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Managing Complex Technical Projects: A Systems Engineering Approach

For a complete listing of the Artech House Technology Management and Professional Development Library, turn to the back of this book.

Managing Complex Technical Projects: A Systems Engineering ApproachR. Ian Faulconbridge Michael J. Ryan

Artech House Boston London www.artechhouse.com

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Faulconbridge, Ian. Managing complex technical projects: a systems engineering approach / Ian Faulconbridge, Michael Ryan. p. cm. (Artech House technology management and professional development library) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-58053-378-7 (alk. paper) 1. Systems engineering. 2. Project management. I. Ryan, M. J. (Michael J.) II. Title. III. Series. TA168. F29 2002 658.404dc21 2002032660

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Faulconbridge, Ian Managing complex technical projects: a systems engineering approach. (Artech House technology management and professional development library) 1. Project management 2. Systems engineering I. Title II. Ryan, Michael 620.00685 ISBN 1-58053-378-7 Cover design by Yekaterina Ratner

2003 ARTECH HOUSE, INC. 685 Canton Street Norwood, MA 02062 All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Artech House cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. International Standard Book Number: 1-58053-378-7 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2002032660 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ContentsPreface Introduction to Systems Engineering 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6.1 What Is a System? System Life Cycle Acquisition Phase Utilization Phase What Is Systems Engineering? Requirements Engineering Top-Down Approach Focus on Life Cycle System Optimization and Balance Integration of Disciplines and Specialties Management Systems Engineering Relevance Systems Engineering Benefits Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation Analysis

xiii1 2 5 6 8 9 10 10 11 13 14 14 15 16 18 19

v

vi

Managing Complex Technical Projects: A Systems Engineering Approach

1.6.2 1.6.3 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4

Synthesis Evaluation A Systems Engineering Framework Systems Engineering Processes Systems Engineering Management Systems Engineering Tools Related Disciplines Endnotes Conceptual Design Introduction Identify Stakeholder Requirements Stakeholder-Requirements Document Identify Stakeholders Identify Project and Enterprise Constraints Identify External Constraints Define Need, Goals, and Objectives Define Operational Scenarios Define Measures of Effectiveness Define Life-Cycle Concepts Confirm SRD Structure Scoping the System Populate SRD SRD Endorsement Traceability System-Feasibility Analysis System-Requirements Analysis Establish Requirements Framework Define Functional Requirements Define Performance Requirements Define Verification Requirements Assign Rationale Perform Functional Analysis and Allocation

20 20 21 23 23 23 24 24 29 29 30 30 32 33 34 34 35 36 36 36 38 40 40 41 41 43 45 47 49 50 50 51

2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.10 2.2.11 2.2.12 2.2.13 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6

Contents

vii

2.4.7 2.4.8 2.4.9 2.4.10 2.5 2.6

Produce Draft System Specification Define TPMs System-Requirements Reviews Other System-Level Considerations System-Level Synthesis System-Design Review Endnotes

55 55 58 59 60 63 65 67 67 68 72 80 82 85 85 86 88 93 94 96 97 97 98 98 99 100 103 104

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.7

Preliminary Design Introduction Subsystem-Requirements Analysis Requirements Allocation RBS Versus WBS Interface Identification and Design Subsystem-Level Synthesis and Evaluation Review Sources of Subsystem Requirements Investigate Preliminary Design Alternatives Make Optimal Use of Design Space Select Preferred Solution Preliminary Design Review Endnotes

4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4

Detailed Design and Development Introduction Detailed Design Requirements Designing and Integrating System Elements Detailed Design Process Integration Some Detailed Design Aids System Prototype Development

viii

Managing Complex Technical Projects: A Systems Engineering Approach

4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.6 4.7 4.8

Detailed Design Reviews Equipment/Software Design Reviews Critical Design Review Construction and Production Operational Use and System Support Phaseout and Disposal Endnotes

105 105 106 108 112 117 119 121 121 121 123 125 126 127 129 130 131 132 132 137 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 145 151 152

5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6

Systems Engineering Management Introduction Technical Reviews and Audits Major Reviews Major Audits Technical Review and Audit Management System Test and Evaluation Developmental Test and Evaluation Acceptance Test and Evaluation Operational Test and Evaluation Test Management Testing Activities and the System Life Cycle TEMP Technical Risk Management Risk Identification Risk Quantification Risk-Response Development and Control Risk-Management Documentation Configuration Management Establishing the Baselines Configuration-Management Functions Configuration-Management Documentation Specifications and Standards

Contents

ix

5.6.1 5.6.2 5.7 5.8

Specifications Standards Integration Management Systems Engineering Management Planning Endnotes

153 156 157 159 160 163 163 164 164 166 166 168 170 171 171 171 172 172 172

6 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.4

Systems Engineering Management Tools Standards MIL-STD-499B Systems Engineering (Draft) General Standard Content Systems Engineering Process Content of the MIL-STD-499B SEMP Additional Information and Requirements Summary EIA/IS-632 Systems Engineering General Standard Content Systems Engineering Process Content of the EIA/IS-632 SEMP Other Information and Requirements Summary IEEE 1220 (Trial Use) and IEEE 1220-IEEE Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process General Standard Content IEEE 1220 Life-Cycle Model Systems Engineering Process Content of the IEEE 1220 Engineering Plan Additional Material and Requirements Summary ANSI/EIA-632-Processes for Engineering a System ANSI/EIA-632 Processes ANSI/EIA-632 Requirements

173 173 175 177 178 179 179 179 180 181

6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2

x

Managing Complex Technical Projects: A Systems Engineering Approach

6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.6.5 6.7 6.8 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.8.4 6.9

ANSI/EIA-632 Concepts ANSI/EIA-632 Annexes Summary Other Useful Documents Technical Reviews and Audits Systems Engineering Standards Configuration Management Specification Standards Work Breakdown Structures Capability Maturity Models SEISystems Engineering Capability Maturity Model SE-CMM Foundation Process Areas Capability Levels Summary CMM Integration Endnotes

183 186 187 187 188 188 188 189 189 189 191 192 192 192 194 194 196 199 199 200 200 209 210 212 214 214 215 216 217 222

7 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3

Systems Engineering Process Tools Analysis ToolsRequirements Engineering What Is a Requirement? Requirements Engineering Requirements Documentation Automated Requirements-Management Tools Difficulties in Developing Requirements SynthesisVarious Tools Schematic Block Diagrams Physical Modeling Mathematical Modeling and Simulation EvaluationTrade-off Analysis Endnotes

Contents

xi

8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8

Related Disciplines Introduction Project Management Quality Assurance Logistics Support Operations Design Support Network Software Engineering Hardware Engineering Endnotes List of Acronyms About the Authors Index

225 225 225 230 231 233 233 234 235 235 237 243 245

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PrefaceThe need to manage complexity is now commonplace in almost all fields of undertaking. Complex systems such as cars, airplanes, airports, financial systems, and communications networks commonly involve millions of hours of work by thousands of people from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds spread across a number of countries. Projects often take up to ten years to complete and involve a large number of disparate stakeholders, developers, operators, and customers. At the same time, the need to accommodate changes in the market place has created considerable pressure on traditional engineering processes. It is therefore little wonder that we have become used to hearing about the difficulties associated with complex projectscost and schedule overruns, dramatic failures to achieve requirements, project cancellations, and so on. Ensuring that each of the associated disciplines pays more attention to their profession does not solve these problems. Complex technical projects can only be managed effectively by addressing the whole life cycle. First, requirements must be formally defined to provide a comprehensive description of the functionality of the system to be procureda functional architecture. These functional requirements are analyzed and elaborated upon to creat