JKR Road Marking & Delineation

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<ul><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 1/39</p><p>Roads BranchPublic Works Department Malaysia</p><p>Jalan Sultan Salahuddin50582 Kuala Lumpur</p><p>Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2D/85</p><p>5.0mm</p><p>7.0mm</p><p>Manual on Traffic Control Devices:</p><p>Road Marking and Dileanation</p></li><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 2/39</p><p>Page 1</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices,Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p>Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L</p><p>PREFACE</p><p>The purpose of this manual is to establish uniformity in design and application of all traffic signs</p><p>and control devices in Malaysia for the benefit of road users, road and traffic authorities, and man-</p><p>ufacturers of traffic signs.This manual supersedes and forms part of the revised version of JKR/J(Rb) 0001,180, Manual On</p><p>Traffic Devices - Traffic Signs. The manual is now divided into the following parts:</p><p>1. Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2A/85 - Standard Traffic Signs. Standard traffic signs drawings for</p><p>Regulatory, Warning and Guide signs are illustrated complete with dimensions. A colour chart</p><p>for all the traffic signs indicates acceptable colours for each sign.</p><p>2. Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2B/85 - Traffic Sign Applications.</p><p>It consists of, with the exception of Temporary signs, design criteria and location requirements</p><p>for all traffic signs.</p><p>3. Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2C/85 - Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control.</p><p>It consists of standard temporary signs drawings and their application in the work zones.</p><p>4. Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2D/85 - Road Marking and Delineation. Standard road line paints, road</p><p>markings and delineators are identified together with guides on their applications.</p><p>The specifications in this manual are recommended to be used for new signs and for all replace-</p><p>ments of existing signs which have outlived their usefulness.</p><p>FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY</p></li><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 3/39</p><p>Page 2</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices,Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p>Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L</p><p>MANUAL ON TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES</p><p>ROAD MARKING AND DELINEATION</p><p>Contents Pg. No.</p><p>1.0 General Principles 1</p><p>2.0 Materials 2</p><p>3.0 Colours 2</p><p>4.0 Types Of Markings 3</p><p>4.1 Longitudinal Lines 3 - 9</p><p>4.2 Transverse Lines 9 - 10</p><p>4.3 Other Markings 10 - 13</p><p>5.0 Post Mounted Delineators 13 - 16</p><p>llustrations ( Fig. 1 - Fig. 29)</p><p>FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY</p></li><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 4/39</p><p>Page 3</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices,Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p>Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L</p><p>1.0 General Principles</p><p>1.1 Road markings and delineations are used</p><p>to regulate traffic or to warn or guide road</p><p>users. They may be used either alone or to sup-</p><p>plement other traffic control devices.</p><p>1.2 All road markings and delineation, like</p><p>other traffic control devices should be uniform</p><p>in design, position and application so that they</p><p>may be recognised and understood immediate-</p><p>ly by all road users.</p><p>1.3 Markings and delineators no longer appli-</p><p>cable which may create confusion in the mind</p><p>of the motorist shall be removed or obliterated</p><p>as soon as practicable. Other markings and</p><p>delineations required by road conditions or</p><p>restrictions should be remove or obliterated</p><p>when those conditions cease to exist or the</p><p>restrictions are withdrawn.</p><p>1.4 Markings which must be visible at night</p><p>shall be reflectorised unless ambient allumina-</p><p>tion assures adequate visibility. All markings on</p><p>highways shall be reflectorised. Even on well</p><p>lighted town and streets it is generally desirable</p><p>markings which must be visible at night be</p><p>reflectorised.</p><p>1.5 In addition to reflectorised lines the use of</p><p>road studs may be considered for roads with</p><p>poor alignment or at dangerous situations, for</p><p>eg. at important junctions and intersections.</p><p>1.5 Pavement markings have definite limita-</p><p>tions. They may not be clearly visible when</p><p>wet, and may not be very durable when sub-</p><p>jected to heavy traffic. Therefore they require</p><p>frequent maintenance. Their effect on skid</p><p>resistance requires care in the choice of materi-</p><p>als to be used. Finally they cannot be applied</p><p>to unsealed roads.</p><p>2.0 Materials</p><p>Road pavements may be marked by one or</p><p>more of the following materials:</p><p>a) Paint</p><p>b) Thermoplastics</p><p>c) Preformed tapes</p><p>2.1 Paint (reflectorised and non-</p><p>reflectorised)</p><p>Only road line paints conforming to M.S. 164:</p><p>1973, tested and approved by SIRIM shall be</p><p>used. Paint is best used in situations and on</p><p>roads where the markings are not subjected to</p><p>heavy traffic wear.</p><p>2.2 Thermoplastics (reflectorised</p><p>and non-reflectorised)</p><p>Thermoplastics used shall be of the hot-applied</p><p>thermoplastics material conforming to B.S</p><p>3262 or the equivalence. This material is</p><p>applied hot and sets on laying. It has good</p><p>durability and is recommended to be used in</p><p>heavily travelled urban areas and in main high-</p><p>ways with high traffic densities. All road centre</p><p>lines shall be in thermoplastics.</p><p>2.3 Preformed tape</p><p>Markings in this material take the form of plas-</p><p>tic sheet attached to the carriageway surface by</p><p>means of an adhesive. The markings must bepatterned or embossed in order secure satisfac-</p><p>tory resistance to skidding. It can be used as</p><p>temporary markings because it can be removed</p><p>easily even after an extended time period.</p><p>3.0 Colours</p><p>All pavement markings shall be white in</p><p>colour. Yellow paint may be used at:</p><p>a) Yellow boxes in the urban areas.</p><p>FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices, Road</p><p>Marking &amp; Delineation</p></li><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 5/39</p><p>Page 4</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices,Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p>Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L</p><p>b) kerb markings showing parking prohibi-</p><p>tions covered by signs or ordinance.</p><p>c) parking bays for taxis, buses and pedes-</p><p>trian crossings.</p><p>d) Yellow bars at approaches to round</p><p>abouts and crosswalks.</p><p>The standard colour for yellow markings shall</p><p>be colour No.356 B.S. 381 C.</p><p>4.0 Types of Markings</p><p>Pavement markings are divided into the follow-</p><p>ing types:</p><p>i) Longitudinal lines</p><p>ii) Transverse lines</p><p>iii) Other markings</p><p>4.1 Longitudinal Lines</p><p>4.1.1 General</p><p>A longitudinal line shall consists of either an</p><p>unbroken or a broken line or a combination of</p><p>both marked in the direction of travel.</p><p>A broken line is used to separate moving vehi-</p><p>cles where there is unrestricted visibility and</p><p>may be crossed at the discretion of drivers.</p><p>A single unbroken line is used where the cross-</p><p>ing of the line is to be discouraged or is legally</p><p>prohibited, e.g. edge and lane lines. Double</p><p>unbroken lines or combinations of unbroken</p><p>and broken lines are used where crossing of the</p><p>lines is legally prohibited unless in the latter</p><p>case where the broken line of the combination</p><p>as viewed by a driver is to the left of the unbro-</p><p>ken line.</p><p>The dimensions of longitudinal lines are shownin Fig. 1. The thickness of the longitudinal lines</p><p>should be 3 mm to 5 mm when applied by</p><p>SC.reeding and 1.0 mm to 1.5 mm when</p><p>sprayed.</p><p>4.1.2 Centre Line</p><p>A centre line is used to designate the centre of</p><p>the travelled part of a roadway carrying traffic</p><p>in both directions.</p><p>It need not be at the geometrical centre of the</p><p>pavement as in the case of a pavement- width</p><p>transition where an extra uphill traffic lane is</p><p>provided.</p><p>4.1.2.1 Centre Lines on Rural Roads</p><p>The centre line on a 2-lane rural road shall be a</p><p>broken white line, 100mm wide. The broken</p><p>line shall consists of strokes of equal length</p><p>separated by uniform gaps. The speed of vehi-</p><p>cles on the section of road or in the area in</p><p>question should be taken into account in deter-</p><p>mining the length of the strokes and of the gaps</p><p>between them.</p><p>The standard ratio of gap to stroke of 5 to 3</p><p>shall be used. On rural roads use a gap of 7.5m</p><p>with a 4.5m stroke. However, on mountainous</p><p>terrain or with short radius curves, use a 4.5m</p><p>gap with 2.7m stroke.</p><p>On 4-lane undivided rural roads, the centre line</p><p>shall consists of two unbroken white lines, each</p><p>100 mm wide and separated by a space of</p><p>125 mm.</p><p>Centre lines shall be provided on all paved 2-lane roadways (including bridges), 5.5m or</p><p>more in width if traffic volume is in excess of</p><p>300 vehicles (A.A.D.T.) a day. On single lane</p><p>bridges centre lines shall be discontinued 30m</p><p>from each abutment.</p><p>4.1.2.2 Centre Lines on Urban Streets</p><p>The centre line on a 2-way urban street having</p><p>2 lanes shall be a broken white line, and</p><p>100mm wide. For the more busy city streets acontinuous white line, 100mm wide, may be</p><p>used where it is desirable to discourage cross-</p><p>ing of the line.</p><p>The centre lines on a undivided 2-way street</p><p>with 4 or more lanes shall be a continuous</p><p>double white lines, each 100mm wide and sep-</p><p>arated by a space of 125 mm. In urban areas,</p><p>the length and spacing of the strokesshould be</p><p>less than those used for rural areas. The strokes</p><p>FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY</p></li><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 6/39</p><p>Page 5</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices,Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p>Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L</p><p>may be reduced to lm with 1.7m gaps. On cer-</p><p>tain main urban arteries where traffic moves</p><p>fast, however, the characteristics of centre line</p><p>markings may be the same as for rural areas.</p><p>4.1.2.3 Lane lines</p><p>Lane lines are useful in organising traffic into</p><p>its proper channels,thereby increasing the effi-</p><p>ciency of the use of the roadway. They should</p><p>therefore be used:</p><p>(i) on all rural highways with 4 or more lanes,</p><p>in addition to the centre lines.</p><p>(ii) at approaches to important intersections</p><p>and crosswalks and in dangerous locations,</p><p>both on rural highways and city streets.</p><p>(iii) on one-way streets where maximum effi-</p><p>ciency in the utilization of the roadway is</p><p>desired.</p><p>4.1.2.4 Lane Lines on Rural Roads</p><p>They shall be broken white lines, 100mm wide</p><p>with 4.5m strokes and 7.5m gap. An unbroken</p><p>line may be used to accentuate the lane mark-</p><p>ing in critical areas and more clearly define the</p><p>traffic lanes where it is advisable to discourage</p><p>lane changing, in locations such as interchangeareas where unnecessary lane changing is detri-</p><p>mental to smooth traffic flow.</p><p>4.1.2.5 Lane Lines on Urban Street</p><p>On city streets lane lines shall also be broken</p><p>lines but a gap/stroke length of 1.7m and lm is</p><p>recommended. The unbroken line may also be</p><p>used to discourage lane changing especially at</p><p>interchange areas. Fig.2 shows general pave-</p><p>ment markings in urban street.</p><p>4.1.3 No passing zones marking</p><p>No-passing zones shall be established at verti-</p><p>cal and horizontal curves and elsewhere on 2-</p><p>lane (or 3-lane) highways, where passing must</p><p>be prohibited because of dangerously restricted</p><p>sight distance or other hazardous conditions.</p><p>See Fig. 3.</p><p>No-passing zones shall be marked by a double</p><p>continuous white line or a combination of con-</p><p>tinuous and broken lines as described in clause</p><p>4.1.1 Nopassing zone markings on road pave-</p><p>ments shall be not less than 120m in length. If</p><p>the actual no-passing distance is less than120m, the additional length of marking shall be</p><p>added at the beginning of the zone, unless the</p><p>length of road with sight distance below the</p><p>minimum required is less than 30m in length</p><p>then no barrier lines are necessary.Where</p><p>sucessive nopassing zones are less than 120m</p><p>apart, the no-passing markings shall be extend-</p><p>ed to the two zones.</p><p>The no-passing barrier lines should also be</p><p>used on two-way roadways at pavement width</p><p>transitions and on approaches to obstructions. It</p><p>may also be used on approaches to intersec-</p><p>tions.</p><p>4.1.3.1 Warrants for No-passing</p><p>Zones at Curve</p><p>A no-passing zone at a horizontal or vertical</p><p>curve is warranted where the sight distance as</p><p>defined below is less than the minimum neces-</p><p>sary for safe passing at the prevailing speed of</p><p>traffic. Sight distance on a vertical curve is thedistance at which an object 1.2m above the</p><p>pavement surface can just be seen from another</p><p>point 1.2m above the pavement. Similarly the</p><p>sight distance on a horizontal curve is taken as</p><p>the distance measured along the centre line</p><p>between two points 1.2m above the pavement</p><p>on a line tangent to the embankment or other</p><p>obstruction that cuts the view on the inside of</p><p>the curve.</p><p>FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY</p></li><li><p>5/28/2018 JKR Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p> 7/39</p><p>Page 6</p><p>Manual On Traffic Control Devices,Road Marking &amp; Delineation</p><p>Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L</p><p>A curve shall warrant a no-passing zone</p><p>and shall be so marked where the sight distance</p><p>is equal to or less than that listed below for the</p><p>prevailing 85 persentile speed:</p><p>*85percentible speed is the speed below which</p><p>85% of the traffic travel, and above which 15%</p><p>travel.</p><p>The biginning of no-passing zone is that point</p><p>at which the sight distance first become less</p><p>than that point at which the sight distance</p><p>again becomes greater than the minimum spec-</p><p>ified.</p><p>Figures 4 and 5 shows the methods of estab-</p><p>lishing no overtaking zones on vertical curve.</p><p>4.1.4 Warning arrowsThese warning arrows should only be appli-</p><p>cable on rural roads. Drivers must be given</p><p>warning of their approach to any arrangement</p><p>of double lines by three arrows on the carriage-</p><p>way directing them towards the left hand side</p><p>of the road.Approach warning arrows are usually</p><p>positioned in the centre of the carriageway. The</p><p>dimensions and spacings of the arrows is as</p><p>shown in Fig. 6.</p><p>4.1.5 Climbing LanesClimbing lanes are provided at steep grades</p><p>on roads carrying high traffic volumes contain-</p><p>ing a significant proportion of heavy vehicles.</p><p>The typical treatment of signs and pavement</p><p>markings is given in Fig.7. An alternative sys-</p><p>tem is as shown in Fig.8.</p><p>4.1.6 Pavement Edge LinesPavement edge lines should be 150 mm</p><p>wide. Edge lines are used wherever it is desir-able to discourage travel on road shoulders and</p><p>to make driving safe and more comfortable,</p><p>particularly at night, by providing a continuous</p><p>guide for drivers. They also act as a guide past</p><p>object which are close enough to the edge of</p><p>the road pavement to constitute a hazard. The</p><p>edge line of pavement with no marginal strip</p><p>should be at least 150 mm from pavement</p><p>edge.</p><p>On divided roads where the median is not suffi-</p><p>ciently delineated, pavement edge lines may be</p><p>provided on the right hand edge of each pave-</p><p>ment.</p><p>Application of edge lines is as shown in Fig. 9</p><p>4.1.7 Continuity LinesA continuity line 200mm wide with lm</p><p>strokes and lm gaps may be used to indicate</p><p>the edge of that portion of a carriageway</p><p>assigned to through traffic, and where it is</p><p>intended that the line be crossed by traffic turn-ing at an intersection, or entering or leaving an</p><p>auxiliary lane at its start or finish. Examples of</p><p>continuity lines used at ramp exits and</p><p>entrances are shown in Fig.10.</p><p>4.1.8 Pavement-Width Transitions</p><p>A transition line should be provided to guide</p><p>or deflect vehicles laterally at points which:</p><p>(i) The width of the carriageway changes</p><p>a greater or lesser number of lanes.</p><p>(ii) Traffic has to negotiate median, trafficislands, safety zones, or obstructions</p><p>on the roadway.</p><p>Pavement-width transition lines shall be</p><p>200mm wide. Transition lines may be single</p><p>broken, single unbroken, or double lines in</p><p>accordance with the situation. They shall be of</p><p>standard design as for centre lines, lane lines or</p><p>barrier lines. The required length of the</p><p>transition line shall be determi...</p></li></ul>