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Power Point Presentation Collaboration Project on the Relationship Between Learning and Teaching with Technology


<ul><li> 1. Learning, Teaching &amp; TechnologyBy: Blair Thallmayer &amp; Nicole Kincaid </li></ul><p> 2. AgendaWhat is learning? What is teaching? What is educational technology? Technology Tools What can technology do? What cant technology do? Activity Summary 3. What is learning? Constructivist Theory (J. Bruner)Experimental Learning (C.Rogers)Cognitive Theory- BloomsTaxonomyProcessing of LearningHttp://www.prenhall.com/egbert 4. What is educational technology?Electronic technologies that areused for learning and teaching.Goals:A tutor that presents information tobe memorizedSupport for student explorationA creativity &amp; production toolA communication tool 5. Technology Tools Word ProcessorMultimedia PresentationDrill &amp; PracticeDatabaseSimulationsSpreadsheetsTutorialTelecollaboration over the Internet 6. Technology CanHelp make learning more efficientby controlling large amount ofdata quicklyMotivate studentsStrengthen teachers preferredinstructional approachesWork quickly &amp; objectivelyProvide a great wealth ofresources and allowing studentchoices 7. Technology can not Manage 20 third gradersDecorate a classroomMake friends or show respectCreate lessons that address theneeds of diverse studentsTeach 8. Activity Create a web map on the mainidea/topic of LEARNING. 9. Summary Technology is a tool thatteachers can use to supportlearning, but learning mustbe foremost. If teachers do notunderstand how to supportlearning, technology usewill be ineffective andinefficient. 10. Summary ContinuedKleiman (2000) summarizes, whilemodern technology has great potentialto enhance teaching, turning thatpotential into reality on a large scale isa complex, multifaceted task. The keydeterminant of our success will not bethe number of computers purchasedor cables installed, but rather how wedefine educational visions, prepareand support teachers, designcurriculum, address issues of equity,and respond to the rapidly changingworld. 11. Technology &amp; Learning 1 Running head: TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNINGTechnology and Learning Blair ThallmayerEast Stroudsburg University 12. Technology &amp; Learning 2 Abstract 13. Technology &amp; Learning 3 Technology and LearningIdentification of the IssueWhether or not technological advancements and tools can assist in increased academicachievement has been a much-debated topic for quite some time. Many believe that the use oftechnology is incredibly helpful in teaching students who may struggle in a classroom environment.On the other hand, the amount of scholars and professionals who feel that technology can prove to bemore detrimental than helpful is by no means a minority. To truly grasp the issue at hand, the idea ofwhat constitutes learning must first be explored. Exactly what is learning?Learning is a change in the mental structures of people that creates the capacity todemonstrate different behaviors. When a student learns, for instance, long division, his mentalstructure enhances to the point that a mathematical problem in this genre does not seem intimidating;the student has a new found capacity for solving such problems. There are different schools ofthought on the learning process, though, from a behavioral standpoint as well as a cognitivestandpoint.The behaviorist theory considers learning to be a relatively enduring change in observablebehavior that occurs due to experience. In the aforementioned long division example, the experiencegained by the student from practicing numerous problems would increase his capacity for solvingsuch problems, which could then be observed through assessments or an attitude towards solving theproblems. The cognitive theory of learning differs slightly, in the sense that it does not automaticallyconsider the change in behavior to result immediately.A third theory, which is quite prevalent in Bruners theoretical framework, is known as theconstructivist theory. This theory discusses learning as being an active process during which learnersconstruct new ideas based on their present and past knowledge (Egbert, 10). A common theme in thevarious theories of learning deals with experience: while cognitive learning does exist, it is generally 14. Technology &amp; Learning 4 considered rather meaningless when stacked up next to experiential learning. Rogers says thatcognitive learning comes in the form of absorbing vocabulary or math principles, whereasexperiential learning refers to the actual application of the lessons learned (Egbert, 10). An exampleof the experiential learning would involve learning about tax preparation in order to actually go outand prepare someones taxes. Though the cognitive theory of learning has taken some hits, it is fairly in-depth, combiningseveral steps that encompass the entire process of learning. This is known as Blooms Taxonomy.The student begins by recalling information in the form of memories. He then summarized what waslearned in order to better understand the materials. Next, the student will apply the new knowledgeby implementing it in a real-world setting. From there, the students cognition will analyze theknowledge, evaluate it through checking and critiquing, and finally, produce or invent new ways ofviewing things. Understanding what constitutes learning is only half of the whole, however, as theissue at hand is how learning pertains to the usage of technology (Rosenberg, 113). In its broadest sense, technology is described as the set of both physical and in software form,that help us act and think better (Egbert, 11). Today, when the word technology is uttered, theseemingly instant response in the minds of those hearing the term involves computers andBlackberrys, and other similar devices that constantly upgrade. In actuality, even something assimple and outdated as an erasable pen is considered to be a technological advancement. With this inmind, technology is not a term specifically referring to advanced computer systems, but rather theapplication of scientific or organized knowledge gathered by other means, including different tools,techniques, processes, and methods, to practical and hopefully achievable tasks (Egbert, 11). In the classroom, or from a schooling standpoint, educational technology is the process ofapplying tools for educational purposes as well as the tools and materials used. Technology comes ina wide array of shapes and forms, and constantly changes by being upgraded. At its most basic core, 15. Technology &amp; Learning 5 technology vastly increases the resources available to teach students. When electricity was firstintroduced, teachers found themselves capable of incorporating television, film strips, and overheadprojectors into the curriculum. Technology has further been revolutionized to the point that usage ofsoftware and DVDs has become rather routine and standard. Additionally, some instructors evenrely upon PowerPoint presentations to teach specified classroom lessons (Eggen &amp; Kauchak, 443).Educational technology is more often than not computer related, and is designed tosupplement the abilities of the instructor at hand as well as apply audio and visual enhancements tothe material; incorporating audio and video will, in theory, make the students more interested andcapable of staying focused. The reasoning that champions of technology in the classroom give fortheir stance relies on the ideals that advancements in technology will improve the effectiveness of thematerials being taught. This will then result in more absorption in the mental structures of thestudents, which leads to increased motivation.Using technology to instruct in the classroom is more important now than ever, simply due tothe current times we live in. Hundreds of years ago, the idea of visual aids such as movies or slideshows would have seemed laughable; today, these forms of technology are almost expected. Thereare several issues with regards to using technology in the classroom that must be addressed, however,ranging from the experience of the instructor all the way to the actual reliability of the materials. Forinstance, a teacher must first become virtually an expert in utilizing the desired forms of technologyin order to make the most of its usage.Review of LiteratureEggen &amp; Dauchak (2007) talks about the subject matter of technology and learning.Regardless of teachers perspectives on technology, the way they apply it in the classroom dependson their learning objectives and their views of learning- (Eggen &amp; Dauchak, 444). This is then 16. Technology &amp; Learning 6 discussed in three parts: behaviorism and technology; technology and cognitive learning theory; andsocial cognitive theory and technology.Behaviorism and technology is strongly influenced by the use of technology within theclassroom and it is estimated that 85% of the existing educational software emphasizes skill learningbased on behaviorist principles. Also, learning is thought of as a change in behavior that results fromexperience. In other words, the behavioral change results from both antecedents and consequences ina relationship. Lastly, classrooms are not the best places for learning because the number of studentstogether with differences in their learning progress makes it very difficult for teachers to effectivelyreinforce and shape behaviors (Eggen &amp; Dauchak, 445).Technology and cognitive learning theory each have two sub-sections. The first is theinformation processing section including four parts: (1) attract attention and create accurateperceptions, (2) manage the resources of working memory, (3) promote encoding into long-termmemory, and (4) manage processing with metacognitive skills (Eggen &amp; Dauchak, 446).Social cognitive theory and technology include other forms of technology way beyondcomputers to capitalize on symbolic modeling to promote learning. Also, using technology does notproduce learning. Teachers learning objectives must be clear, and think clearly about howtechnology can help learners reach the objectives- (Eggen &amp; Dauchak, 449).Egbert (2009) discusses the topic of what drives the use of educational technology. Egbertstates that technology is used in classrooms across the nation. For some teachers their interest isdoing something innovative that drives technology usage. For other teachers, obligations imposed bytheir schools/districts require lab use. Others include community and or parental pressure, studentdemands, and economic rewards. State and federal laws push technology use by requiring thatteachers and students be proficient and demonstrate learning. With this in mind, the current federalNo Child Left Behind legislation requires that every student be technology literature by the end of 17. Technology &amp; Learning 7 the eighth grade, and teachers must be knowledgeable enough to help students reach this goal. Theincrease in student excitement, motivation and achievement that teachers see as a result oftechnology use is another teacher motivator to use educational technology (Egbert, 14).In addition, Egbert discusses three guidelines for using educational technology. Guideline #1-Understand that realities of technology use; learning to use technology effectively takes time. Givethe teacher and students that time. Guideline #2- Examine equity and access for students; not allstudents have equal access to technology. Teachers must make sure that everyone who needs it isgiven fair opportunities. Guideline #3- Consider student difference; students who are physicallyand/or socially challenged or have other barriers to learning must be considered while technology-enhanced instruction is being designed (Egbert, 18).Egbert finally summarizes the characteristics of effective learning tasks into six parts: (1)focus on goals, (2) includes technology that is working and available, (3) includes teacher trainingand support, (4) allows time to learn relevant technologies, (5) provides needed resources, and (6)use technology only if appropriate- (Egbert, 15).Egbert, Rosenberg, and Salend have a similar view on technologies for supporting learning.Based on their views I have collected data and organized it into three categorizes: components ofelectronic tools, and assistive technology. Components of electronic tools contain hardware,software, connection components, input devices, output devices, processing devices, communicationdevices and operating systems- (Egbert, 20). Additionally, instructional technology could includecomputer based instruction, hypertext, hypermedia, CD, DVD, digital documents, web cameras,captioned TV, interactive white/smart boards, liquid crystal display computer projection panes,virtual reality, internet, address accessibility issues, weblog, webquests, and good digital citizenship-(Salend, 357-366). 18. Technology &amp; Learning 8 Assistive technology is a huge favor for many students. Assistive technology is specialhardware and software technologies designed for specific needs. It can help teachers to provide largertext for sight-impaired students, voice recognition for students with physical disabilities, and extrawait time, feedback or practice for those who need it. Salend (2008) chats about AT as an item, pieceof equipment or product systemwhether bought, modified or customizedthat is used to increase,maintain, or improved the functional capabilities on an individual with a disability. Assistivetechnology is often categorized as being high or low technology. High-technology devices tend to beelectronic, costly and commercially produced, and low-technology devices are usually inexpensive,non-electronic, easy to use, readily available and homemade- (Rosenberg, 15). These acts alsoaddress the principle of universal design, a concept that guides the design and delivery ofproducts/services so that they are usable by individuals with a wide range of functional capabilities.Finally, if AT is included within a students IEP (individualized education program) the teachersmust use the appropriate sources that will impact that students academics, social and behavioralperformance- (Rosenberg, 56).The ISTE has created National Educational Technology Standards and PerformanceIndicators for Students (revised June, 2007). The sections included within those standards not onlypromote technology education but student learning. Standards are sectioned by creativity andinnovation; communication and collaboration; research and information fluency; critical thinking,problem- solving and decision making; digital citizenship; and technology operations and concepts(Egbert, 8).A Clear Connection to the Learner (Student &amp; Teacher)Ryan and Cooper (2000) have a very pretty clear view of how technology is connected to thelearner, for a student, as well as a teacher. Lets begin with the connection to the students. Many newtechnologies have been introduced into the educational setting in the last decade. To facilitate those 19. Technology &amp; Learning 9 new technological tools, educators group them into content-specific categorizes, e...</p>