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LEARNING DISABILITIES: NEW RESEARCH

No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.

LEARNING DISABILITIES: NEW RESEARCH

SOREN V. RANDALL EDITOR

Nova Science Publishers, Inc.New York

Copyright 2006 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers use of, or reliance upon, this material. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA

Learning disabilities : new research / Soren V. Randall (editor). p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-1-60876-517-1 (E-Book) 1. Learning disabilities. I. Randall, Soren V. RJ496.L4L452 618.92'85889--dc22

2004 2006000758

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York

CONTENTSPreface Chapter 1 vii Cortical Asymmetry and Learning Efficiency: A Direction for the Rehabilitation Process 1 Gerry Leisman and Robert Melillo Focussing on Mathematical Disabilities: A Search for Definition, Classification and Assessment 29 P. Stock, A. Desoete and H. Roeyers Mathematical Disabilities in Genetic Syndromes: The Case of Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome 63 B. De Smedt, P. Ghesquire and A. Swillen General Health and Associated Biochemistry in a Visual-Perceptual Subtype of Dyslexia 81 D. L. Sparkes, G. L. Robinson, T. K. Roberts and R. H. Dunstan Learning Difficulties and Brain Tumors 99 Penney Upton and Christine Eiser The Use of Psychotropic Drugs in Patients with Learning Disabilities and Epilepsy 123 Marco Mula Event-Related Brain Potentials During a Visual Continuous Performance Task in Groups with Reading Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. 139 Guillermina Yez, Jorge Bernal, Erzsebet Marosi, Mario Rodrguez, Miguel A. Balderas, Helena Romero, Vicente Guerrero, Beln Prieto, Laurdes Luviano and Hctor Rodrguez Class-Wide Instructional Feedback: Improving Childrens Academic Skill Development 167 Tanya L. Eckert, Benjamin J. Lovett, Blair D. Rosenthal, Jie Jiao, Lorraine J. Ricci and Adrea J. Truckenmiller Language Event-Related Potentials (in Poor Readers) 187 Mario Rodrguez, Beln Prieto, Jorge Bernal, Erzsbet Marosi, Guillermina Yez, Thala Harmony, Juan Silva-Pereyra, Thala Fernndez, Antonio Fernndez-Bouzas, Hctor Rodrguez, Lourdes Luviano and Vicente Guerrero1 Early Detection of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Early Childhood Inventory-4 Screening in Mexican Preschool Children 219 Adrin Poblano, Erika Romero and Carmina Arteaga 231

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5 Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Index

PREFACEA learning disability (LD) is a neurological disorder that affects the brains ability to receive, process, store and respond to information. The term learning disability is used to describe the seeming unexplained difficulty a person of at least average intelligence has in acquiring basic academic skills. These skills are essential for success at school and work and for coping with life in general. LD is not a single disorder. It is a term that refers to a group of disorders. LD is a disorder that affects peoples ability to either interpret what they see and hear to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways: as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self control or attention. Typical learning difficulties include dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia, often complicated by associated disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This new book brings together leading research in the field. Chapter 1 focuses on numerous reviews that have appeared in the literature of learning disabilities over the past 100 years, in which Hynd & Willis (1988) concluded that by 1905 the number of observations that had emerged from the evolving literature was such that a number of tentative conclusions could be offered. Overall, the literature by 1905 supported the following: (I) reading disability (congenital word blindness) could manifest in children with normal ability, (2) males seemed to be more often affected than females, (3) children presented with varied symptoms, but all suffered a core deficit in reading acquisition, (4) normal or even extended classroom instruction did not significantly improve reading ability, (5) some reading problems seemed to be transmitted genetically, and (6) the core symptoms seemed similar to those seen in adults with left temporo-parietal lesions. Although the prevalence of mathematical disabilities seems as high as the prevalence of reading disabilities, research interest for mathematical disabilities was very limited until now (Mazzocco and Myers, 2003; WHO, 1992). Moreover, many theoretical as well as pragmatic issues concerning mathematical disabilities still are unclear. A fundamental stumbling block is the discussion on defining a mathematical disability, or even a learning disability in general. A general search in the literature and practice shows a proliferation in the terminology used. Several authors used different terms for a deficit in mathematical problem solving, such as dyscalculia, acalculia, mathematical disabilities, mathematics learning difficulties, mathematics learning problems, mathematics learning disorders, mathematics learning disabilitiy, mathematics learning retardation, mathematics learning deficiency, (Desoete, Roeyers and De Clercq, 2004). By giving an overview of the leading definitions and terminology for mathematical disabilities, the authors of chapter 2 want to contribute to a

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better adjustment of criteria used in future research. In this chapter, the authors also want to give an overview of different typologies. The assessment of mathematical disabilities is also discussed. Most practitioners make a diagnosis based on observational measures and criterion-based tests. Those tests evaluate whether or not the age-appropriate goals for mathematical education are reached. However, a good assessment of a mathematical disability has to provide children, school, parents and practitioners with a solid base for remediation. The authors present the TEDI-MATH (Grgoire, Nol and Van Nieuwenhoven, 2003), a diagnostic battery that was recently developed. In contrast to the criterion-based tests, this test results in a profile of the strengths and weaknesses of the child, providing practitioners with a more solid base for remediation. Chapter 3 extensively reviews the research on mathematical disabilities in children with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome. This genetic condition is known to be the most frequent microdeletion syndrome with an incidence of 1/4000 live births. It will be shown that children with VCFS experience difficulties in mathematics. The research in VCFS on the cognitive correlates associated with MD, such as working memory, will be described as well as the brain imaging studies that point to specific deficits in math related brain areas in these children. However, the reported studies on MD in VCFS still have some methodological shortcomings, such as the selection of appropriate control groups and the lack of taking into account environmental variables, like instructional environment or socio-economic factors. Additionally, some critical remarks on math assessment in these studies can be formulated. These comments may provide some guidelines for future research on MD in genetic syndromes in general and MD in VCFS in particular. In chapter 4, the general health of adults and juveniles with a visual-perceptual subtype of dyslexia known as Irlen Syndrome (IS) was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire, and the responses were investigated in relation to changes in urinary and plasma biochemistry. The prevalence and severity of a number of the symptoms assessed by selfreport for a one-week period showed significant differences when compared to their control peers. Increases in symptoms for the IS subjects indicated possible problems with the dysregulation of the immune sy

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