it 2002 -g raphics and m ultimedia 1 raster & vector

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  • IT 2002 -GRAPHICS AND MULTIMEDIA*Raster & Vector

  • WHAT IS MULTIMEDIA.The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way


  • INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHICNormal term of graphic Any picture or drawing object including engraving object.Also about the use of visual to explain concept (sometime difficult to explain with text)Efficient Information delivery resource and accepted by people*

  • COMPUTER GRAPHICS Computer Graphics is... the technology for presenting information Computer Graphic: Any image that produced by graphic computer application from simple image to complex (fractal), refers to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displaying and manipulating pictures. The term also refers to the images themselves.Many software applications include graphics components. Such programs are said to support graphics.


  • COMPUTER GRAPHICS?Different things in different contexts:pictures, scenes that are generated by a used to make such pictures, software and hardware, input/output devices.the whole field of study that involves these tools and the pictures they produce.

    Use of computer to define, store, manipulate, integrate and present pictorial output.

  • EXAMPLE OF COMPUTER GRAPHICBasic formFractalLogoIcosahedrons*

  • WHY STUDY GRAPHICS?To make pretty pictures and funny movies ? Yes, in part. But in addition To improve: Understanding Expression CommunicationGraphics is (or should be) essential to engineers and the practice of engineering!


  • COMPUTER GRAPHIC APPLICATIONComputer based graphic industry growth in positive trend : Ability to help in work productivity.Uses in Project Management, Publication, Business, aerospace, automotive


  • COMPUTER GRAPHIC APPLICATIONE.g: Car model development Electronic circuit and engineering drawing. Computer aided design and engineering analysisScientific VisualizationEntertainment and GamingMilitary Planning & RehearsalComputer-Assisted Surgery Medical Education & VisualizationBusiness presentation graphics*

  • GRAPHICS APPLICATIONSPaint programs: : Allow you to create rough freehand drawings. The images are stored as bit maps and can easily be edited. illustration/design programs: Support more advanced features than paint programs, particularly for drawing curved lines. The images are usually stored in vector-based formats. Illustration/design programs are often called draw programsPresentation graphics software : Lets you create bar charts, pie charts, graphics, and other types of images for slide shows and reports. The charts can be based on data imported from spreadsheet applications.


  • Animation software: Enables you to chain and sequence a series of images to simulate movement. Each image is like a frame in a movie.

    CAD software: Enables architects and engineers to draft designs.

    Desktop publishing : Provides a full set of word-processing features as well as fine control over placement of text and graphics, so that you can create newsletters, advertisements, books, and other types of documents.












  • THE IMPORTANT OF GRAPHIC APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENTInformation delivery more accurate, clear, consistent and efficient compare with textUses to emphasize certain info.Example usage: advertisement, presentation and company reportIncrease performance of management

    A picture is worth than a thousand words.*

  • GRAPHIC CATEGORYCategorized into two main groups: bitmap and vectorVector: Object based image represented by geometric formBitmap: The image represented by matrix pixelsAlso referred as Raster or Pixmap

    *Raster GraphicsVector Graphics

  • VECTOR IMAGEDraw type image or object oriented imageRepresented in geometric form (mathematical instruction) to create straight line, oval, curve and sphere.E.g. instruction:Line startcoord = x.0 y.0 endcoord = x.20 y.20*


  • VECTOR GRAPHICSVector graphics (also called geometric modeling or object-oriented graphics) is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and polygons, which are all based upon mathematical equations to represent images in computer graphics.For example, consider circle of radius r. The main pieces of information a program needs in order to draw this circle arethe radius r and equation of a circle the location of the center point of the circle stroke line style and color (possibly transparent) fill style and color (possibly transparent)


  • THE USAGE OF VECTOR IMAGEStore computer file in clip art form for marketing purposesUse in technical fields such as CAD/CAM/ architecture, scientific modelingGraphic art and multimedia using vector graphic application such as Macromedia Freehand, Adobe Illustrator and AutoCAD.*




  • BITMAP IMAGEAlso known as raster imageRepresenting image in dot form known as pixel or bitArrange in simple matrix For monochrome monitor, needs a matrix dimension.The depth needed to view color image such as 4, 8, 16, 24 bit.*

  • RASTER GRAPHICS (BITMAP)A raster graphics image or bitmap, is a data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.Raster graphics are technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel (a color depth, which determines the number of colors it can represent).*

  • Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. When zoomed in, it might look like the big smiley face to the right. Every square represents a pixel. Zooming in further, the individual pixels can be analyzed, with their colors constructed by adding the values for red, green and blue.


  • Raster image (or pixmap ,Bitmap) will usually have pixels with between one and eight bits for each of the red, green, and blue componentsThe total number of pixels (resolution), and the amount of information in each pixel (often called color depth) determine the quality of a raster image.Raster graphics are resolution dependent.Modern computer-monitors typically display about 72 to 130 pixels per inch (PPI), and some modern consumer printers can resolve 2400 dots per inch (DPI) or more


  • METHOD TO PRODUCE BITMAP IMAGE3 main method to produce bitmap image:Use computer based drawing application such as Microsoft PaintScreen captureUse scanner, digital camera and video cardGraphic software uses to amend bitmap image : Adobe Photoshop, Painter, PrintShop Artist, GIMP etc.*GNU means "GNU's Not Unix, LinuxOS" GIMP- GNU Image Manipulation Program

  • GRAPHICS IN DEEPRaster uses a grid cell structure, whereas vector is more like a drawn map.Vector format has points, lines, polygons that appear normal, much like a map.Raster format generalizes the scene into a grid of cells, each with a code to indicate the feature being depicted. The cell is the minimum mapping unit.Raster has generalized reality: all of the features in the cell area are reduced to a single cell identity.


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  • RESOLUTION AND COLOR IN BITMAP IMAGEResolution determined by image dimension vertically and horizontally. E.g 640x480The highest pixel make an image more clearColor depth determined by total memory for each pixel 4 bit = 16 color, 24 bit = 16 million of color - Near to real life.Increasing the number of cells on a data set increases spatial resolution, which helps to increase spatial accuracy.One advantage to using relatively few cells is the short processing time and ease of analysis.


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  • 1 BIT VS 4 BITS VS 8 BITS VS 24 BITS COLORS*1 bit color4 bits color8 bits color24 bits color

  • GRIDDING AND LINEAR FEATURESLow-resolution raster results in a rather generalized and crude shape.

    High-resolution raster shape appears more realistic, though still a long way from the vector shape and spatial accuracy*

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  • RASTER AND VECTOR DATA MODELSRaster: Because the raster cells value or code represents all of the features within the grid, it does not maintain true size, shape, or location for individual features. Even where nothing exists (no data), the cells must be coded.

    Vector: vectors are data elements describing position and direction. vector is the map-like drawing of features, without the generalizing effect of a raster grid. Therefore, shape is better retained. Vector is much more spatially accurate than the raster format.*

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  • RASTER CODINGIn the data entry process, maps can be digitized or scanned at a selected cell size and each cell assigned a code or value.

    The cell size can be adjusted according to the grid structure or by ground units, also termed resolution.

    There are three basic and one advanced scheme for assigning cell codes.*

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  • RASTER CODING PROBLEMSA major problem with the raster structure is that the shape of features is forced into an artificial grid cell format.One possible solution is to increase the resolution by increasing the number of cells, making each one smaller and th