marzano identifying similarities and differences

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Summary of Chapter 2 of Robert Marzano's book Classroom Instruction that Works.


  • 1. Identifying Similarities and Differences Basic to human thought Possibly the core tolearning Higher-order on Blooms Level 4: Analysis

2. Why is this important? Leads to deeper student understanding ofthe content. Students make connections with oldknowledge to new knowledge. The brain works by building connectionsand associations constantly. The brain remembers more easily thingsthat are unusual or different. 3. IdentifyingSimilarities andDifferences Comparing Classifying Creating Metaphors Creating Analogies 4. Comparing Definition: Identifying the similarities anddifferences. (Note: Traditionally, comparingrefers to identifying similarities; contrastingrefers to identifying differences.) How are the objects below the same? Howare they different? 5. Comparing in Action When introducing the activity, start verystructured, explicit, and teacher-directed. Usefamiliar and simple content. Teacher-directed: Teacher selects items tocompare and how to compare. Student-directed: Teacher selects items,students decide how to compare. Advanced student-directed: Students selectitems to compare and how to compare. 6. Comparing in Action Steps for students: What do I want to compare? What things about them do Iwant to compare? How are they the same? How are they different? 7. Graphic Organizers for Comparing Venn Diagram (especially for youngergrades) 8. Graphic Organizers for Comparing Comparison Matrix (for older grades- can bedone in younger grades whole-group.)SimpleAdvanced 9. Comparison Activity Time! 1. Get your Comparison Matrix out. 2. Work with your table to completethe matrix for five minutes. 3. Stop working and talking whenthe timer goes off. (Thanks!) 4. Reward yourself with somecandy- you deserve it! 10. Classifying Definition: Grouping things that aresimilar into categories on the basis oftheir characteristics. It is critical to first identify the rules of the categories beforeclassifying. If your class sorts, you are 11. Classifying in Action Remember to model and start out verystructured when introducing. Emphasizehow you are grouping them and why youare grouping them. Teacher-Directed: Students are given theelements to classify and the categories. Student-Directed: Students are given theitems but come up with their owncategories. Advanced Student-Directed: Studentscome up with the items to classify and the 12. Classifying in Action Steps for classifying: What to classify? What things can I group? How are the things alike? Can I make the groups another way? Does everything fit into a group? Would it be better to split up any of the groups or combine any groups? 13. Graphic Organizers forClassifyingCategor Categor Categor Categor Category y y y yItems Items Items Items Items 14. Classifying Activity Time!1. Empty the envelope.2. Work with your table to classify the items in the graphic organizer for two minutes.3. Stop working and talking when the timer goes off. (Thanks!)4. Turn your paper over and come up with new categories. Classify your items for three minutes.5. Stop working and talking when the timer goes off. (Thanks!)6. Stand up, stretch, and move around! 15. Creating Metaphors Definition: Identifying a pattern in a specific topicand then finding another topic that appears to bequite different but has the same general pattern. In other words two itemsthat are connected by anabstract (non-literal)relationship. Note: Similes connect twothings using the words likeor as. 16. Creating Metaphors inAction Teacher-Directed: Teacher provides the firstelement and the abstract relationship. Student-Directed: Teacher provides firstelement and the student identifies thesecond element and the relationship. The brain is _______________. Love is ____________. For younger students, starting out withsimiles may help them understand the 17. Graphic Organizer forMetaphors Literal Abstract LiteralElement 1Element 2Pattern 1 Relationship Pattern 2 18. Ms. Metaphor! 19. Metaphor Activity Time! (5 minutes)1. Read the metaphors describing the Internet.2. Choose the one that you think best describes the Internet.3. Explain your choice to an elbow buddy.4. Come up with your own Internet metaphor either on your own or with your elbow buddy.5. Be willing to share your metaphor when the timer goes off.6. Enjoy another piece of candy or another stretch! Were almost done! 20. Creating Analogies Definition: Identifying relationships betweenpairs of concepts. In other words, identifyingrelationships between relationships. Example:happy:sad::big:smallHappy is to sad as big is to small.Happy and big are opposites of sad and small, respectively. 21. Creating AnalogiesAnalogies help us to see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar,therefore increasingour understanding ofnew information. Creating analogieshelp us makeconnections. 22. Creating Analogies in Action Teacher-Directed: Analogy is given and thestudents explain the relationship. Asunderstanding increases, eliminate oneelement. (Younger students- use picturesor do the activity orally in a whole-group orsmall-group setting.) Student-Directed: The teacher presentsthe first pair, the students come up with thesecond pair. Advanced Student-Directed: Give studentsthe type of relationship. Students come upwith their own analogy. 23. Types of Analogies Similar Concepts:hungry:ravenous::tired:exhausted Dissimilar Concepts: grim:cheerful::hilly:flat Class Membership: carrot:potato::brown:red Class Name/Class Member:whale:mammal::snake:reptile Part to Whole: sparkplug:engine::variable:function Change: caterpillar:butterfly::tadpole:frog Function: pilot:airplane::lawn mower:grass Quantity/Size: 24. Graphic Organizer for Creating Analogiesis toRelationship:___________________is to 25. Analogy Activity Time! (5 minutes)1. Open the envelope and distribute the analogies.2. Complete the missing element.3. Sort the analogies by relationship.4. Stop talking when the timer goes off. (Thanks!)5. Say a cheer because we covered the whole chapter! Woooooo!6. Look at the resources and attachments and get excited about using them! 26. Resources Venn Diagrams Galore: Comparison Matrix, Bubble Maps, andmore: GraphicOrganizers/MarzanoGraphicA.pdf Metaphors and Analogies GraphicOrganizers: GraphicOrganizers/MarzanoGraphicB.pdf 27. Attachments toPowerPoint (On cardstock) Similarities andDifferences Cue Cards- cut themup, punch a hole in the corner, andput them on a ring for a quick time-filler. Metaphor Match. List of analogies for youngergrades. 28. References Classroom Instruction that Works, AHandbook for Classroom Instructionthat Works. Robert Marzano, DebraPickering, Jane Pollock. Google Images