international collaborations in science and technology imperatives for 21st century foreign policy...
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International Collaborations in Science and Technology Imperatives for 21st Century Foreign Policy Andrew Reynolds Deputy S&T Adviser to the Secretary of State Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting September 28, 2006 Slide 2 Role of S&T in Global Affairs Global Leadership in S&T is transitory In the 19 th century, and at the outset of the 20 th century, the dominant global S&T power was Europe. Since the middle of the 20 th century, the dominant global S&T power has been the United States. Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary In the 21 st century, a new internationally collaborative reality is emerging since: 1. the scientific challenges are themselves more complex in nature and global in impact 2. scientific research itself is increasingly international 3. technology is developed within a global framework Slide 3 Role of S&T in Global Affairs Role of S&T in Global Affairs Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Observations S&T advances have enormous, immediate influence on global and national economies, and on international relations.S&T advances have enormous, immediate influence on global and national economies, and on international relations. Nations are largely shaped by their expertise in and access to S&T.Nations are largely shaped by their expertise in and access to S&T. Major S&T advances of our time not only offer remarkable new opportunities, but often challenge our social institutions and ethical principles.Major S&T advances of our time not only offer remarkable new opportunities, but often challenge our social institutions and ethical principles. In an increasingly global world, accurate scientific information must inform foreign policy and foreign policy must promote justified scientific goals.In an increasingly global world, accurate scientific information must inform foreign policy and foreign policy must promote justified scientific goals. Slide 4 National Security and S&T Policy National Intelligence Council 2000, 2002 Global Trends 2015 & Mapping the Global Future 2020 S&T, and particularly information technology, biotechnology, materials sciences, and nanotechnology will independently and together be key drivers of globalization R&D in these fields will impact both hard power issues defense, arms control, non-proliferation as well as soft power issues - climate change, infectious,chronic diseases, energy supply and demand, and sustainable development National Research Council 1999 13/16 strategic objectives in U.S. foreign policy are underpinned and driven by S&T and health issues and assets Slide 5 13/16 of the 1999 International Affairs Strategic Goals for the Department of State Involve Science, Technology or Health Outlined in The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health In Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Compiled by the National Research Council and Published by National Academy Press in 1999 SOURCE: United States Strategic Plan for International Affairs, First Revisions, released by the Office of Resources, Plans, and Policy, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., February 1999. See http://www.state.gov/www/global/general_foreign_policy/99_stratplan_toc.html. http://www.state.gov/www/global/general_foreign_policy/99_stratplan_toc.html Slide 6 Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary (STAS) Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary The position of Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) was created in 2000 to strengthen the role of science and technology (S&T) within the foreign policy community both in the Department of State (DoS) in its embassies and missions. The STAS is a principal interlocutor for S&T in the DoS. The appointment of a STAS in the DoS was recommended by the National Academies and the National Research Council. Integrating Foreign Policy and Science Slide 7 1. Enhancing the S&T literacy and capacity of the DoS: increasing the number of scientists in the DoS and the exposure of non-scientist DoS personnel to S&T issues 2. Building partnerships with the outside S&T community: throughout the USG, with partners abroad, and in foreign embassies in the US 3. Providing accurate S&T advice to the DoS: the Secretary of State, other senior DoS officials, and embassies on emerging and at the horizon S&T 4. Developing initiatives to enhance a forward looking international leadership by DoS on S&T issues STAS Core Objectives Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Slide 8 National Security and S&T Policy Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Three Pillars of U.S. National Security: Intelligence Diplomacy War fighting S&T are the bricks and mortar Slide 9 Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Importance of S&T in U.S. Policy In the 21 st century, American foreign policy must have a sound scientific foundation. And we must build on that foundation to stem the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDs, to stop proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to lift people out of poverty, and lead states onto the path of sustainable development. Now more than ever, American science must enlighten American statecraft. But the partnership between science and statesmanship is a two-way street. American diplomacy must also help advance world science. Secretary Powell May 2004 Slide 10 I think science, as a diplomatic tool, is greatopenness in recognizing that there are no boundaries and therefore keeping ourselves open to other people, making sure that we are at the center of scientific discourse . Secretary Rice January 2005 Secretary Rice January 2005 Today, dynamic advancements in science and technology are transforming the world making it possible for more and more people to compete equally across all fields of human endeavor. America must remain at the forefront of this new world. Secretary Rice May 2005 Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary S&T in 21 st Century U.S. Foreign Policy Slide 11 National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment & Natural Resources Sharon Hays, EOP Conrad Lautenbacher, Commerce George Gray, EPA Committee on Science Sharon Hays, EOP Arden Bement, NSF Elias Zerhouni, NIH Committee on Technology Richard Russell, EOP William Jeffrey, Commerce Committee on Homeland and National Security Sharon Hays, EOP Ken Kreig, DoD TBD, DHS Global Change Research (SC) Air Quality Research (SC) Disaster Reduction (SC) Toxics and Risks (SC) Ecosystems (SC) Water Availability and Quality, (SC) US Group on Earth Observations (SC) Oceans Science and Technology (SC) Dioxon (IWG) National Security R&D (SC) International (SC) WMD Medical Countermeasures (SC) Decontamination Standards And Technologies (SC) Standards (SC) Foreign Animal Disease Threat (SC) Research Business Models (SC) Education and Workforce Dev. (SC) Aquaculture (SC) Physics of the Universe (IWG) Human Subjects Research (SC) Domestic Animal Genomics (IWG) Prion Science (IWG) Trans-border Samples (IWG) Multinational Organizations (IWG) Scientific Collections (IWG) R&D Investment Criteria (IWG) Social, Behavioral, Economic (SC) Biotechnology (SC) Networking and Information Technology (NITRD) (SC) Nanoscale Science, Engineering And Technology (NSET) (SC) Manufacturing R&D (IWG) Biometrics (SC) Aeronautics S&T (SC) Infrastructure (SC) Export Controls for S&T (TG) Plant Genome (IWG) Slide 12 U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development STRATEGIC PLAN Fiscal Years 2004 2009 Slide 13 Foreign Assistance Framework for Transformational Diplomacy Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 S&T Expertise in the U.S. Policy Community Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary JEFFERSON SCIENCE FELLOWS (JSF) Tenured U.S. academic faculty in the Dept. of State for 1 year of service followed by 5 years of consultancy Engaging the U.S. S&T academics in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy U.S. universities participate by paying the salaries and benefits for their faculty selected to be JSFs. A public-private partnership between the MacArthur Foundation, Carnegie Corp., U.S. universities and professional scientific societies with the DoS. Slide 17 Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Data from Pew Global Attitudes Project: What the World Thinks in 2002 from Nye, J. 2004 S&T: Soft Power in 21 st Century Diplomacy Region Admire U.S. for S&T Advances (%) Good that American Ideas/Customs Spread (%) Europe~67~33 S.E. Asia ~82~33 Africa~85~42 Americas~76~36 Islamic World* ~70~14 * Seven countries with majority Muslim populations Slide 18 Iraqi Virtual Science Library (IVSL) Science and Engineering Initiative at UNESCO U.S. Islamic World Forum-S&T (Qatar) Safe and Secure Society Initiative (Japan) ITER Negotiations (with DoE) Visa Policy for S&T Reform Recruitment of New STE Personnel and ESTH training at State Foreign Service Institute Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary STAS - Catalyst for New Programs and Activities Slide 19 LONG TERM POLICY PERSPECTIVES ON THE FUTURE OF S&T Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Objective: to accurately inform U.S. and EU officials of emerging and at-the-horizon S&T advances in a not- for-attribution environment A new generation of conferences for US and EU scientific and policy leaders to exchange of scientific understanding S&T topics reasonably anticipated to have major societal, economic, and political impact within 5-10 yrs Identify and characterize significant S&T advances to promote more anticipatory, proactive policy formulation, and to reduce reactive policy action Slide 20 Japan February 2005 Sensors, Nano- materials and Nano-structures New GDEST conferences S&T topics and host countries TBD China March 2006 Biometrics & Genomics Europe December 2005 Quantum Computing and Coherence Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Topics are selected in recognition of existing and/or emerging strength of the S&T in the host country Global Dialogues on Emerging Science and Technology (GDEST) India October 2006 Agricultural Biotechnology Brazil November 2006 Bioinfomatics Slide 21 Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary Top Technology Applications Based on Nano, Bio, and Info Research Synergies* Energy: Cheap Solar Energy; Hybrid Vehicles ITC: Rural Wireless Communications; Communication Devices for Ubiquitous Information Access; Ubiquitous RF Identification Tagging of Products and Individuals; Wearable Computers; Quantum Cryptography; Pervasive Sensors Manufacturing: Filters and Catalysts; Cheap Autonomous Housing; Green Manufacturing Food and Health: Next Generation GM Crops; Rapid Bioassays; Targeted Drug Delivery; Tissue Engineering; Improved Diagnostic and Surgical Methods ----------------------------------- * The Global Technology Revolution 2020, RAND National Security Research Division, 2006 Slide 22 Global Science Partnerships for the 21 st Century New strategic approach to student and university exchanges National R&D Strategy for Regional Stability Supporting stability operations and/or reconstruction in pre- and post- conflict areas Project Horizon 2025 Strategic Interagency Capabilities Requirements Including a Science and Technology Incentive Framework to better align our S&T investments with emerging, long-term global priorities Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary New STAS Activities Slide 23 National Security and S&T Policy Intellectual Security and Competitiveness U.S. Commission on National Security 21st Century Americans are living off the economic and security benefits of the last three generations investment in science and education, but we are now consuming capital. Our systems of basic scientific research and education are in serious crisis, while other countries are redoubling their efforts. In the next quarter century, we will likely see ourselves surpassed, and in relative decline, unless we make a conscious national commitment to maintain our edge. (Executive Summary, p. ix) Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change, Phase III Hart-Rudman Report 1998 Slide 24 The Asian Century Begins? Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 STAS WEBSITE Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary www.state.gov/g/stas