, 1942:The Quit India Movement was a civil disobedience movement launched in response to Gandhis call for immediate independence. The All-India Congress Committee proclaimed a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called an orderly British withdrawal from India. The call for determined, but passive resistance appears in his call to Do or Die.SUPPORT
The only outside support came from the Americans, as President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressured Prime Minister Winston Churchill to give in to Indian demands.
The British had the support of the Viceroys Council (which had a majority of Indians), of the Muslims, the Communist Party, the princely states, the Imperial and state police, the Indian Army, and the Indian Civil Service.
Many Indian businessmen were profiting from heavy wartime spending and did not support Quit India.
Many militant students paid more attention to Subhas Chandra Bose, who was in exile and supporting the Axis.
EFFECTS OF QUIT INDIACONSEQUENCESThe arrest of Gandhi and the Congress leaders led to mass demonstrationsthroughout India.
Almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership, and not just at the national level, was imprisoned without trial within hours after Gandhis speech at least 60,000. Most spent the rest of the war in prison and out of contact with the masses.
The Quit India campaign was effectively crushed. The British refused to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war ended. The 'Quit India' movement, more than anything, united the Indian people against British rule.
Although most demonstrations had been suppressed by 1944, upon his release in 1944 Gandhi continued his resistance and went on a 21-day fast.
By the end of WWII Britain's place in the world had changed dramatically and the demand for independence could no longer be ignored.
BENGAL FAMINE, 1943:There were many factors that caused the famine:Crop yield was very low that year due to weather conditions, poor harvests, loss of imports, inflation etc.
However, Churchill played a significant role in the famine:Ordered the destruction of all boats and rice stocks in coastal Bengal, for fear that the Japanese might land there and seize the supplies. This left the coastal Bengalis to starve on their now-scorched earth, in what was called the "Denial Policy.
Exported over 70,000 tons of rice for use by British troops and British civilians in the first seven months of the year.
In addition, wheat shipments from Australia passed along the Indian coast, but were not diverted to feed the starving.
The US and Canada offered the British government food aid specifically for Bengal, once the plight of its people became known, but the Raj turned down the offer.
A fervent imperialist, Churchill knew that India - Britain's "Crown Jewel" - was moving toward independence, and he hated the Indian people for it. During a War Cabinet meeting, he said, "I hate Indians.
Informed of the rising death toll, Churchill quipped that he only regretted that Gandhi was not among the dead.
EFFECTSThough food was rationed, millions continued to die form malnutrition and diseases. The death rate increased from 0.7 1.3 millionWhole villages were wiped out
The ML and INC were furious with the Raj for their incompetence.
VICTORY IN EUROPE DAY, 1945:This is the public holiday to celebrate Germanys surrender and the end of WWII in Europe.
VICEROY WAVELL APPOINTED, 1945:He was very popular with Indian politicians
He knew that partition was inevitable and wanted self-government for India
Reinstated regular meetings of the 11 governors of the provinces
SIMLA CONFERENCE, 1945:The Simla Conference was a 1945 meeting between Viceroy Archibald Wavell and the major political leaders of India at Simla.Convened to agree on and approve the Wavell Plan for Indian self-government, it reached a potential agreement for the self-rule of India that:Provided separate representation to MuslimsReduced majority powers for both communities in their majority regions.
However, differences arose between the leadership of the two parties on the issue of representation of the Muslim community. The Muslim League claimed that it was the only representative party of the Muslims in India and thus all the Muslim representatives in the Viceroys Executive Council should be the nominees of the party. Congress, which had sent Maulana Azad as the leader of their delegation, tried to prove that their party represented all the communities living in India and thus should be allowed to nominate Muslim representative as well. Congress also opposed the idea of parity between the Cast-Hindus and the Muslims.
All this resulted in a deadlock. Finally, Wavell announced the failure of his efforts on July 14. Thus the Simla Conference couldnt provide any hope of proceeding further.EFFECTS OF THE SIMLA CONFERENCEThe Leagues image and popularity of Jinnah amongst the Muslims received a tremendous boost.
The general impression was that no constitutional plan would succeed without getting an approval from Jinnah.
Soon some important Muslim leaders including prominent supporters of the Congress crossed over to the Muslim League.
BLAMINGS FOR THE SIMLA CONFERENCEThe fact of the matter was that the two principal political parties, Congress and the Muslim League, that were really responsible for the failure. They had taken up positions that admitted no compromise.
If Congress had allowed the Muslim League to have a monopoly of Muslims, it would have been tantamount to accepting that it was itself purely a Hindu body.The INC also refused the 50/50 death that Wavell suggested about the Executive Council being 50% INC members and 50% ML members their refusal led to the failure of the conference.
And if the League had permitted Congress to nominate Muslims, it would have thereby accepted the Congress claim that it represented all the communities in India. The Viceroys efforts to relegate the demand for Pakistan did not succeed.
The Raj was also to blame:It was clear that failure was inevitable from the start because the previous attempts at conciliation e.g. The Round Table conferences, Lahore Resolution, Government of India Acts, had also failed.
LABOUR PARTY IN GOVERNMENT, 1945:The ML thought that the Labour party were anti-Muslim because the INC and Labour had forged links.
RED FORT TRIALS, 1945:The Indian National Army was an armed force formed by Indian extremist nationalists during WWII. The aim of the army was to secure Indian independence with Japanese assistance.
However, after the surrender of Japan on August 15th, the (6000) INA soldiers started falling into the hands of the allies. These were taken as Prisoners of Wars.Subhash Chandra Bose their leader was also presumed to have died.
The officers of the INA were taken to court martial at the Red Fort of Delhi from November 1945 and May 1946. They were charged of "Waging War against the King Emperor" as well as Murder and abetment of Murder.
They were sentenced to death, but under pressure from the political parties from India, Army Chief Claude Auchinleck was forced to commute the sentences of the three defendants in the first trial.The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League both made the release of the three defendants, one Hindu, one Muslim and one Sikh.
CABINET MISSION ARRIVES, 1946:Prime Minister Attlee sent out the Cabinet Mission to maintain a united India so that they could use India in a key role for Britains security in Asia.
The Cabinet Mission was composed of three Cabinet Ministers of England:
Sir Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State for IndiaSir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of TradeV. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty The objective of this mission was to:Devise a machinery to draw up the constitution of Independent India.Make arrangements for interim Government.
Thus the mission was like a declaration of India's independence.
SECOND SIMLA CONFERENCE, 1946:The Cabinet Mission spent some 3 weeks to discuss with the leaders of various political parties, but could not arrive at any agreed solution.
The main points of the plan were:There would be a union of India comprising both British India and the Indian States that would deal with foreign affairs, defense and communications. The union would have an Executive and a Legislature.
All residuary powers would belong to the provinces.
All provinces would be divided into three sections. Provinces could opt out of any group after the first general elections.
There would also be an interim government having the support of the major political parties.
The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6 1946. Earlier, the Congress had accepted the plan on May 24, 1946, though it rejected the interim setup.
However, the ML rejected the plan when J.Nehru declared at a press conference on July 10th that Congress would change the policies of the Cabinet Mission through its majority in the Constituent Assembly.
DIRECT ACTION DAY, 1946:The Muslim League Council met at Bombay where Jinnah reiterated the demand for Pakistan as the only course left open to the Muslim League.
On July 29, it rejected the Cabinet Mission plan and called the Muslims to resort to "Direct Action" to achieve the land of their dream "Pakistan".
August 16, 1946 was fixed as "Direct Action Day".
Police were ordered to take a holidayThe MOB took over the streetsWidespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of CalcuttaNeither Gandhi nor Jinnah prevented the bloodbath
The Calcutta Riots of 1946 (started on Direct Action Day), were four days of massive Hindu-Muslim riots in the capital of Bengal, India, resulting in:
5,000 were dead20,000 were injured100,000 were homeless
INTERIM GOVERNMENT FORMED, 1946:Lord Wavell wrote letters to Nehru and Jinnah on July 22, 1946 and invited them to join an Interim Coalition Government.
But, both Nehru and Jinnah rejected the proposal in their letters to Wavell written on July 23 and July 31 respectively. This created a complete deadlock.
In order to break the deadlock, the Secretary of State for India asked the Viceroy to contact Nehru and to offer him to form Government. The Muslim League was completely ignored.
On August 6th, Wavell in letter to Nehru invited him to form the Government.
Congress held its Working Committee session on August 8 and authorized Nehru to negotiate the terms and Conditions for joining the Interim Government.
On September 2nd, the Congress jointed the Interim Government. Muslim League rejected the idea of installing one party Government and observed the day as Black Day.
INTENTIONS FOR THE INTERIM GOV.British IntentionsAs the time passed the British realized that the Interim Government cannot deliver unless and until the Muslim League send its representatives in the Cabinet. They persuaded Jinnah to join the Interim Government.
Muslim IntentionsOn the other hand Muslim League also comprehended that its exclusion from the Government was paying havoc with the interests of the Muslims. Jinnah realized that he could protect the interests of the Indian Muslims more if his party joins the Interim Government. A series of meetings took place between Jinnah and Wavell and ultimately the ML joined the Interim Government on October 25, 1946.
INCs Reaction to MLs acceptanceCongress was not satisfied with the way Muslim League was included in the Interim Government. They felt hurt from the fact that Jinnah decided to enter Interim Government on the request of Wavell and not on Nehrus request.Furthermore, Jinnah made it clear that the Muslim League members of the cabinet will not be directly answerable to Nehru.
Congress leadership was also annoyed because Muslim League nominated a scheduled cast Hindu as a cabinet member. This act could challenge the Congress claim of being the sole representative of the deprived class.
EXTRA DETAIL TO THE INTERIM GOV.The Interim government remained in place till the independence of Pakistan and India.
Besides other duties it assisted the British Government in the process of transferring the power to the local people.
The Viceroy Executive Council served as the executive branch of interim government.
Although the Viceroy of India originally headed it, it was transformed into a council of ministers with the powers of a Prime Ministerbestowed on the vice president of the Council, a position held by Jawaharlal Nehru.
With the exception of the Viceroy and theCommander-in-Chief of the Indian army, all members of the council were Indians.INDIAN PROVINCIAL AND GENERAL ELECTIONS, 1946:With the failure of the Simla Conference, Lord Wavell announced that after the elections:A constitution making body would be set up. The Viceroy would set an Executive Council, which would have the support of the main Indian Political Parties.
INTENTIONSThe proposals were opposed by both the ML and INC:Jinnah declared that Muslims were not ready to accept any settlement less than a separate homeland for them.The INC characterized the proposal as vague, inadequate and unsatisfactory because it was not talking about independence.
Yet the two parties launched huge election campaigns. They knew that the elections would be crucial for the future of India, as the seats would have an important role in determining their standing.
Why?The ML wanted to sweep the Muslim constituencies so as to prove that they were the sole representatives of the Muslims.Alternately, the INC wanted to prove that, irrespective of religion, they represent all the Indians. RESULTSThough the franchise was limited, the turnover was extra ordinary:
The INC was able to sweep the pools for the non-Muslim seats as they managed to win more then 80 percent of the general seats and about 91.3 percent of the total general votes.However, the MLs performance was even more impressive as it managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims.
The results of the provincial election held in early 1946 were not different:
INC won most of the non-Muslim seats
ML captured approximately 95 percent of the Muslim seats the ML celebrated January 11, 1946 as the Day of Victory and declared that the election results were enough to prove that Muslim League was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region.
VICEROY MOUNTBATTEN APPOINTED, 1947:He arrives at Delhi by March.
Sympathetic to Indians (Left-wing)
Very charming and formed quick connections with the INC and J.Nehru he favored the INC
However, Jinnah wasnt seduced by his charms and this led to hostile relations between the two Mountbatten really needed Jinnah on his side if he wanted to grant India independence in four weeks
PRIME MINISTER ATTLEE APPOINTED, 1947:He announces that Indian independence will be granted no later than June
PLAN BALKAN, 1947:Upon arriving in India to negotiate terms for an independent India, Mountbatten soon concluded that transfer of power to one central representative constituency assembly for India would be impossible to achieve as neither the INC nor the ML could agree on terms.
Thus, he accordingly came up with 'Plan Balkan', separate dominions for Pakistan, the Princely states and the rest of British India with certain key areas of administration run by a central Government.
Mountbatten then offered Nehru a draft of his 'Plan Balkan', which initiated the division of India into separate areas of control for the INC, ML and the Princely States.
Nehru indicated displeasure with this plan, as allowing the Princely states of India separate dominio- hood created a fragmentary division and was almost certain to initiate civil and interstate wars and tensions.
Finally Nehru agreed to an amended Plan Balkan with an Appendix drafted, which made it clear that the transfer of power would only be granted to two successor domains with voting in the NWFP and Bengal to decide between Hindustan or Pakistan.
British Cabinet approve amended Plan Balkan
Attlee recalled Mountbatten to discuss the amendments made to 'Plan Balkan' and after Mountbatten's presentation to the British Cabinet it was agreed this was the best option to follow.
The Indian leaders accepted on 3rd June.MOUNTBATTEN PLAN, 1947:The actual division of British India between the two new dominions was accomplished according to what has come to be known as Mountbatten Plan.The plan's main points were:
Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in Punjab and Bengal legislative assemblies would meet and vote for partition. If a simple majority of either group wanted partition, then these provinces would be divided.
Sindh was to take its own decision.
The fate of North West Frontier Province and Sylhet district of Assam was to be decided by a referendum.
India would be independent by 15 August 1947.
The separate independence of Bengal was ruled out.
A boundary commission to be set up in case of partition.
Mountbatten advised the Princely states against remaining independent and urged them to join one of the two new dominions.
The Indian political leaders accepted the Plan on 2nd June.
The MLs demands for a separate state were thus conceded.The INCs position on unity was also taken into account while making Pakistan as small as possible.Mountbatten's formula was to divide India and at the same time retain maximum possible unity.
BOUNDARY COMMISSION, 1947:The Boundary Commission recommended that the Punjab and Bengal regions should be divided between the two dominions of India and Pakistan.However, the Punjab's population distribution was such that there was no line that could neatly divide Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. Likewise, no line could appease the ML or the INC.Moreover, any division based on religious communities was sure to entail "cutting through road and rail communications, irrigation schemes, electric power systems and even individual landholdings."However, a well-drawn line could minimize the separation of farmers from their fields, and also minimize the numbers of people who might feel forced to relocate.CONSEQUENCES
As it turned out, some 14 million people left their homes and set out by every means possible - by air, train, and road, in cars and lorries, in buses and bullock carts, but most of all on foot -- to seek refuge with their own kindOpposing sides slaughtered many people Muslims killed Hindus and vice versa.Some starved or died of exhaustion, while others were afflicted with diseases that afflict undernourished refugees.Estimates of the number of people who died range between 200,000 and two million, with the consensus being around one million dead.PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1947:Bengal and Punjab legislative councils opt to be partitioned.
The Partition of Bengal was a direct partition that divided Bengal between India and Pakistan.
West Bengal = part of IndiaEast Bengal = part of Pakistan
The partition was done according to the Mountbatten Plan.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT, 1947:The act agreed for two independent dominions of India and Pakistan to be established.
The Act was based upon the Mountbatten Plan and included all the features of the Mountbatten Plan:
It provided for two dominion states: India and Pakistan
The boundaries between the two dominion states were to be determined by a Boundary Commission, which was headed by Sir Cyril Radcliff.
It provided for partition of Punjab & Bengal and separate boundary commissions to demarcate the boundaries between them.
The authority of the British Crown over the princely states ceased and they were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent.
Both the dominions of India and Pakistan were to have Governor Generals to be appointed by the British King.
The constituent assemblies of both the states were free to make constitutions of their respective countries.
British Government would not continue any control on any dominion.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE DAY, AUGUST 15th 1947:On the midnight of 14 August and 15 August 1947, India and Pakistan came into existence.
Jinnah becomes governor-general of Pakistan.Ali Khan becomes prime minister of Pakistan.
Mountbatten becomes Governor-General of India.Nehru becomes prime minister of India.