measuring corruption benefits and limits of perception-based surveys

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Regional Conference on Fighting Corruption in Education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 24-25 November, Bratislava Yana Avdyeyeva

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  • Yana Avdyeyeva Transparency International Regional Conference on Fighting Corruption in Education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Bratislava, 24-25 November, 2011 MEASURING CORRUPTION: BENEFITS AND LIMITS OF PERCEPTION-BASED SURVEYS

WHAT IS TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL

  • A global coalition fighting corruption:
  • 89 National Chapters worldwide
  • 18 more in the process of accreditation
  • International Secretariat
  • Board of Directors & Advisory Council
  • 29 Individual Members
  • Senior advisors and other volunteers

TI AROUND THE WORLD WHAT TI DOES

  • TI Tools
    • to measure corruption
    • Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) - demand side Bribe Payers Index (BPI) - supply side Global Corruption Barometer - peoples opinions
    • to analyse corruption
    • National Integrity System (NIS) country studies
    • Global Corruption Report
  • Thematic Areas
    • Public procurement, judiciary, education, water, health, climate, defence and security.
  • What is the CPI?
  • Measures the degree to which corruption
  • is perceived to exist in the public sector.
  • Objectives
  • Public awareness of corruption and
  • understanding of levels of corruption
  • Methodology
  • The CPI is an indicator that combines
  • different sources of information on
  • perceived levels of corruption
  • Coverage
  • 2010 Survey covered 178 countries

Corruption Perception Index Visual map of CPI 2010 scores Distribution of Countries by Rank 2010 CPI Scores for Eastern Europe and Central Asia

  • CPI Impact
  • A major force in drawing attention to corruption.
  • First attempt to assess and compare corruption in a wide range of countries, break taboos about the subject and generate public debate.
  • Useful tool for governments, researchers and civil society.
  • Led to the development of complementary tools at international and national level.
  • CPI Considerations
  • Validity of using perceptions to assess corruption.
  • Insight into recent efforts and policy changes.
  • Suggestion for areas for reform.

CPI Dos and Donts Global Corruption Barometer

  • The biggest worldwide public opinion survey of peoples perceptions and experiences of corruption by sector and institution.
  • Complements expert and business views (CPI)
  • Who is surveyed?
    • In 2010 91,781 people in 86 countries Biggest coverage ever!
    • Men and women aged 16+
    • Regional coverage: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Ukraine
  • 4. Topics Covered
    • Changes in corruption levels in the past 3 years.
    • Peoples perceptions about corruption in key sectors .
    • How respondents rate their government in the fight against corruption.
    • Peoples experiences with bribery.
    • Whom does the public trust the most to fight corruption in their country.
    • Peoples attitudes towards the fight against corruption.

Global Corruption Barometer 2010 Perceived levels of corruption by sector 2010 (NIS+) Perceived corruption by sector in the NIS 4.0 3.5 2.3 3.2 4.4 4.1 3.2 3.7 4.3 4.1 4.0 Ukraine 3.7 3.5 2.5 3.1 3.7 3.9 3.2 3.4 3.9 3.6 3.5 Russia 3.7 2.9 2.1 2.5 4.1 3.6 2.9 3.0 4.0 4.2 4.2 Mongolia 3.7 2.9 2.4 2.9 3.9 3.8 3.0 3.7 4.1 3.7 3.8 Moldova 2.2 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.1 2.6 2.9 Georgia 3.2 2.9 2.2 2.9 3.4 3.8 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.2 3.2 Belarus 3.3 2.6 1.9 2.5 3.2 3.3 2.4 2.6 3.6 2.5 2.6 Azerbaijan 4.2 3.6 2.2 2.7 4.1 3.8 2.9 3.2 4.1 3.8 3.6 Armenia 3.6 3.1 2.2 2.9 3.9 3.8 3.0 3.3 3.9 3.7 3.7 NIS+ 3.1 2.8 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.7 3.2 3.4 3.7 3.7 4.2 Total Education Military Religious bodies NGOs Judiciary Public officials Media Business/ Private Sector Police Parliament/Legislature Political Parties Country/ Territory To what extent do you perceive the following institutions/sectors in this country to be affected by corruption? (1: not all corrupt, 5: extremely corrupt) Bribes by sector and region 5% 7% 10% 3% 8% 4% 15% 2% 10% Tax Revenue 7% 12% 25% 8% 11% 4% 29% 4% 18% Land Services 7% 10% 20% 4% 9% 8% 23% 3% 10% Education 8% 15% 28% 3% 11% 13% 21% 2% 10% Medical Services 9% 5% 5% 3% 9% 15% 23% 2% 13% Utilities 10% 14% 27% 5% 17% 13% 23% 7% 8% Customs 16% 14% 26% 6% 23% 20% 30% 3% 27% Judiciary 22% 9% 20% 5% 12% 41% 30% 3% 15% Registry and Permit Services 31% 15% 38% 4% 19% 44% 37% 4% 18% Police Total Balkans NIS N. America L. America SSA MENA EU+ Asia Pacific Service providers National Integrity System (NIS) Assessment

  • Aim:providea fuller, more balanced
  • insight into corruption on
  • a particular issue.
  • Target audiences: policy makers,
  • practitioners, academics, civil society
  • actors.
  • Use:major reference tool for
  • information, analysisof
  • governance issues, insight into
  • new developments and tools,
  • policy recommendations.
  • Theme:Education GCR to be released
  • in 2012/2013.

Global Corruption Report (GCR) TI Regional Education Initiatives

    • TI-Armenia Monitoring Donor Assistance to Secondary Schools
    • TI- Argentina preventing corruption in textbook procurement
    • Youth Integrity Surveys
    • Transparency and Integrity in Service Delivery in Africa (TISDA):Focusing on the Education Sector in South Africa and Cameroon; Supports African civil society in working with citizens to demand transparent and accountable financial management in the education sector ; Approach: Advocacy based on Risk Maps

Advocacy and Legal Advice Centres (ALACs) Distribution of complaints by sector

  • Need to be aware of specific purposes of corruption assessment tools and understand how they complement each other.
  • New focus for corruption tools looking at specific sectors, institutions or governance processes in individual countries.
  • TI mapping exercise of all assessment tools on corruption and governance:http:// www.transparency.org /tools/gateway

Conclusions

  • Thank you!
  • For more information visitwww.transparency.org

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